GENETIC ENGINEERING QUESTIONS - Heigher Level

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11 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Kerry Teacher De
sign Team In association with The Biology Support Service, The Education Centre, Tralee



Genetic Engineering

Higher
-
level questions

based on Powerpoint lesson

1.

Explain what is meant by the following terms:

(a)

Genetic engineering

(b)

Target gene

(c)

Recombinant DNA

(d)

Gene

(e)

Restriction enzyme

(f)

DNA ligase

(g)

A plasmid

(h)

Micro
-
organism

(i)

Replicate.


2.

Explain what is m
eant by the following terms in relation to forming a genetically modified
bacterium containing the gene for human insulin:

(a)

Isolation

(b)

Cutting

(c)

Insertion

(d)

Transformation

(e)

Expression


3.

What are genetically modified organisms.

Give an example of a) a plant b)
an animal c) a micro
-
organism that has b
een genetically altered.


4.

Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, which reduces the concentration of glucose in the
blood. People, who cannot produce insulin, or not enough of it, are called diabetics. Many di
abetics
need daily injections of insulin. For many years this insulin has been extracted from the pancreas of
pigs, sheep and cattle. Human insulin can now be produced using a technique known as genetic
engineering.

(a)

What is a hormone?

(b)

Where in the body is
insulin produced?

(c)

What is its function?

(d)

Why are bacteria suitable for use for this purpose?

(e)

What bio molecules are used to extract a gene from a chromosome?


Kerry Teacher De
sign Team In association with The Biology Support Service, The Education Centre, Tralee



(f)

Explain why the same restriction enzyme must be used to extract the gene and open the loop
of DNA i
n the bacterium.

(g)

What substances should be added to a bioreactor to enable bacteria to grow?

(h)

Give one advantage of using genetically engineered insulin compared with that extracted
from pigs, sheep or cattle.


5.

In each of the following which is the correct

answer:

(a) Genetic engineering:

1)

Is a natural process

2)

Only takes place in micro
-
organisms

3)

Happens when cells divide

4)

Involves combining DNA from different species


(b) Human growth hormone HGH is produced in the pituitary gland. Where is the gland located?

1)

Stomach

2)

Brain

3)

Intestine

4)

Lung


(c) Which of the following is not associated with genetic engineering?

1)

Translation

2)

Transformation

3)

Cloning

4)

Expression


(d) Genetically modified organisms:

1)

Are always harmful

2)

Are always micro
-
organisms

3)

May be beneficial

4)

Arise
naturally


6.

Some scientists are worried that bacteria produced by genetic engineering might escape from the
laboratory into the environment. What problems might arise if this happened?


7.

Suppose it was possible to use genetic engineering to make people more
intelligent. Do you think
this should be allowed?


Kerry Teacher De
sign Team In association with The Biology Support Service, The Education Centre, Tralee




8.

The local ’Get Fresh’ shop put out a tray of tomatoes having wonderful flavour, texture and
redness. The sign above the tray identified them as GM produce. Most shoppers selected
unmodified tomatoes in the

next tray, even though those tomatoes were pale pink, blotchy and
tasteless. Which ones would you pick? Why?


Kerry Teacher De
sign Team In association with The Biology Support Service, The Education Centre, Tralee




9.

Genetic engineers are trying to produce a Soya bean plant, which is resistant to weed killers. They
have identified an enzyme which makes tomato

plants resistant to a common herbicide. They plan
to take DNA from the tomato plant and transfer it into the Soya bean plant in order to produce a
strain of Soya bean resistance to the herbicide.


(a) Explain the advantages of producing Soya bean plants
which are resistant to this herbicide.


(b) Explain how, using an appropriate bacterium, Soya bean plants resistant to weed killers might
be produced.


(c) Explain how cloning would be used to produce large numbers of herbicide
-
resistant plants.



Ordinar
y level questions


1. (a) What is meant by genetic engineering?


(b) List the main steps involved in genetic engineering.


(c) Give three applications, one plant, one animal and one micro
-
organism.



Kerry Teacher De
sign Team In association with The Biology Support Service, The Education Centre, Tralee




Genetic Engineering Crossword





Across

6. The first stage in genetic engineering.

7. The loop of DNA in the bacteria cell, used in genetic engineering.



Down

1. Genetic engineering is defined as the ______
___________ and alteration of genes.

2. The type of enzyme used to cut strands of DNA

3. The DNA that has been changed in the process of genetic engineering is called __________________ DNA

4. The final stage in the process of genetic engineering

5. The st
icking of the target gene in to the plasmid is referred to as ______________



Kerry Teacher De
sign Team In association with The Biology Support Service, The Education Centre, Tralee






Genetic Engineering Puzzle





Unscramble each of the clue words.

Copy the letters i
n the numbered boxes to other boxes with the same number.









Kerry Teacher De
sign Team In association with The Biology Support Service, The Education Centre, Tralee



















Teachers Answer Sheet for puzzle



1.

Isolation

2.

Restriction

3.

Transformation

4.

Plasnid

5.

Recombinant

6.

Expression

7.

Target Gene

8.

Enzymes

9.

Bacteria

10.

DNA


Phrase:
Genetic Engineering














Kerry Teacher De
sign Team In association with The Biology Support Service, The Education Centre, Tralee















References

Discovering Biology by Michael Meaney
-

Mentor Publications

Leaving Certificate Biology Revised Edition by Michael O’ Callaghan


Edco Publications

Leaving Certificate Examination Papers
-

Folens