Chapter 24: The New Science of Life - Follow “Ironmtn.wordpress.com”

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Chapter 24

The New Science of Live:

Can we cure cancer?


1.
What is a marketed use of genetic engineering?

a.
insecticides

b.
insulin

c.
herbicides

d.
cleaning up oil spills

e.
all of the above


Ans:

e

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The Technology of Genes

Difficulty Level
:

Eas
y




2.
Strawberries have been genetically engineered

a.
as hybrids with blueberries.

b.
in a variety of colors.

c.
to resist frost.

d.
for faster growth.

e.
for medical research.


Ans:

c

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The Technology of Genes

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:

Easy




3.
What i
s the underlying principle of biotechnology?

a.
All life is based on the same genetic code.

b.
Plant and animal genes are not interchangeable.

c.
Bacteria are the "workhorses" of the molecular world.

d.
Scientists need a strong moral code to work as geneti
c engineers.

e.
Selective breeding must be carefully controlled.


Ans:

a

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The Technology of Genes

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:

Easy




Chapter 24

394

4.
DNA fingerprinting works to identify criminals because

a.
all individuals have the same DNA.

b.
no two individuals, excep
t for identical twins, have the same DNA.

c.
all individuals have unique DNA.

d.
DNA samples are readily available from suspects.

e.
DNA can be used to create a criminal profile.



Ans:

b

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The Technology of Genes

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:

Easy




5.
DNA ca
n be found in all samples EXCEPT

a.
saliva.

b.
blood.

c.
semen.

d.
hair shaft.

e.
All of the above contain DNA.


Ans:

d

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The Technology of Genes

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:

Easy




6.
Variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) sequences

a.
do not code for a specif
ic amino acid.

b.
are repeated "nonsense" phrases of DNA bases

c.
repeat up to 256 times, depending on the individual.

d.
all of the above

e.
only b & c


Ans:

d

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The Technology of Genes

Difficulty Level
:

Easy




7.
The controversy about the admissi
bility of DNA evidence to a court of law

a.
has not been resolved to the satisfaction of defense attorneys.

b.
was settled following a well
-
publicized murder trial.

c.
has abated since a 1992 report issued by the National Academy of Sciences wrote guidelin
es
for DNA evidence.

d.
can never be resolved because all ethnic groups share some DNA characteristics.

e.
is a moot argument because of the exorbitant expense of

DNA testing.

Chapter 24

395


Ans:

c

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:

Easy




8.
Genetic d
iseases are usually caused by

a.
the presence of a particular enzyme.

b.
the lack of a particular protein.

c.
an incorrect sequence of bases in a gene.

d.
a defective gene on chromosome 7.

e.
b & c


Ans:

e

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Stem Cells, Cloning, and Regenerative Med
icine

Difficulty Level
:

Easy




9.
Since the advent of gene therapy for genetic diseases,

a.
general practitioners have been more successful in curing some inherited diseases.

b.
physicians have disregarded symptom
-
based treatment in favor of biotechnology
.

c.
Health Management Organizations have funded most of the experimental treatments and
genetic research projects.

d.
clinics have reported positive results doing in vitro gene therapy research.

e.
new medical techniques for widespread diseases have been
perfected.


Ans:

d

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Stem Cells, Cloning, and Regenerative Medicine

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:

Easy




10.
What has affected the preliminary results from some recently initiated gene therapy trials?

a.
The laboratories have not had enough time to develop a g
ene
-
therapy protocol.

b.
Congress is hesitant to fund any more experimental programs at the National Institutes of
Health.

c.
Cells into which corrected genes are introduced cannot find and copy these genes to make new
proteins.

d.
There is a voluntary mor
atorium on gene therapy research because of the fear of introducing a
toxic gene into the environment.

e.
Drug companies are stalling the research projects until they can get assurances about
development patents.


Ans:

c

Chapter 24

396

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The New Face of Medicine

D
ifficulty Level
:

Easy




11.
What is cancer?

a.
a potentially fatal bacterial infection

b.
a disease characterized by rampant cell growth

c.
a genetic defect expressed in bone or tissue

d.
a condition in which cell membranes disintegrate

e.
a disease cause
d by an injury to the mitochondria


Ans:

b

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:

Easy




12.
Which of the following can damage DNA?

a.

the byproducts of cellular respiration

b.
several varieties of oxidants

c.
molecules from some processed f
oods

d.
high energy radiation

e.
all of the above


Ans:

e

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The New Face of Medicine

Difficulty Level
:

Easy




13.
Which procedure would forensic scientists use when the laboratory needs a larger sample of
DNA to run an analysis?

a.
radioactive isot
ope tagging

b.
variable number tandem repeats (VNTR)

c.
cloning

d.
polymerase chain reactions (PCR)

e.
gene splicing


Ans:

d

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The Technology of Genes

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:

Easy




Chapter 24

397

14.
According to recent scientific research, how many times a day does t
he DNA in each body
cell need to be repaired?

a.
10

b.
100

c.
1,000

d.
10,000

e.
100,000


Ans:

d

Link To:

Unraveling the Past: Mitochondrial DNA

Difficulty Level
:

Easy




15.
What is distinctive about the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)?


a.
This virus
destroys the body's main defense system.

b.
Research on the Human Immunodeficiency Virus is at the molecular level and on a global
scale.

c.
The HIV has two protein coats with different functions.

d.
Research to block the HIV life cycle has led to the succ
essful development of protease
inhibiters.

e.
all of the above


Ans:

e

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The New Face of Medicine

Difficulty Level
:

Easy




16.
Computer Assisted Drug Design is expanding because of

a.
environmental efforts to save the tropical rain forests.

b.
earl
y success in the development of protease inhibitors.

c.
better "cork" and "bottle" analogies.

d.
advances in the search techniques for natural molecules.

e.
tighter quality control in the computer industries.


Ans:

b

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The New Face of Medicine

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culty Level
:

Easy




17.
How does penicillin control bacterial infections?

a.
blocks the molecule that constructs the cell walls of the bacteria cells

b.
circumvents the bacterial meiosis stage

c.
increases the number of white blood cells

Chapter 24

398

d.
forms a protei
n coating around the bacteria cells

e.
strengthens the body's immune system


Ans:

a

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:

Easy




18.
What is a point defect?

a.
the byproduct of cellular respiration

b.
a mistake in the order of DNA bases

c.
a

slip in the DNA strand

d.
an enzyme patrolling the cytoplasm

e.
a mismatch in the double helix at a site


Ans:

b

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The New Face of Medicine

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:

Easy




19.
What does a protease inhibitor do?

a.
dissolves the virus wall in HIV

b.
enhan
ces the body's auto immune system

c.
blocks the enzyme that controls insertion of HIV material into the cell

d.
protects the organism from infection

e.
cuts the HIV into many pieces


Ans:

c

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The New Face of Medicine

Difficulty Level
:

Easy




20.
A
cancerous cell

a.
is ingested when a person consumes genetically engineered tomatoes and corn.

b.
is a natural occurrence in most people.

c.
is a normal cell that has experienced chromosomal damage.

d.
can be more common in persons with genetic defects.

e.

all of the above


Ans:

c

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:

Easy


Chapter 24

399

21.
There is a low probability of any single cell in your body acquiring the defects to become
cancerous.


Ans:

T
rue

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The New Face of Medicine

Difficulty Level
:

Easy




22.
More than 99% of the pesticides we take in each day are commercially produced.


Ans:

F
alse

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Unraveling the Past: Mitochondrial DNA

Difficulty Level
:

Easy




23.
A genetic disease can be described as a defect in the protein of DNA.


Ans:

T
ru
e

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The New Face of Medicine

Difficulty Level
:

Easy




24.
Gene therapy is an ordinary research application rather than a research frontier


Ans:

F
alse

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The New Face of Medicine

Difficulty Level
:

Easy




25.
Genetic engineering is based in
part on the study of how viruses manipulate the cell
replication processes.


Ans:

T
rue

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The New Face of Medicine

Difficulty Level
:

Easy




26.
Scientists are using therapeutic viruses to insert site
-
specific healthy genes into cells with
damaged ge
nes.


Ans:

T
rue

Chapter 24

400

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The New Face of Medicine

Difficulty Level
:

Easy




27.
A cell will not become a cancer cell with only one gene abnormality.


Ans:

T
rue

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The New Face of Medicine

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:

Easy




28.
Computer designed drugs will gre
atly decrease the time and increase the efficiency of drug
research and development.


Ans:

T
rue

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The New Face of Medicine

Difficulty Level
:

Easy




29.
Because of the extensive global effort, finding a cure for AIDS has been much easier than
health

professionals originally thought.


Ans:

F
alse

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The New Face of Medicine

Difficulty Level
:

Easy




30. Pluripotent

cells are valuable to research because of their ability to become any tissue.


Ans:

T
rue

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Stem Cells, Cloning, and Regenerati
ve Medicine

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:

Easy




31.
All cloning is reproductive cloning.


Ans:

F
alse

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Stem Cells, Cloning, and Regenerative Medicine

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:

Easy



Chapter 24

401

32.
Although oxidants are a natural byproduct of cellular respiration, they can be h
armful to the
DNA of the cell nucleus.


Ans:

T
rue

Link To:

The New Face of Medicine

Difficulty Level
:

Easy




33.
The first animal cloned was a fruit fly.


Ans:

F
alse

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Stem Cells, Cloning, and Regenerative Medicine

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:

Easy




34.
How

do most modern medicines work?

a.
When patients have faith in their doctors, medicines will bring about desired physical changes.

b.
Medicines are molecules shaped in a way that can alter cell chemistry.

c.
All medicines are essentially placebos; patients

ultimately heal themselves.

d.
All of the above describe how medicines work.

e.
None of the above describes how medicines work.


Ans:

b

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The New Face of Medicine

Difficulty Level
:

Medium




35.
Why is a drug production gap of concern to medical sc
ience?

a.
Antibiotic
-
resistant bacteria have evolved.

b.
Doctors cannot locate effective drugs in the quantity needed.

c.
Trained research pharmacists have gone to other careers.

d.
Patients have become more aware of alternative medical

treatments.

e.
Viru
ses have mutated to new and more deadly forms.


Ans:

a

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The Technology of Genes

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:

Medium






Chapter 24

402

37.
Why are genetic researchers NOT worried about the bacteria E. coli escaping into the natural
environment?

a.
E. coli is a harmless bac
teria outside the human intestine.

b.
The research strain of E. coli bacteria is dependent on a laboratory environment to survive.

c.
Researchers have developed an antibiotic spray for any and all possible E. coli mutations.

d.
Laboratory researchers have
a triple fail
-
safe protocol for containing E. coli bacteria.

e.
E. coli has a gene that causes it to be sterile in a natural environment.


Ans:

b

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The Technology of Genes

Difficulty Level
:

Medium




38
. Genetic engineering is based on the fact that

all life shares the same interchangeable code.


Ans:

T
rue

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The Technology of Genes

Difficulty Level
:

Medium




39.
Since double
-
blind clinical trials have a secret code for the drugs tested, there is no need to
match the participants for age.


Ans
:

F
alse

Link To:

The New Face of Medicine

Difficulty Level
:

Medium




40.
What is a good working definition of genetic engineering?


Ans:
Genetic engineering is a procedure to modify the function of an organism by altering the
organism's genes in some way
or by inserting foreign genes into the DNA of the organism.

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The Technology of Genes

Difficulty Level
:

Medium


41.
How does a cell repair itself in a natural system?


Ans:
The DNA in a cell has two mechanisms for self
-
repair. First, patrolling enzy
mes in the
nucleus detect point defects, which can be removed by a separate enzyme. The cell then
replicates in a normal way. Second, bases on the DNA double helix can be mismatched with
their complement on the other side of the ladder. This requires a spe
cific enzyme to remove that
section. Again, following the repair by the enzyme, the cell goes through a normal cell cycle.

Link To:

The New Face of Medicine

Chapter 24

403

Difficulty Level
:

Medium




42.
What is Computer Assisted Drug Design? How
does

it work?


Ans:
Mode
rn computers can be programmed to know the chemistry of a condition and discover
the shape of the molecules involved in that condition. Drugs are designed specifically to match
the shape or geometry of a certain molecule. Once that shape has been identifie
d the researchers
develop a therapeutic molecule of the same shape, which will eliminate or alleviate the
symptoms of a targeted disease or condition.

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The Technology of Genes

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:

Medium




43.
How is a cancer cell different from a no
rmal cell?


Ans:
All cells go through a cycle of several stages prior to replication. During and at the end of
each cycle there are special molecules that conduct a quality control check of the process. If
damage is found at any point in a normal cell, the

cell will be fixed or destroyed. Cancer cells
lack this quality control and replicate out of control with the defect retained.

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The New Face of Medicine

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:

Medium




44.
What is the difference between in vitro and in vivo gene ther
apy?

a.
In vivo is a computer
-
designed procedure that has never been tried while in vitro has been in
practice two decades.

b.
In vivo is a process completed outside the human body and in vitro takes place inside the
human body.

c.
In vitro is a process co
mpleted outside the human body and in vivo takes place inside the
human body.

d.
In vitro is a computer
-
designed procedure that has never been tried while in vivo has been in
practice two decades.

e.
These procedures are the same.


Ans:

c

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The New
Face of Medicine

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:

Hard




45.
Which is the strain of bacteria that has become resistant to most antibiotics commercially
available?

Chapter 24

404

a.
E. coli

b.
the HIV
-
AIDS bacteria

c.
Streptococcus

d.
Tuberculococcus

e.
Staphylococcus


Ans:

e

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The Technology of Genes

Difficulty Level
:

Hard




46.
Explain the rationale of double
-
blind clinical trials.


Ans:
Medical researchers use double
-
blind clinical trials to validate the results of the experiment.
In these trials a placebo is given to one gro
up and the experimental drug to another. Since neither
the patients nor the researchers know who is receiving the real drug, the results cannot be

influenced by psychological clues. Double
-
blind experiments help to ensure the objectivity
expected in medica
l research.

Link To:

The New Face of Medicine

Difficulty Level
:

Hard




47.
How is a molecule's geometry used to an advantage in Computer

Assisted Drug Design?


Ans:
The computer can eliminate time
-
consuming trial and error in laboratory trials by designin
g
a drug that will fit the geometric specifications of the molecule identified with the condition or
disease.

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The Technology of Genes

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:

Hard




48.
How does a protease inhibitor control the virus that causes AIDS?


Ans:
Before a ho
st cell can be forced to manufacture new virus material for the AIDS virus, the
viral DNA has to be inserted into the host cell. Certain proteins (protease) act as enzymes for this
insertion process. The protease inhibitor does not allow these enzymes to f
unction, thus stopping
the introduction of the virus.

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The New Face of Medicine

Difficulty Level
:

Hard




49.
How have antibiotics become less effective since their introduction?

Chapter 24

405


Ans:
Within any particular bacteria population, a few bacteria will
have the capacity to develop a
resistance to an antibiotic. These bacteria will multiply once their competition has been wiped
out. If drug companies do not continually develop new antibiotics, some bacteria will be drug
resistant. The overuse of antibioti
cs and the research gaps in development have led to new strains
of drug
-
resistant bacteria in the 1990s

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The Technology of Genes

Difficulty Level
:

Hard




50.
Describe the procedure used to clone Dolly the sheep.


Ans:
A cell from one adult sheep w
as fused with an unfertilized egg from a sheep of a different
species. An electric shock bonded the two cells. When the cell began to divide normally, it was
inserted into a third sheep, which served as the surrogate "mother" of the clone. The cloned
sheep

had DNA identical to the first sheep and different from the egg donor and the surrogate.
The unfertilized egg was used to "turn on" the replication process in the donor cell.

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Stem Cells, Cloning, and Regenerative Medicine

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:

Hard




51.
Outline the arguments and controversy about stem cell research.


Ans:
Embryonic stem cells, also called pluripotent cells, are fertilized cells in their first few days
of existence. The unique quality of stem cells is their ability to become any type

of tissue.
Medical research is trying to use stem cells to produce, for example, nerve cells for
quadriplegics, organs for transplants, and neurotransmitters for patients with Parkinson's. Since
embryos are the source of these cells, the research is of gr
eat concern to persons who believe that
life begins with conception. Using these cells, in their opinion, is destroying life.

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Stem Cells, Cloning, and Regenerative Medicine

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:

Hard

52.
Explain the statement, "Whenever fundamental ne
w insights into the workings of nature have
been gained in the past, major changes in the

human condition have followed."


Ans:
Answers will vary. New knowledge is many times translated into medical techniques and
materials that prolong human life.

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:

The Technology of Genes

Difficulty Level
:

Hard




53.
Pretend that you are the scientific head of a biotechnology research laboratory. What are the
steps you would recommend for cloning a cow?

Use the principles of cell biology discussed in
this chapter
in your scientific protocol.

Chapter 24

406


Ans:
Answers should parallel the techniques for cloning Dolly.

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Stem Cells, Cloning, and Regenerative Medicine

Difficulty Level
:

Hard




54.
Pretend that you are the CEO of a biotechnological research laboratory.

Even
though you must defend the expenses of a failed cloning experiment at the annual meeting
of the board of directors, you must also ask for a continuation of funding for this research. Write
a speech that will convince the board and accomplish both your goal
s.


Ans:
Answers will vary but should include the positive gains made in a ‘failed’ experiment plus
materials/equipment necessary to produce a ‘successful’ experiment.

Link To:

Stem Cells, Cloning, and Regenerative Medicine

Difficulty Level
:

Hard




55.
An
dromeda Strain by Michael Crichton is the fictitious story of a genetically engineered
microscopic toxic life form that escapes into a

populated environment. The Hot Zone by Richard
Preston is the true story of a lethal virus capable of killing primates, i
ncluding humans, which
was discovered in a primate laboratory near Washington, DC. What steps would the federal
government, a private citizen, and a biotechnological researcher at the Center for Disease
Control take to eliminate the problems these books de
scribe?


Ans:
Answers will vary but should include issues such as evolution of strains of bacteria and/or
virus plus various sanitary methods necessary to control disease.

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The Technology of Genes

Difficulty Level
:

Hard


56.
Industrialized nations
have agreed to limit the production of CFCs, which

are known to
destroy the protective layer of our upper atmospheric ozone.

If sunscreens can be developed to
block harmful ultraviolet rays and therapeutic viruses can be created to cure skin cancer, would
you recommend the reintroduction of CFC production? Defend your answer.


Ans:
Answers will vary but may include the possibility of new diseases developing once old
ones are eliminated plus other problems the introduction of CFC into the environment could
c
ause.

Link To:

The New Face of Medicine

Difficulty Level
:

Hard




57.
Design a double
-
blind clinical trial to determine how a cold virus is

spread in the population.


Chapter 24

407

Ans:
Answers will vary but should take into consideration how one keeps the participants
involved in the study and their treatments secure so as not to influence the results of the test.

Link To:

The New Face of Medicine

Difficulty Level
:

Hard




58.
Discuss the ethical and practical issues surrounding success in such an experiment.


Ans:
Answ
ers will vary but should include security of participant identification plus how to
maintain accurate records.

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The New Face of Medicine

Difficulty Level
:

Hard




59.
What makes the HIV virus "sloppy" and how does the cell's poor quality

control le
ad to its
success in the human host?


Ans:
The HIV virus can use any one of several proteins that are available in its human host rather
than being genetically ‘keyed’ to a single protein.

Link To:

The New Face of Medicine

Difficulty Level
:

Hard




60
. Sho
uld sperm from sperm banks be used to fertilize harvested eggs for use in stem cell
research? Why or why not.


Ans:
Since this is an ethical issue answers will vary.

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Stem Cells, Cloning, and Regenerative Medicine

Difficulty Level
:

Hard




61
. Stam
ping out disease is one of the goals of medicine. What are the pros and cons of this
goal?


Ans:
Answers will vary. As we find ways to eliminate more disease and extend human life, we
put more pressure on society and the environment to support an increased

population.

Link To:

The New Face of Medicine

Difficulty Level
:

Hard




Chapter 24

408

62
. One of the possibilities of stem cell research might be to create organs for use as ‘spare
parts’. Is this a good idea? Why or why not?


Ans:
Answers will vary. The good side of t
his is that no one would have to wait for organ
donors; the down side is that spare parts can become so common that people won’t bother to take
care of their health.

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The New Face of Medicine

Difficulty Level
:

Hard




63
. We are close to being able

to store anyone’s DNA at birth. Is this a good idea or not? Justify
your answer.


Ans:
Answers will vary. Knowing someone’s DNA could allow a disease to be diagnosed ahead
of time; this personal information could also lead to discrimination.

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The
New Face of Medicine

Difficulty Level
:

Hard




64
. If there actually was a ‘Chromosomal Adam’, he probably didn’t live at the same time as
‘Mitochondrial Eve’, and therefore couldn’t have known her, much less fathered her children.”

Why or w
hy not?


Ans:
A
nswers will vary but should include information about evolution of humans.

Link To:

Unraveling the Past: Mitochondrial DNA

Difficulty Level
:

Hard