Genetic Engineering Project - Angelfire

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11 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

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Kim
1


Angela Kim

Mrs. Layne, 3006
-
3

Biology 6.0

24 March 2003


Applications of Genetic Engineering
:

to alter organism’s genetic material to eliminate undesirable characteristics or to produce
desirable new ones; used to increase plant and animal food production
; to diagnose disease,
improve medical treatment, and produce vaccines and other useful drugs; and to help dispose of
industrial wastes; techniques included are the selective breeding of plants and animals,
hybridization, and recombinant DNA.


I.

Recombinant
DNA
-

produced by gene splicing

a.

Transgenic Organisms or Genetically Modified Organisms

i.

Plants and animals that develop from a cell where DNA has been inserted

ii.

Donor DNA inserted directly into organism



Animals Engineered as Drug
-
Production Facilities

Goats a
nd sheep engineered to secrete bioactive molecules in
their blood, milk, or urine. It is undergoing commercial
development.



Animals Engineered as Sources of Transplant Organs

Companies engineering pigs’ organs so human transplant
recipients will not reject

them. Estimated genetically engineered
organs available in about ten years.



Animals Engineered for Disease Resistance

Chickens and turkeys engineered to resist avian viral diseases.
Most likely to be the first transgenic animals to receive approval
in th
e U.S. for commercial use.



Genetically Engineered Fish and Shellfish

Many types of fish and shellfish engineered where changes in
hormones accelerate growth. Growth hormones from other fish,
Kim
2

pigs, and humans successfully engineered into fish. Estimated to
be commercialized and on the market within five years.



Genetically Engineered Plants Eaten Whole as Food

Many plants commercialized, including tomatoes, squash, corn
and soybeans. Most engineered for herbicide tolerance, insect
resistance, or virus toleran
ce. Currently the fastest growing area
of biotechnology.



Genetically Engineered Fiber Plants

Genetically engineered cotton approved for commercial use.
Estimated the 10
-
12 million acres of cotton in the U.S. will be all
transgenic within ten years. Recent
research allows natural
colored cotton fibers by inserting color genes from flowers into
the cotton.



Genetically Engineered Insects Used in Agricultural Systems

Engineering predatory mite field tested in Florida. Honeybees
and insects engineered to tolerat
e pesticides. Not commercially
available.



Genetically Engineered Microorganisms Used as Pesticides

Many bacteria engineered to enhance their ability to kill or repel
pests. The engineered bacteria used as pesticides in agricultural
fields and gardens.



Foo
d Processing Aids Made from Engineered Bacteria

Bacteria genetically engineered to produce rennet (chymosin), a
crucial enzyme in making cheese. Commonly used on the
commercial level by U.S. cheese processors.



Animal and Human Drugs Made by Engineered Plan
ts and
Bacteria

-
Bovine Growth Hormone (BGH) from engineered bacteria used
to stimulate milk production in cows. Available on the
commercial level and used in about ten percent of nation’s dairy
herds.

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3

-
Insulin from transgenic bacteria used by diabetics wh
o are
allergic traditional insulin, which consists of horses’ serum.


http://filebox.vt.edu/cals/cses/chagedor/97microbes.html


b.

Gene Therapy

-
use recombinant DNA to manipulate ge
nes in cells to produce new proteins to
change function of cells

-
application of genetic principles to treat human diseases by introducing genetic
material into target cells to counteract the effect of a disease gene or introduce a
new function

-
somatic a
nd germline approaches possible

-
Gene delivered in two ways




In vitro: cells like white blood cells from bone marrow removed from body,
vector of gene of interest mixed with cells, vector enters cell, gene incorporated
with cells’ DNA, and then cells

are injected back into the body




In vivo: vectors of gene of interest injected directly into the somatic tissues

i.

Gene Augmentation

-
Used for diseases caused by the loss of a gene function. Make more
copies of the normal gene, raise levels of the gene p
roduct, and then
restore the normal phenotype.

-
Used for monogenic recessive diseases: Cystic fibrosis, haemophilia,
muscular dystrophy

ii.

Other strategies:

-
Gene Replacement

-
Gene Augmentation Therapy (GAT)

-
Gene Correction (Chimeraplasty)

-
Targeted killing

of specific cells

-
Targeted inhibition of gene expression

http://mededucation.bjmu.edu.cn/PPT/gene%20therapy.ppt

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4

iii.

Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Diseases (SCID), “bubble boy”
disease

“fixed” by putting a gene in the white blood cells that makes the
lacking immune system protein; gene therapy still required on a regular
basis

iv.

Gene therapy research underway for
diseases including cystic fibrosis,
hemophilia, AIDS, Parkinson's disease, f
amilial hypercholesterolemia,
different types of cancer, and heart disease.

v.

Other examples of Gene Therapy



Heart disease treated with gene therapy. Therapy targets familial
hypercholesterolemia (inherited high cholesterol) caused by a defect in
the LDL re
ceptor gene. A healthy copy of the LDL receptor gene was
introduced to livers of affected patients and proved to reduce
cholesterol in 60 percent of patients in one clinical trial.



Angina, lack of blood flow to the heart, addressed by using growth
factor
genes and proteins to trigger the formation of new blood vessels,
which increases exercising ability in some patients.



HIV and antisense gene therapy calls for the injection of cells with
artificial genes to block the infecting substance from taking over t
he
cells’ DNA and producing copies harmful to the body. The genes
"antitat" and "antitar" have been created and injected through a virus
vector into the white blood cells of HIV patients



Ovarian cancer treated by gene therapy using a virus to carry the
n
ormal copy of the p53 gene into woman in the abdominal and pelvic
areas. Seven of twenty five women that were terminally diagnosed
with ovarian cancer and received therapy survived 2+ years after
treatment.

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5



Cancer and enzyme therapy used in targeting prot
eins made by
abnormal genes.

-
The drug Gleevec targets an abnormal protein produced by a cancer
-
causing gene that is necessary for the cancer to reproduce. Because
Gleevec blocks the action of the harmful protein it has been successful
in chronic myeloid
leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumors.



Breast cancer is spread by the HER
-
2 gene, which causes the cancer to
grow and spread out of control. Herceptin blocks excess HER
-
2
making tumors shrink by binding to growth receptors on the cells’
surface.

http://www.sph.unc.edu/nciph/phgenetics/therapy.htm



Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency, a fatal inherited disease of
the immune system, treated with genetic engineering

-
Removal of whit
e blood cells from body and grown; used a
genetically modified virus to carry a normal ADA gene into immune
cells; infusion of the genetically modified blood cells back into the
patient's bloodstream

-
inserted ADA gene then programs cells to produce the mi
ssing ADA
enzyme leading to normal immune function of the cells

-
Process must be repeated periodically.

http://www.bucconeer.worldcon.org/contest/2002e_5.htm

http://encarta.msn.com/encn
et/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761557775
&pn=1#s10


c.

Cloning

i.

Cloning techniques:

-
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer



Transfer of the nucleus from a somatic cell to an egg cell

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6

-
Roslin Technique



Variation of somatic cell nuclear transfer



Somatic cells grow and
divide then enter a suspended state as
nutrients are withdrawn; Nucleus removed, shocked to a somatic cell,
forms embryo

-
Honolulu Technique



Nucleus from somatic cell removed and put into egg with nucleus
removed; egg in a chemical solution and cultured; d
eveloping
embryo implanted into surrogate

http://biology.about.com/library/weekly/aa010903a.htm?iam=eboom_SK
D&terms=Examples+of+cloning


ii.

In 1997,

birth of cloned sheep named Dolly, genetically identical to
animal from which the nucleus was obtained

Roslin Technique used

iii.

Clone large quantities of the gene responsible for the cattle growth
hormone
bovine somatotropin

(BST) in the bacterium
Escherichia coli
.
The hormone is then extracted from the bacterium, purified, and injected
into dairy cows, increasing their milk production by 10 to 15 percent.

iv.

Cloning involving

two monkeys at Oregon Primate Research Center;
scientists cloned from an eight
-
cell embryo opposed to an adult monkey

v.

Cloned stem cells has potential to form any cell type but still undergoing
research on how to use stem cells affectively in diseases such

as
Parkinson’s disease, arthritis, and diabetes mellitus.

vi.

Cloning of cows, goats, pigs, cats, and rabbits from adult cells. However,
somatic cell nuclear transfer is inefficient since few cloned embryos
survive through birth. (of 371 embryos implanted in
371 surrogate
mothers, only six cloned rabbits were born)

http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761567589&
pn=1#s17

vii.

Ryuzo Yanagimachi of
the University of Hawaii at Honolulu and his
colleagues cloned mice by transferring donor nuclei into eggs.

Kim
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II.

Food Production
: Combat destruction of crops by plant viruses

a.

Plants food production

i.

Transferring the protein
-
coat gene of the zucchini yellow mosa
ic virus to
squash plants that had previously sustained great damage from the virus,
scientists were able to create transgenic squash plants with immunity to
this virus

ii.

Frost
-
resistant potato and strawberry plants

1.

Gene coding for protein that initiates the

formation of ice crystals
when temperature falls below freezing is deleted

iii.

Increased resistance to herbicides in soybeans, cotton, corn, and oilseed
rape


iv.

Growth hormones in cows derived from genetically engineered bacteria

1.

Dairy cows: produce more milk

2.

B
eef cattle: leaner meat


v.

Genetically engineered pig hormone

1.

Hogs: grow faster when hormone is inserted

2.

Pork has decreased fat content

http://www.bucconeer.worldcon.org/contest/2002e_5.htm

b.

Animal food production

i.

Growth hormone gene of rainbow trout has been

transferred directly into
carp eggs. The resultant transgenic carp produce both carp and rainbow
trout growth hormones and grow to be one
-
third larger than normal carp.

ii.

Salmon modified for faster growth

iii.

Trout altered to be more resistant to infection by a

blood virus


III.

Industry
: used to manage industrial wastes

a.

Genetically altered bacteria

used to decompose some types of garbage,
breakdown petroleum products, and monitor breakdown of pollutants

Kim
8

i.

Naphthalene is a pollutant found in artificially manufactured s
oils; may be
broken by bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens



Able to be monitored by transferring luciferase, a light
-
producing
enzyme found in the bacterium Vibrio fischeri, to the Pseudomonas
fluorescens bacterium



Efficiency of bioremediation process monit
ored by the amount of
light produced in proportion to the amount of activity

http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761557775

http://www.bucconeer.worldcon.org/contest/2002e_5.htm


IV.

Medicine

a.

Hormone
insulin

cloned by inserting human insulin gene into
Escherichia coli

bacteria.

b.

Tissue plasminogen activator

(tPA)
-

enzyme used to di
ssolve blood clots in
people who suffered from heart attacks; cloned in hamster cell cultures; produced
in goat’s milk

c.

Erythropoetin
-

hormone used to stimulate the production of red blood cells in
people with anemia

d.

Interferon
-

chemical that is produced by

the body in tiny amounts and
manipulated to fight viral diseases; also an anticancer drug

e.

Production of medically useful human
proteins in animal milk

-
Human gene with the desired protein is linked to specific genes of the milk
-
producing animal. The anima
ls become transgenic and only produce the desired
protein in the milk. The human protein is then extracted.

i.

alpha
-
1
-
antitrypsin
-

produced from sheep’s milk;, an enzyme used to treat
emphysema

ii.

lactoferrin
-
produced in cow’s milk; a protein for bacterial infe
ctions

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9

f.

Vaccine Production

-
Injection of killed or weakened microorganisms into a person, which causes the
production of antibodies

-
Able to transfer genes for some viral
-
coat proteins to the vaccinia (cowpox) virus

-
Genetically manipulated vaccinia also us
ed against hepatitis, influenza, herpes
simplex viruses

g.

Human protein
serum albumin

produced in transgenic tobacco and potato

h.

Human protein
insulin

produced in tobacco

*However consuming tobacco leaves will not produce the proteins.

http://encarta.msn.com
/encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761557775


V.

Evolution

a.

Recombinant DNA technology applied to
study genes of extinct animals

b.

Proved zebra and the zebra
-
like animal called quagga had
common ancestors

i.

Quagga muscle tissues salt
-
preserved in museums

ii.

Enzym
es used to release DNA from the muscle cells

iii.

DNA fragments transferred to plasmids of bacteria and replicated

iv.

After analysis, found DNA of two animals differed by only 5 percent.

http://www.bucconeer.worldcon.org/contest/2002e_5.htm