Exekias Belly Amphora

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Exekias Belly Amphora


Painter



Exekias painter and potter: “Exekias painted and made me”



ADVENT OF REALISM. THE FORMAL COMPOSITION


Style



Grand style
:



Large figures



Formal composition



Large narrative & elegantly painted



Attempt to show realism

o

Horse hair f
alling down helmet

o

Tyndareus’ himation has a series of folds, adds sense of texture & depth


Details



Belly Amphora



A two handled vessel for storing liquid

(oils & water or grains, nothing precious)



Exekias may have invented this type of vase



61cm high



540
-
530BCE


Inscriptions and Meanings



Kalos inscription


“Onetorides is beautiful”



“Four” and “three”


allude to type of game being played



All figures identified


Description of Decoration



Side A



Ajax and Achilles playing a board game



A scene from a poem whe
re they were playing as they were attacked by the Trojans



Achilles on left, is the dominant figure as he has his full
-
body armour and his helmet. Taller than
Ajax.



Ajax on the right



Shields either side of the scene.



Side B:



Return of the dioskurri



Castor i
n the centre behind his horse



Polydeuces playing with a dog to the far left



Queen Leda and King Tyndareus and a boy flank Castor


Composition



The Vase:



Two friezes centred around belly of the vase



Bordered at the bottom by a double groundline



Bordered on t
op by a lotus and palmette chain



Handles separate the two main friezes & are decorated with heart shapes on single lines



Rest of vase is black, except for a ray band at the base.



Side A:



All figures on a single groundline



Composition very symmetrical



Game
in the centre framed by two figures whose curving backs mirror the shape of the vase



Their heads form an apex, so a triangle is formed



Reverse triangle formed by their spears, which lean in the opposite direction & can be traced to be
in line with the hand
les, as do the shields




Side B



All figures on a single groundline



Symmetry through horse being flanked by two figures on either side



Three mini
-
scenes occurring:

o

Polydeuces with the dog

o

Tyndareus patting the horse

o

Leda offering a flower to Castor



Illustra
tion of depth as the viewer looks in three different places.


Drapery



Emphasis on detail, not depth



Cloaks of Achilles and Ajax decorated with amazing detail: stars, spirals and flowers



Realism shown as Achilles’ cloak bulges where his leather corslet sho
uld be



Side B, King Tyndareus’ himation has a number of folds, giving an impression of depth


Black Figure:



Incision



Eyes



Hair and beard incised with fine lines



Muscles incised but not in a realistic style



Detail on shield



Horse’s main and muscles incised
realistically



Detail on Achilles’ and Ajax’s cloaks



Added Colour



Shields and corselets in white



Satyr’s heads on the shields in purple



Castor’s cloak is red



Black Silhouette



All figures


Depth/Realism



Poses



Poses all in profile



Castor’s head facing the opp
osite direction, very unrealistic



Overlapping



Castor is placed behind the horse


Narrative technique



Inscriptions labelling the characters



Movement: dog on Side B jumping up at Polydeuces



Lydos Column Krater

Painter



Attributed to Lydos


Style



Grand styl
e:



Large figures



Formal composition



One narrative, continuous frieze



Movement is free, with a variety of gestures and expressions


Details



Column Krater

-

Mixing wine and water at the symposium



57cm high



550


540 BCE


Description of Decoration



Continuous
frieze



Dionysus accompanies Hephaestos back to Mt Olympus from Mt Etna (workshop)



Hephaestos was the lame God and blacksmith of the Olympiads. Was thrown out of heaven by Hera
after trapper her on a golden throne.



Dionysus got Hephaestos drink and led him

back to Olympus to free her


Composition



The Vase:



Scene framed above by band of tongues, alternating black and red



Decorative band of lotus and palmettes on the brim of the vase



Narrative framed by two wide bands of black glaze that draw attention to the

figures



Framed below by two red bands



Frieze



Ba
lanced composition: Dionysus
one side, Hephaistos

the other. Separated by
revelry of the party



Most figures in profile



Three figures either frontal or partly frontal features



All figures, including Hephaistos

on his donkey are the same height



Large figures fill the frame


approximately 25cm tall



Some allowance for handles


Drapery



Mostly solid without folds like Francoise vase, but also with lines to simulate folds.



Incised to show design on the fabric


Black

Figure:



Incision



Drapery



Tails



stippling



Added Colour



Red/purple to detail clothing, wineskin and Dionysus’ robe



White for skin of maenads



Coral red on stylised tongue design



Black Silhouette



All figures


Depth/Realism



Overlapping



Satyr stands behind the
horse of Hephaistos


Narrative technique



Actions: arms raised, legs lifted, feet off baseline to show dancing revelry



Pose: full frontal satyr face to show emotion



Gestures: arms raised



Motifs of Dionysus: vines, ivy, wine.
Godly functions are wine and org
iastic revelery.



ATTEMPTS AT EMOTION

Achilles Lekythos


Painter



Achilles Painter (no inscription)

-

Student of the Berlin Painter



One of the last artists to draw his outline in slip



Potter Unknown


Style



White Ground Funeral Ware



Mainly used for funerary
vases



Not handled so much, often buried



Decoration would last longer, durability of decoration not so important



A lot of colours able to be added



Fragile white slip made it impractical for everyday use



Visually striking, used extensively from the middle of

the 5
th

century BCE onwards


Details



Lekythos

-

Used for funerary rites to carry perfume and oil.



38.4cm high



450


440 BCE


Inscriptions and Meanings



Kalos inscription



Deiophathes, the son of Alkimachos, is handsome” between the 2 figures


Descriptio
n of Decoration



Woman receives a casket from her maidservant
, d
irecting with her right hand



Behind them, there is a mantle and a lekythos on the wall, indicating they are indoors



Is likely the woman is preparing to visit a tomb


Composition



The Vase:



Becau
se it is a small, narrow vase the frieze takes up most of the space



Is bordered to the base by a white band and at the top by a stylised meander pattern

then a
stylised palmette

pattern interrupted by the one handle, then a tongue pattern, and finally blac
k



Frieze



Balanced by the two figures


Drapery



Some fold lines, but not the zig
-
zagging



Dress of the maidservant now transparent



No evidence of billowing


White Ground



White Background



Honey Coloured Dilute Glaze



Outline of maids body and clothing



Non
-
firea
ble colours (green, yellow, orange)



Yellow for mistress’ chiton & red
-
bron for her himation


Depth/Realism



Poses



Aloof and not interactive



Woman’s feet facing the front while body is in profile



Detail



Facial expressions of the characters seem aloof from th
e scene



Eyes of the figures seem to gaze past each other



Nose painted in detail, with a single line used



Necks of characters longer than usual



Faces more realistic, less involved.


Narrative technique



Mantle & lekythos indicating indoors



Not much attempt t
o show movement. Woman’s hand outstretched.

Euphronios Calyx

Krater

Painter



Euphronios


Style



Pioneers



Carefully arranged compositions of multiple figures on large vases



Reknowned for interest in depiction of human form and movement



Greater attempt to sho
w emotional realism



Pain despair and anguish clearly visible



Muscles now well
-
rounded, clearly shown, bulge realistically with strain of action.



Experimentation with different poses: foreshortening, twisting, ¾ pose


Details



Calyx Krater



Used for mixing wi
ne and water at symposium drinking parties



46cm high



510
-

500


Inscriptions and Meanings



Euphronios signs his own name as a painter “Euphronios Egrapsen”



All figures named in purple glaze


Description of Decoration



Side A



Herakles fighting a Libyan giant
Antaios.



Story comes from 12 labours of Herakles


had to strangle the giant but could only defeat him when
the giant was lifted off the earth.



Earth was the giant’s mother and gave him strength, therefore could only be killed in air



Side B:



A youth step
ping up onto a platform about to play a lute



Audience consists of 3 youths


Composition



The Vase:



Double lotus palmette chain at base



Top: single lotus and palmette chain



Figural ornamentation above the foot, but is damaged



Side A:



Central triangle: figure
s of Herakles and Antaios frozen in action.



W Shape: central triangle framed and extended into a w shape by the addition of two female
figures



Single groundline



Equipment of Herakles mirrored by 2
nd

supporter of Antaios



Females slightly smaller, on each si
de and behind men. One outstretched arm


Drapery



Attempt to create natural looking drapery



Female supporter of Herakles wears a elegant chiton and himation



Bery narrow lines show folds in the linen



Falls into crispy zig
-
zag lines



Gives the impression of mo
vement






Red

Figure:



Raised Relief line



All major figures



Dilute glaze



Honey coloured glaze added to giant’s hair and Herakles’ lionskin



Painted Interior Detail



Black slip used to pain interior musculature e.g. on Antaios’ muscles


Depth/Realism



Giant’s

legs: first attempt at foreshortening



Muscles and poses so well executed



Use of foreshortening


Narrative technique



Motifs of Herakles: bow, quiver, knobbed club, animal skin



Inscriptions


names of characters



Herakles depicted as civilised, Antaios as a
barbarian



Action: clearly a wrestling match, adds vitality to the scene.



Kleophrades Painter Pointed Amphora

Painter



Kleophrades Painter



Attributed to another vase signed by Kleophrades the potter



Unknown potter, likely Kleophrades



A student of Euthymi
des


Style



Late Archaic Style



Figures monumental (imposing yet elegant)



Student of Euthymides


interest in foreshortening, movement and attention to detail



Thickness of chiton and himation


thickness of lines



Fabrics flow behind maenads suggesting moveme
nt



Hooks and zigzags


fullness of drapery



See human form beneath drapery


Details



Pointed amphora



Storing wine and oils, could not stand by itself



56
cm high



500
-
490
BCE


Inscriptions and Meanings



None


meaning conveyed through characterisation


Descriptio
n of Decoration



Scene encircles the vase



Side A:



Dionysus in centre of the vase with a vine, amongst revelling satyrs and maenads



Flanked by two maenads, one fending off a satyr with a thrysos and the other turning away from a
satyr and carrying a snake



Si
de B:



Satyr playing the a double flute (aulus). Either side of him are also two maenads who are in ecstasy.



Upper frieze:



Two separate mini
-
friezes. Not joined, don’t encircle the neck. A degree of symmetry



Side A:
3 athletes playing sport, throwing javeli
ns and discuses



Side B:

3 Athletes and sponge bag and Aryballos


Composition



The Vase:



Three friezes, one on belly, two on neck



Handles interrupt the neck friezes



Neck sharply set off from the body



Central frieze bordered by a stylised meander pattern to t
he bottom and a tongue pattern in the
top



Ray band pattern on the very narrow base



Neck
:



3 athletes either side



Not continuous



Main frieze



Encircles entire vase



Single groundline



Unlike other friezes, characters aren’t linked by a central character, but b
y the characterisation of
the figures



Drapery



Material thickness shown by the closeness of the lines



Maenads dressed in chitons and himations



Chitons: move with their body, end up in zigzags at their feet, very thin, almost transparent, can
see outlines
of legs underneath



Himations: flowing, swirl and flair out as the maenads dance, end in zigzags and points at their
backs


Reg

Figure:



Raised Relief Line



All figures



Dilute Glaze



Ivy



Hair of one of the maenads



Kantharos carried by Dionysus



Animals skins



Sn
ake



Added interior detail



Facial features



drapery


Depth/Realism



Detail



Used for expression



Mouth of frenzied maenad open, and other maenad looking into space indicating in a trance



Pose



¾ pose seen in aulus playing satyr and the athletes.



Arms of maenad
swinging



Most of characters still in profile, including Dionysus looking over his shoulder



Foreshortening used e.g. foot of maenad



Overlapping



Satyr mounting maenad has his leg behind her



Athletes’ javelins overlap



Foot of frenzied maenad in front of satyr
. Also extends over base of frieze


Narrative technique



Motifs:



Dionysus: satyrs, vines, cup, animal skins, ivy wreath



Maenads: carries a thrysos (staff of fennel stalk , cap of ivy leaves), comfortable handling a snake,
leopard skin, satyrs



Satyrs: bearde
d, hairy, unkempt hair and beard, often depicted with an enlarged phallus to portray
fertility. Leader may play the aulus. Goat like in appearance



Clearly depicted narrative theme/mood




one of quiet abandonment”


(Hannah)



Shown through Maenads (eyes in tr
ance like gaze, heads throuwn back



Movement of Satyrs and nakedness suggest inhibition has been removed



Kleophrades Painter Hydria


Painter



Kleophrades Painter


Style



Late Archaic



(see Kleophrades Painter Pointed Amphora)


Details



Hydria



Used for carryi
ng water. 3 handles



45cm high



500


480 BCE


Description of Decoration



Shows the sack of Troy by victorious Greeks.



The whole frieze runs continuously around the vase, between the neck and the shoulder



Divided into specific triangular groupings which each
tell a story from the fall of Troy



Aeneas flees from Troy



Aeneas carries his father Anchises away from Troy



His father has a stubbly beard showing old age like King Priam



See the back of Aeneas, staggering under the weight of his father



Hope:

Aeneas flees
to found a new Troy



The Rape of Cassandra



Nudity emphasises her rape



Mercilessly he grabs her by the hair



She seeks refuge in the sanctuary of Athena


statue of Athena known as the Palladium, the most
sacred object in Troy



Cruelty
:
sacrilege and the seizi
ng of a prophetess



Crouching Trojan Women



A Trojan woman covers her ears in terror, cowering behind the statue of Athena



Trying to block out the sound of war: emphasises the helplessness of women in war



A tree bends emphasising the destruction



A woman tear
s her hair out as a sign of mourning



Despair
:
Many Trojan women were sold into slavery



The death of King Priam



Depicted as an old man covering his head about to be struck



Lying across his lap is limp body of his grandson Astyanax, lifeless and bloody



Neopt
olemus son of Achilles about to deliver the fatal blow



Cruelty:

Murder of Astynax. His body was mutilated.



Heroism of a Trojan Woman



Greek warrior crouches behind his shield



Fully armed, contrast with unarmed woman



She is armed with a large pestle or table

leg, emphasising her despair



Courage
: a Trojan woman fights back against a fully armed Greek man.



Rescue of Aithra



Grandmother of Theseuas and the two soldiers



Taken to Troy to act as Helen’s maidservant



Liberation
: Aithra rescued by her grandsons. Only s
cene to show Greeks in a good light


Composition



The Vase:



Scene runs continuously around the vase



Ends with the two shields. Both of the two end scenes are thematically connected


hope and
liberation.



A very difficult place to paint due to the shape bein
g much smaller at the top compared to the
bottom


triangular segments framed by positions of bodies or trees/statues



Red

Figure:



Raised Relief Line



Dilute Glaze



Added Interior detail


Depth/Realism



Full s curve of nostril



Eyes open at inner corner inste
ad of common frontal eyes



Lips full and outlined



¾ technique



Intricate design on Neoptolemus’ armour


Narrative technique



No inscriptions



Recognisable story



Moods shown.

o

Greeks not shown as heroes

o

Portrayed as cruel and vicious

o

Scenes full of emotion

o

Emoti
ons portrayed through body movements of the people

o

Emphasises negative aspects of war

o

Sacrilege,
enslavement, murder and rape rather than heroism & bravery



Themes of: courage, hope, liberation, sacrilege, cruelty, enslavement, murder, rape.


Francois Vase


Painter
/Potter



Kleitias

is painter



Ergotimos is potter



Was discovered in 1845 in fragments by Alessandro Francois, hence the name


Style



Corinthian Miniaturist

o

Characterised by several small figures (270 in the Francois)

o

Drapery is ill
-
fitting with no el
aborate gestures. Does not show form beneath

o

Rows of mythological animals. Exotic vegetal motifs, such as the lotus and palmette

o

Lively gestures are used to help tell the story

o

Common in the “Orientalising Period” of Corinthian vase painting

o

Very 2D, chara
cters either full frontal or profile


Details



Volute Krater



Useful for mixing (not transferring) water and wine



Derived from a Column Krater, but has elaborate handles


volutes.



At widest girth, circumference


1.81m



66cm



Mouth diameter


57cm



570BCE


Ins
criptions and Meanings



121 inscriptions



Identifying names of characters



Also “Ergotimos made me” and “Kleitias painted me”


Description of Decoration


Side A

Side B

Band 1

Caledonian boar hunt

Dance of Athenian youths and
maidens

Band 2

Funeral games of
Patroklus

Battle between the Lapiths and
Centaurs

Band 3

Wedding of Peleus and Thetis

Procession of Gods


continued
from Side A

Band 4

Pursuit of Trollius by Achilles

Return of Hephaestios to
Olympus

Band 5

Oriental animals

Oriental animals


continued

from A side

Band 6


Battle between the pygmies and
cranes




Composition



Vase di
vided into 6 narrow friezes/bands



Central bands are bordered



Rays force the eyes upward



3
rd

band is wider and goes right around the vase highlighting its importance



All spac
e is filled



Figures crowd each scene, some overlap, but generally each holds its own space


Black Figure:



Incision



Muscular detail of the boar, armour, etc



Added Colour



White flesh of Atlanta and the dog



Purple red for cloth



Black Silhouette



Boar and figur
es


painted onto the vase in black slip


Depth/Realism



Poses



Very 2D, characters either full frontal or profile



Overlapping



Some figures overlap


Narrative technique



Names are incised/inscripted



Actions: the hunt for the Caledonian boar



Poses: the front a
rm is extended and the back arm is bent suggesting spearing/striking, the boar’s
front legs are elevated suggesting its movement


Thematic connections:



Most Trojan inspired decoration traced to Iliad



Achilles and Peleus in main wedding scene and boar hunt
and funeral games



Thesus also commemorated


in Victory Dance of Maidens and battle of Lepith and centaurs



Artemis


depicted on back on the handle as mistress of the animals, links back to orientalised
animals



The artist must have had an intricate knowled
ge of myths and literature, particularly the stories of
the Trojan War associated with Homer



Exekias
Kylix


Painter



Exekias painter and potter


Style



Grand style:



Formal composition



Depicts realism



Very few figures



Elegantly painted



One significant narr
ative



“Exekian serene style”


mood generated by the way it is painted. Elegant, not busy/cluttered


Details



Kylix


used for drinking wine at symposiums. Absence of offset rim. Maybe invented by Exekias



535BC



11.5cm diameter


Inscriptions and Meanings



“Ex
ekias Epose” or “Exekias made me”


Description of Decoration



Interior



Tyrrhenian pirates sailing and spotted Dionysus on shore.



Grabbed and tried to imprison him. Wine flowed over the boat and vine sprang up around the mast



The god became a lion and roared

at them.



Pirates jumped into the sea and became dolphins



Exterior



Apotropaic eyes


ward off evil when your eves are hidden whilst drinking



Foot


black slip. Stylised nose framed by elongated tear ducts



Handles


2 groups fighting over corpse


Compositio
n



Free field
-

no horizon line.



Boat in the centre


focal point



Curve of the boat complements the shape of vase



Grapevines fill 1/3 of space around the boat



Curves accentuate the curve of the boat


Drapery



Emphasis on detail, not depth



Cloaks of Achilles

and Ajax decorated with amazing detail: stars, spirals and flowers



Realism shown as Achilles’ cloak bulges where his leather corslet should be



Side B, King Tyndareus’ himation has a number of folds, giving an impression of depth


Black Figure:



Incision



Di
onysus’ robe


incised crosses.



Exterior of boat incised with dolphins



Added Colour



Purple of grapes and branches



White added to sail



Coral red of background revolutionary: intentional red (clay slip and yellow ochre)



Black Silhouette



Dionysus and dolphin
s


Depth/Realism



Poses



Poses all in profile



Castor’s head facing the opposite direction, very unrealistic



Overlapping



Castor is placed behind the horse


Narrative technique



Motifs: grapes, wine horn, robe, vines all link to Dionysus



Characterisation of Dio
nysus



Dolphins explain the link to the Tyrrhenian pirates story



Dionysus


wine, Dolphins


water, Grapes


wine: all link to wine drinking at symposiums



Amasis Painter Ovoid Lekythos (woman weaving)


Painter
/Potter



Amasis Painter


attributed due to st
ylistic similarities



Notable as he was the first to illustrate everyday scenes



His name indicates he may be Egyptian



Painted 90 other unsigned vases



Amasis Potter


signed his name on another vase


Style



Somewhere in between Corinthian Miniaturist and Gran
d Style



In transition phase



Formal composition of Grand Style, but no grand theme



Also no animals/vegetation seen in Corinthian Miniaturist



Amasis was the first to leave a reserved space instead of painting in black glaze when adding slip.



He was therefore

the forerunner of the red
-
figure technique.


Details



Ovoid Lekythos



Used for funerary rites



17cm high



560


550 BC


Description of Decoration



Side A



Women are depicted weaving



Two women working on a loom, flanked by two women weighing wool and two women s
pinning
wool



Side B:



Next to the spinning women are two folding cloth. Next to them are two women unravelling wool,
one is seated. In between them and the weighing women is a woman directing.



Upper Frieze



An upper scene showing youths approaching a seated
woman, probably a bride, with a wedding
crown.




Action flows from right to left



From right:

o

Single woman directing other women

o

One woman lifting wool up onto scales which another woman holds

o

Women weave, others working on loom, others preparing wool for lo
om



Main focus: one beats wool whilst other threads shuttle of wool


Composition



The Vase:



Emphasis on vertical lines



There are two friezes.



The main frieze is a continuous frieze on the belly of the vase.



The upper frieze is on the shoulder and they are se
parated by a primitive double band and mirrored
diamond pattern.



The rest of the vase is painted black, except for a white path on the neck near the mouth.



Frieze



There is a single groundline



The women in the main frieze are grouped in pairs, other than
the woman directing them



This gives symmetry to the vase



Most of the women fill the full height of the vase, other than the ones on the loom.


Drapery



Flat and fold
-
less



Some of it is incised but only with simple dot patterns



Basic fold
-
lines


Black Figure
:



Incision



Decoration on garments of the women



Outlines of hair and eyes



Added Colour



Women’s faces in white



Black Silhouette



All figures other than women’s faces


Depth/Realism



Poses:



All figures are in profile with a variety of poses


Narrative technique



No inscriptions



Actions of characters


each woman is carrying out a task that helps the process work



Not particularly busy, mostly stagnant compared with the top frieze which is much more exciting

Amasis Painter Ovoid Lekythos (Wedding Procession)


Pain
ter
/Potter



Painter: Amasis Painter



Potter: Amasis


Style



Somewhere in between Corinthian Miniaturist and Grand style



In transition phase



Formal composition of Grand style but no grand theme



Also no animals or vegetation seen in Corinthian Miniaturist


Deta
ils



Ovoid Lekythos



Carrying oil at funerals



17 cm high



560


550 BC


Inscriptions and Meanings



None


Description of Decoration



Lower Frieze



Read from right to left



Procession is heading towards the house



Woman in an open door, holding two torches, welcomin
g the party



First carriage


married couple (bride holds circular object) and other man



Second carriage


escorted by 2 women and one man, carries 4 male members of the bridal party



Miniature Frieze



2 men playing instruments to entertain 9 young girls who
are dancing.



One man plays the flute, the other the lyre


Composition



The Vase:



The main frieze extends continuously around the body of the vase, while the upper frieze sits on
the shoulder



A handle interrupts the upper frieze



The two scenes are separated

by a mirrored diamond pattern and double line



The Scene



There is a single groundline



There is symmetry in the main frieze, as it is ordered as the 2
nd

carriage


horse surrounded by 3

people


temple.



On the upper frieze there is symmetry as the 2 music p
layers are placed opposite each other.


Drapery



All females are wearing peplos



Men are wearing chitons and himations



Again, they are flat and foldless



There is some incision to show the embroidery, but there is detail rather than depth


Black Figure:



Incis
ion



Used to show detail such as hairline, eyes



Stippling used on beards of the men



Lines are used to illustrate the manes of the mules



Added Colour



White is used for flesh of the women in both friezes



It is also used for carriages



Some red slip is added to

provide detail on the himations of the men



Black Silhouette



All figures


Depth/Realism



Poses



Figures in a variety of poses



Overlapping



The people accompanying the mules are placed in front or behind them, giving the impression of
depth


Narrative techniqu
e



Deliberately depicts bride with crown so we know it is a wedding procession



Movement: arm raised to welcome



One leg
forward


walking



Top frieze: dancing works alongside the main frieze to tell a story



Depicts it as it would in real life e.g. in night
-
ti
me with torches


Euthymides Belly Amphora


Painter
/Potter



Painter


Euthymides



Potter
-

Unnown


Style



Pioneer Style



Realism associated with the pioneer group



Concentration on depiction of anatomy



Overlapping and foreshortening



Thin slip for anatomical det
ail



Monumental figures (Priam, Hector and Hecuba)


Details



Belly Amphora


used for story liquids


wine, honey, oil



60 cm



510


500 BC


Inscriptions and Meanings



Signed by Euthymides as painter on side A



Also on side A


“os oudepote Euphronious”


as nev
er Euphronious could do”



Shows friendly rivalry or a competitive nature


Description of Decoration



Side A



Three drunken revellers returning from Symposium



Designed to suggest movement



Komachos, Euedomos, Teles



Side B:



King Priam watches and assists with hi
s wife Hecuba as their son, Hector arms for the Trojan War


Composition



The Vase:



Large black bands above and below the scene



Ray bands on base



Handles decorated with ivy leaves



Main frieze bordered on all 4 sides


on each side black figure pomegranates,
stylised black figure
buds on the bottom, enclosed read figure palmettes on top



Scene on one side reflects the other



Each frieze has 4 figures, all occupy their own space



Figures drawn to the full height of the frieze



Curve of backs accentuates the shape o
f the shoulder of the vase



Euedomos’ walking stick breaks the top frieze of palmette leaves, Hector’s helmet does the same


Red Figure:



Raised Relief Line



Present in all figures



Dilute Glaze



Major muscles in dark glaze, minor ones in dilute slip.



Wreaths o
n heads (although possible added colour


purple)



Added Interior detail



Details
painted, not incised



Continuous fluid lines better able to give impression of volume.



Allows for complex poses


Depth/Realism



Depi
ction of anatomy more realistic



Overlapping,
foreshortening, ¾ pose



Detailing on muscles


Makron Skyphos


Painter
/Potter



Painter: Makron



Potter: Hieron


Style



Late Archaic Style



Better depiction of human form and drapery



Idea of realism very much apparent


drapery indicating thickness of material a
nd fluid lines and
hooks instead of zigzags. Foreshortening in Helen’s trailing foot



Makron’s romanticism



His style. Promotes a mood of love & eroticism. Helen in her transparent chiton. Eros, Peitho etc


Details



Makron Skyphos



Deep drinking cup used for d
rinking wine



21 cm high



490


480 BC


Inscriptions and Meanings



All figures have their names by their heads painted in purple slip



Makron signed his name under the handle of the vase


Description of Decoration



Side A



The events that led to the Trojan War



F
ollows on directly from the Penthesileia Painter ‘Judgement of Paris’



Paris, Prince of Troy abducted Helen from her husband Menelaus of Sparta



Side B:



The King of Sparta claiming Helen at the end of the Trojan War



Paris has been killed and Troy taken


Comp
osition



The Vase:



Meander border on the top and the bottom



The Frieze



Whole vase covered by overlapping figures, distinguished by lines of drapery



Single groundline



Scene continuous around the vase



Eros in the air and overlapping of shields give 3D effect



Mirroring of six figures on each side. A: Paris, Helen, Aphrodite. B: Menelaus, Helen, Aphrodite


Drapery



Very realistic. Thickness of lines indicate thickness of material.



Use of hooks and fluid lines instead of zigzags


Red Figure:



Raised Relief Line



All

figures outlined with this line



Dilute Glaze



Lion on shield, Paris’ sandals, women’s hair.



Added colour


white beard on old man



Added Interior detail



Detailed drapery and facial features


Narrative technique



Helen is attended by Aphrodite (love), and Pei
tho (persuasion)


indicating an abduction of
seduction rather than force



Inscriptions of character names



Well known story, immediately recognisable



Action


Aenaes and Paris legs wide apart as if striding in a hurry, Paris leading Helen by wrist


Berlin
Painter Volute Krater


Painter
/Potter



Painter


Berlin Painter



Never signed own name. Name comes from an amphora found in Berlin.



Potter
-

Unknown


Style



Late Archaic



Similar to Kleophrades


figures refined and delicate



Attention to detail and realism, co
ncerned with human form and anatomy.



Foreshortening, ¾ pose and overlapping


Details



Volute Krater



Used for mixing wine and water at symposium drinking parties



A large belly and a wide mouth so that vessels can be dipped into it



500


480 BC



65cm


Inscript
ions and Meanings



The figures have their names painted beside them


Description of Decoration



Side A



Achilles and Memnon, a Trojan hero from Ethiopia, fight frozen in battle, watched by their mothers
Thetis and Eos



Side B:



Achilles fights Hector watched by

Athena and Apollo (respective divine patrons). Achilles has
already wounded Hector


Composition



The Vase:



Band of stylised rays at the base of the belly



Below the scene is a band of stylised tongues



A complex mirrored lotus and palmette chair frames the s
cene above



Handles


double ivy leaves



Friezes:



Decoration emphasises the shape of the volute krater


elegant



Stark blackness of bulk of vase draws attention to decoration



Characters hold their own space on a single groundline



Symmetrical composition: 2 w
arriors, 2 supporters



Gaze and gesture of supporters concentrate viewers eyes to frieze



W shaped composition


Depth/Realism



Use of foreshortening, ¾ pose and overlapping


Narrative technique



Characters identified through inscriptions



Well known battles of
Troy: Achilles/Memnon, Achilles/Hector



Motif


heroes depicted in the nude



Penthesileia Painter Pylix


Painter
/Potter



Penthesileia Painter


not signed



Potter unknown


Details



Pylix



A jewellery or cosmetics box



Found in the tomb of a young Greek woman i
n Cumae, Italy. Base divided into 3 sections which are
flared out at the base to give more stability


Inscriptions and Meanings



Kalos inscription above the head of Paris. Reads “the boy is fair”



Also a Kalos inscription next to Eros


Description of Decorat
ion



The judgement of Paris: was asked to judge who was the most beautiful of 3 goddesses


Athena,
Aphrodite and Hera. Aphrodite was chosen after she offered to give Paris the most beautiful wonan
in the world. This was Helen of Troy, but she was already m
arried to Menelaus of Sparta and her
abduction to Troy by Paris was the cause of the Trojan War. Hera denied Paris kingship of troy and
Athena denied him success at war, as a result of Paris not choosing them


Composition



The Vase:



Stylised leaves frame th
e scene



Frieze



Linear. Unity through gaze, gestures and groupings of characters.



Figures occupy the whole space from top to bottom


Drapery



Irregularity of lines indicate more naturalism, colour contrast more subtle and emphasises the
texture of the fabric
, outlines the shape of the body and hangs naturally on the human body


White Ground



Outline



Raised relief line then black outline, gives a cartoonish appearance



Added Colour



Browns and oranges e.g. Paris



White Slip



Provides a more realistic background


De
pth/Realism



Not much movement



Use of ¾ poses and foreshortening, shading on the rock, but no overlapping


Narrative technique



Motifs


Hermes: petasos, winged boots and carrying a caddueses. Paris: naked under cloak and club


hero.



Niobid Painter Calyx

Krater


Painter
/Potter



Painter


Niobid Painter



Potter
-

Unknown


Style



Mannerists


Details



Calyx Krater



Used for mixing wine and water and symposium drinking parties



470


450BC



55cm


Inscriptions and Meanings



No inscriptions


Description of Decoration



S
ide A



Did not name any figures, so could be many different interpretations:



Heracles’ journey to the underworld



The seven against Thebes



Jason and the Argonauts



Side B:



Niobe was the mother of seven sons and seven daughters



She boasted that she had more ch
ildren than Leto



So in revenge Leto’s children, the twins Artemis and Apollo slaughtered the Niobids


Composition



The Vase:



Frieze is framed by a wide band of lotus and palmettes



Side B



Crowded composition with a number of characters



Twin gods fill the cen
tre of the composition



Children of Niobe are painted on different ground levels and in foreshortened poses



All figures painted on purple groundline as in side A


Drapery



Models the body underneath


Red Figure:



Raised Relief Line



All figures outlined with t
his line



Dilute Glaze



Added colour


ground line



Added Interior detail



Detailed drapery and facial features


Depth/Realism




See a true profile eye



Undulating groundline



Drapery is much more realistic



Innovative poses


Meidias Painter Hydria


Painter
/Potte
r



Meidias Painter



Meidias


Style



Mannerist:



Fascination with drapery and intricate folds


embroidery on cloaks of heroes



Interest in female anatomy


clearly revealed trhough the drapery and includes nipples



Interest in decoration


coronets, earrings, ne
cklaces and bracelets



Theatrical or elegant poses and gestures even when inappropriate to the narrative


Details



Hydria



3 handles, 2 for carrying, one for pouring. Used for carrying water



410 BC



52cm high


Inscriptions and Meanings



Potter signs his name



Fi
gures are named


Description of Decoration



Upper Frieze



Abduction of the daughters of Leukippos by Castor and Pollux (the Dioskuri) from the sanctuary of
Aphrodite where the girls had been gathering flowers



Their companions scatter in all directions



Despit
e the scene being violent they are depicted elegantly



Side B:



11
th

labour of Heracles


to take the golden apples from the garden of the Hesperides


Composition



The Vase:



Stylised eggs and dart pattern. Palmettes on the neck. Meanders with boxes below each

of the
friezes. Stylised tongues surround the handles



Side A:



Tableau of upper frieze interrupted by side handles and a large crude palmette by the shoulder
neck handle



Painter overcomes this by using an undulating ground line and saving large space artic
les for upper
arrears of the vase.


Drapery



Transparent



See form beneath



Complex



Tapering to the body


Depth/Realism



Snake skin very detailed



Undulating ground line



Figures delicate and the movement convincing



Figures’ revealing drapery paralleled in conte
mporary sculpture


Narrative technique



Characterisation


Heracles: lion skin, club



Inscriptions identify characters



Dismay shown through gesture rather than expression



Characterisation of Dionysus


Motifs associated with Dionysus:

Grapevines, wine horn
, full beard, crown, gown, ivy, satyrs and maenads


How has each painter depicted Dionysus?

Similarities:



All serene/divine



All separate from action/peaceful manner



2 scenes include grapevines



All have full beards



All have crowns



All have full gowns



2 scen
es have drinking horns



2 scenes have him standing up/in profile

Differences



1 scene has him lying down



Earliest vase his him standing facing us but with head turned left



Whilst later vases have more life
-
life stances


Two of the scenes depict the Return of

Hephaistos to Olympus. How is the depiction of Dionysus
different/same between these two scenes?


In Francois vase:



Dionysus depicted leading group; very much part of the action



Important part of the procession and is actually leading the mule with Hephae
stos on it



Corinthian miniaturist
\


In Column Krater:



Dionysus is much less part of the action, he is depicted almost separately from the rest of the
procession



He isn’t leading the group and isn’t leading Hephaestos on the mule



Attic Grand Style


How has
the development of style and advancement in decoration technique affect the
depiction of Dionysus across these scenes?

In earliest base, the figures are less elaborate. The standing position of Dionysus is not very natural;
with his head turned away whilst

his body is turned towards us. Drapery is ill fitting, no sense of
depth.

In Lydos Column Krater, the figures are partly frontal rather than fully frontal. Incision is used more
effectively to show design of fabric, also drapery is now with some lines to
simulate folds

In Exekias Kylix, Dionysus is more elaborately posed and shown in a more realistic position. The
incision on the fabric means that his gown looks richer and more detailed.

The White Ground Technique

From around the middle of the 5
th

century

in addition to red figure painting, the white ground
technique (which was akin to wall painting) was used. The Penthesileia Painter and the Achilles
Painter used this technique


Before the vessel was fired, it was painted with a white slip and the images
were drawn as raised
relief lines

or painted in outline. Initially the colours were limited to those that could withstand firing
temperatures, such as browns and oranges on the pyxis by the Penthesileia Painter. These colours are
well preserved because the
y were fired.


Later a greater range of colours including green and mauve were applied after firing. Unfortunately
this lack of firing means that these colours have usually flaked away. About this time white ground
became largely confined to lekythoi (oil
flasks) that were used in the funeral rituals of the Athenians
and which were then placed in or on the grave. The perishable nature of the painting was therefore
of less concern.

Euphronius vs Euthymides: an artistic comparison


Background

-

Both members o
f Pioneer Group

-

Both show interest in human form and movement

-

Two very competitive


inscription on belly amphora

-

Both signed own work


showed pride in work

-

Euphronius used purple glaze for inscriptions


Comparison

-

Both fill their vase with large figures,

e.g. Euphronius’ action scene of Herakles and Antaios.
Euthymides’ three revellers dancing, Hector readying for battle

-

Euphronious the first to experiment with foreshortening e.g. Antaios’ foot

-

Euthymides also did this


revellers’ lifted legs

-

Well define
d muscles:

o

Euphronius outlines abdominal muscles of Antaios with black slip, dilute for internal
musculature

o

Euthymides’ central reveller has well defined abdominal muscles

-

Depth (3D effect)


Overlapping

o

Obvious by Euphronius


women behind wrestlers.

o

Les
s obvious by Euthymides


reveller’s himation falls behind leg. Walking stick
overlaps top border frieze, gives impression of depth

-

Composition

o

Euphronius’ composition is triangular or W shaped. Women’s arms outstretched


draws attention to main action

o

Eu
thymides composition has figures arranged symmetrically on both sides of the
vase. The vase is balanced. Upright figures

-

Attention to facial features

o

Both depict well
-
defined eyes, painted eye lashes, well defined pupils

o

Euphronius shows clear detail on He
rakles and Antaios



Bushy eyebrows vs very slim eyebrows



Antaios’ bared teeth



Facial hair

-

Attention to drapery

o

Zigzagging and long thin continuous folds



Himation vs chiton



Himation folds fall in wider folds to suggest the fabric is thicker