Networks II (Course Outline)
What this course covers
. The TCP/IP
Basic Queuing Theory:
Notation: Poisson, Deterministic and General queues.
Little’s Theorem, Markov Chains, Birth Death Processes, Generating
Network Structures, Dijsktra, Bellman
Ford and Frank
Statistics in Networks
Traffic Assumptions (Poisson, Heavy
Tail Distributions, Long
Networks II (Course Aim)
By the end of this course you should:
Have a working knowledge of how things find their way about
Be able to understand the mathematics of queuing systems and
Understand research in the area of Network Engineering.
Know some handy ways to investigate networks.
This course will not teach you:
The practicalities of wiring networks or administrating
How to program networked applications.
Networks II: Recommended Texts
Becoming out of date but a good introduction to networking
with a mathematical bent. (Course recommended text).
Well known introductory text, more up to date but without the
mathematical depth of the previous.
Queueing Systems (I and II)
A classic text introducing the heavy duty mathematics of
TCP/IP Illustrated (I and II)
The classic text if you actually need to understand and program
using internet based protocols.
Basic terms we need to understand.
The OSI/ISO (Open Systems
Internconnection/International Standards Office)
“layers model” of computer networks.
The standard model to describe how computer
networks should work.
The TCP/IP (Transmission Control
Protocol/Internet Protocol) Protocol Stack
The standard model which is how computer networks
Where to go for more information on
this lecture’s subjects
RFCs: (Requests for Comments): The protocols which
define the internet:
RFCs define how things work (but some are spurious, some are
out of date and some are just jokes).
IETF: (Internet Engineering Task Force)
Bertsekas/Gallager: Layers Model: Section 1.3 IP: Section
Tanenbaum: Layers Model: Section 1.4 IP: Section 5.5
Basic Definitions: Protocol
Protocol: A formal specification of how things should
communicate. In networking a protocol defines an interface
usually (though not necessarily) between one computer and
A simple example of a protocol “Knock and Enter”:
Knock on the door.
Wait for someone to say “Come in.”
If someone says “Come in.” then open the door and enter.
If you wait for five minutes then give up.
We might want to combine this with a protocol for saying
“Come in” when you hear a knock.
Two computers need to use the same protocol to talk to one
another. The definition of protocols is critical to networking.
Basic Definitions: Bit, Byte, Octet,
Packet, Header, Bandwidth
Bit: A 0 or a 1
the basic unit of digital data.
Byte: A short collection of bits (usually assumed to be 8
but may, rarely, be 7, 16 or 32).
Octet: A collection of 8 bits.
Packet: A collection of bits in order assembled for
Header: Part of packet with info about contents.
Bandwidth: The amount of data which can be sent on a
channel. Usually bits per second
sometimes in bytes
(octets) per second. (Yes this is confusing.)
KB = kilobytes. Kb = kilobits.
Basic Definitions: Host, Router,
Switch, Source, Destination
Host: A machine which is a point on a network
which packets travel through
a node in a graph.
Router: A host which finds a route for packets to
an intermediate point in a journey.
Switch: Often used interchangeably with router
but implies that the routes are “fixed”.
Source: Where data is coming from.
Destination: (or sink) Where data is going to.
A Simple Model of Reliable Internet
To send data to another computer:
Find the address of the computer you are sending to.
Break the data into manageable chunks (packets).
Put the address on each packet (packet heard) and also
your own address.
Send each packet in return to the receiving computer.
Get a receipt for each packet which has been sent.
Resend packets for which we do not have a receipt.
The receiver then reassembles the packets to retrieve
the data sent.
Models of the Internet
OSI/ISO Reference Model
TCP/IP Reference Model
Open Systems Interconnection
(International Standards Office)
1) Physical layer
Purpose: Necessary infrastructure.
Think "wires in the ground and switches
This is the physical hardware of the internet.
Wires/optical cables/wireless links and other
technologies provide a way for transmission of
(0s and 1s).
connect these cables and
direct the traffic.
2) Data link layer
Purpose: Provides basic connection between two
logically connected machines.
Think: “I stuff packets down a wire to my
Send raw packets between
Basic error checking for lost data.
In TCP/IP the "Physical layer" and the "Data
Link" layer are grouped together and called the
3) Network Layer/Internet Layer
Purpose: Provide end
between any two machines.
Think: “I try to get a packet to its destination”
Tells data which link to travel down.
Addresses the problem known as
Deals with the question "where do I go next to
get to my destination?"
Ensures packets get from source A to destination
4) Transport Layer
Purpose: Ensure that data gets between A and B.
Think: “From the source and destination, I make
sure that the data gets there”.
Ensures a data gets between source and
If necessary ensure that connection is
(resend missing data).
if necessary (send data
faster or slower depending on the network
5) Session Layer (not TCP/IP)
Purpose: Provides a single connection for one
Think: “I am in charge of the entire message.”
This connection may be two way or may be
Not discussed much as it is never implemented.
6) Presentation Layer (Not TCP/IP)
Purpose: Provides commonly used functions for
Think: “I meet internationalisation standards”.
The main job of the presentation layer is to
ensure that character sets match
Chinese characters are correctly received by the
Again not discussed much as it is never
7) Application layer
Purpose: The computer programs which actually do
things with the network.
Think: “I deliver the mail, browse the web etc.”
For example, your email
program which will talk
to the email
at the other end.
At this layer, we have many
smtp, ftp, telnet) which different bits of software use.
We often talk in terms of
for the software.
TCP/IP model in summary
Internet (IP) addresses
ftp://ftp.uk.debian.org (file transfer)
These are the “real” IP addresses
of the above sites. IP addresses
are 32 bits grouped into 4
(Octet = 8 bits
a number from
IP addresses use less significant bits first to
IP address: 188.8.131.52
:255.255.255.0 (no holes allowed)
If two IP addresses are the same when bitwise
AND’d against the netmask then they are on the
123.45.67.?? is always on the same subnet in the
IP networks were originally subdivided into class
A, B, C, D and E networks.
Subnet mask 1: 255.255.255.0 =
Subnet mask 2: 255.255.240.0 =
A and B would be on the same subnet if the subnet
mask was 1 but different subnets if the mask was 2.
The IP header
IP packets all have a
About the IP header
Type of Service: (Best efforts, immediate
Total length (of whole packet)
Identification (number of packet for later
sometimes the network splits a
Flags (information about fragments). DF= Dont
Fragment MF= More Fragments to come
About the IP header (2)
Time To Live (TTL)
reduced by one every hop.
When it reaches zero packet is killed. (This is to
ensure that the network doesn’t fill up with lost
identified by a number (usually TCP
to ensure that the packet is not
IPv4 allows over 4 billion computers (but not really)
inefficient subnetting is using these up.
IPv6 allows 16 octet addresses (4 octets in IPv4).
addresses (> Avogadro’s number). 7x10
addresses per square meter of the earth’s surface.
Why so many? Electrical devices may want IP addresses
your house could be its own subnetwork. Why NOT?
Better security than current IP(v4).
Allow “roaming hosts”.
Pay more attention to type of service (for real time data).
IP tells us how to get a message from A to B.
However, the IP protocol is lossy (it doesn’t
guarantee that anything will actually “get there”).
In the next lecture we will look at TCP/IP and
UDP/IP which sit on top of IP and deal with the
sending of the messages.