NetworkManagement_3 - Silicon Valley University

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23 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Summer 2013

SILICON VALLEY UNIVERSITY
CONFIDENTIAL

1

Network Management

Simon Au, Silicon Valley University



SILICON VALLEY UNIVERSITY
CONFIDENTIAL

2

Standards, Models, and Language


Network: Areas need Management


Network: Management of network comprising of nodes and links.


System: Managing system resources ( CPU, disk usage ).


Services: Services provided to customer.


Build Network Management Systems:


Foundation based on standards, models, and languages.


Network Management Standards


SNMP, CMIP, TMN, IEEE, Web
-
based Management


Network Management Models


Organization Model


Information Model


Communication Model


Abstract Syntax Notation One: ASN.1


Encoding Structure


Macros


Functional Model


Copyright @ 2011 Mani
Subramanian

SILICON VALLEY UNIVERSITY
CONFIDENTIAL

3

Standards, Models, and Language


Network Management Standards



Copyright @ 2011 Mani
Subramanian

CMIP: Common Management Information
Protocol

CMIS: Common Management Information
Service.

IETF: Internet Engineering Task Force
responsible for all Internet Specifications,
including Network Management.

TMN: Telecommunications Management
Network oriented towards
telecommunications service providers.

Extends concept of management beyond
managing networks and network
components.

IEEE only concerned with OSI Layers 1
(Physical) and 2 (Data Link).

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4

Standards, Models, and Language


Network Management Models


OSI Network Management Architectural Model more complete than
SNMP (Internet), TMN, IEEE.


Organization Model


Components, functions, infrastructure ( Object, Agent and Manager).


Information Model


Structure and Organization of Management Information ( SMI, MIB ).


Communication Model


Application Layer, Layer Management between layers, and layer operation.


Bi
-
directional messages between layers and transfer PDU.


Functional Model


User
-
oriented requirements of Network Management.


Five functional application areas: Configuration, Fault, Performance,
Security, and Accounting.





Copyright @ 2011 Mani
Subramanian

SILICON VALLEY UNIVERSITY
CONFIDENTIAL

5

Standards, Models, and Language


Network Management Models


SNMP Network Management Architectural Model


Organization Model: Similar to OSI


Information Model: Similar to OSI


Communication Model: Similar to OSI


Messages less complex than OSI


Functional Model


Operations, Administration, and Security.


Telecommunications Management Network (TMN) Model


Higher
-
level Management Network based on OSI Network Management
Model.


Focus is towards managing Telecommunications Networks.


Addresses Network, Service, and Business Management.


IEEE Network Model


Dedicated to management of Layers 1 and 2 of the OSI Reference
Model.


Applicable to Local Area Networks ( LANs ) and Metropolitan Area
Networks ( MANs ).


Addresses standards on Broadband Network Management.

Copyright @ 2011 Mani
Subramanian

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CONFIDENTIAL

6

Standards, Models, and Language


Organization Model


Describes the components of Network Management and their
relationships.


Network Objects (Elements):


Hosts, Hubs, Bridges, Routers, Switches, etc.


Managed Objects (Elements):


Network Element with management process, Agent software.


Gathers information of object.


Configures parameters of object.


Responds to Manager’s requests.


Generates unsolicited alarms and sends alarms to Manager.


Unmanaged Objects:


Network Element without management process.


Manager:


Manages the Managed Objects.


Contains Management Database: Queries and receives
management data from the agent and stores data in the
Management Database.


Copyright @ 2011 Mani
Subramanian

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Standards, Models, and Language


Organization Model


Two
-
Tier Network Management Model

Copyright @ 2011 Mani
Subramanian

Managed Objects:

Hosts, Hubs, Bridges,
Routers, Switches.

Contains Agent Software to
communicate with Manager.


Unmanaged Objects:

Hosts, Hubs, Bridges,
Routers, Switches.

No
Agent Software to
communicate with Manager.


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Standards, Models, and Language


Organization Model


Three
-
Tier Network Management Model

Copyright @ 2011 Mani
Subramanian

Intermediate Manager:

Acts as both agent and manager.

-
Agent to top
-
level Manager.

-
Manager to Network Elements.


Top
-
Level Manager:

Manager to Intermediate Layer
Manager.


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Standards, Models, and Language


Organization Model


Manager of Managers ( MoM )

Copyright @ 2011 Mani
Subramanian

Manager of Managers:

Presents integrated view of
domains.

Domain may be geographical,
administrative, vendor
-
specific
products.


Agent NMS:

Domain administered by Vendor
Management Systems manage the
domain of their respective
components.

Agent NMS:

Domain administered locally by
NMS distributed to cities.


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10

Standards, Models, and Language


Organization Model


Network Management System in Peer
-
to
-
Peer Relationship


Client
-
Server Architecture


Two Network Service Providers exchanges management information.


Information traverses both networks end
-
to
-
end.


Copyright @ 2011 Mani
Subramanian

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11

Standards, Models, and Language


Information Model


Structure and Organization of Management Information


The representation of objects and information that are relevant to
their management.


The Structure of Management Information ( SMI )


The structure defining the syntax and semantics of management
information.


Example: SMI used to identify the figure in a book.


Identifying the object: { ISBN, Chapter, Figure }

Copyright @ 2011 Mani
Subramanian

Syntax of Management Information

Semantics of Management Information
: The meaning of the designators.

ISBN: The ISBN number identifies specific edition of a specific book.

Chapter: The chapter of the book.

Figure: The figure in the chapter of the book.

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12

Standards, Models, and Language


Information Model


Management Information Base ( MIB )


Describes managed objects: Collection of definitions which define
the properties of the managed object within the device to be
managed ( i.e. router, switch, hub ).


Describes the relationship between managed objects.


Organized by grouping of related objects.


NOT a physical database: Virtual data base that is compiled into
management module.


Used by Agent and Management processes to store and exchange
management information.


Manager MIB: Information on all managed network components.


Agent MIB: Local information.


Example:


County has many libraries.


Each library has index of all books in it library, the Agent MIB view.


County main library has index of all books in all the county’s
libraries, the Manager MIB view.





Copyright @ 2011 Mani
Subramanian

SILICON VALLEY UNIVERSITY
CONFIDENTIAL

13

Standards, Models, and Language


Information Model


Management Information Base ( MIB ) and Management
Database ( MDB )


MIB
:
Virtual database
and contains the information necessary for
processes to exchange information among themselves.


Formal language used to describe the database ( i.e. ASN.1 ).


Database schema for the Management Database ( MDB ).


MDB
:
Real database
and contains the measured or administratively
configured value of the elements of the network.




Copyright @ 2011 Mani
Subramanian

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CONFIDENTIAL

14

Standards, Models, and Language


Information Model


Example: MDB and MIB Difference




Copyright @ 2011 Mani
Subramanian

1) Manager has MIB for Cisco switch (schema
describing the objects in Cisco switch). Places the
values associated with the MIB objects in the MDB.

1) Cisco Switch

2) 3Com Switch

2) 3Com Switch added into the network.

a)
Manager does not have MIB for 3Com switch.
The 3com switch is an unmanaged object. MDB
does NOT have values of 3Com switch.

b)
Manager has MIB for 3Com switch (schema
describing the objects in 3Com switch). Places
the values associated with the MIB objects in the
MDB.

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15

Standards, Models, and Language


Information Model


Management Information Tree


Managed Objects uniquely defined by tree structure in OSI
Model and used in Internet Model.


Managed Objects defined by a containment tree.


Network Elements: Hubs, bridges, routers, transmission facilities.


Software Processes: Programs, algorithms, protocol functions,
databases.


Administrative Information: Contact person, account number.


Generic MIT
:




Copyright @ 2011 Mani
Subramanian

Root Node.

Level 1.

Each Managed Object
has node in MIT.

Level 2.

Level 3.

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16

Standards, Models, and Language


Information Model


Management Information Tree


OSI MIT




Copyright @ 2011 Mani
Subramanian

-

Node is a Managed Object.

-

Number in circle is the designation of the
object in the layer.


Node iso: 0

Node itu: 1

Node iso
-
itu: 2

Node org: 1.3

Node dod: 1.3.6

Node internet: 1.3.6.1


NOTE: All Internet
-
managed Objects will
be 1.3.6.1 followed by dots and numbers.




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17

Standards, Models, and Language


Information Model


Managed Object Perspective


Managed Object does not have to be a physical object.


Use physical representation to understand the characteristics and
operations associated with the managed object.


Internet Perspective: Scalar


Object Identifier: Unique ID.


Descriptor: Name for the object.


Syntax: Used to model the object (INTEGER, Counter)


Access: Access privileges to a managed object.


Status: Implementation Requirements.


Definition: Textual description of the semantics of object type.


Internet Example: Circular object used by nursery school to explain
shapes.


Object Identifier and Descriptor: Ring


Syntax: circle


Access: Read
-
Only


Status: Mandatory


Definition: A plane figure bounded by a single curved line every point of which is
equally distant from the point at the center of the figure.





Copyright @ 2011 Mani
Subramanian

Uniquely identifies the
object that is circular.

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18

Standards, Models, and Language


Information Model


Managed Object Perspective


OSI Perspective: Object Oriented


OSI MIB defines a set of Managed Object Classes ( Managed object
belongs to a class ).


MIB schema defines the containment relationship between
instances of those classes.


Object Classes has inheritance, subclasses inherit and extend trait of
superclasses (OperationalState Object Class can be inherited).


Object Class: Managed Object.


Attributes: Attributes visible at its boundary.


Analogous to Object in SNMP.


Syntax to define
scalar type
or generic attribute types (Counter).


Operations
: Operations that may be applied to it.


Behavior
: Behavior exhibited by it in response to an operation.


Notifications
: Notification emitted by the object.


OSI Example:


Object Class: Circular Objects.


Attributes: Circle with dimensions.


Operations: Push


Behavior: Change its shape to ellipse.


Notifications: Changed to ellipse.





Copyright @ 2011 Mani
Subramanian

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19

Standards, Models, and Language


Information Model


Managed Object Perspective





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Subramanian

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Standards, Models, and Language


Information Model


Managed Object Perspective


Internet SNMP Object and OSI MIB Object Comparison





Copyright @ 2011 Mani
Subramanian

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Standards, Models, and Language


Information Model


Managed Object Perspective


Internet SNMP Object and OSI MIB Object Comparison





Copyright @ 2011 Mani
Subramanian

Security function in OSI Functional
Model.

Conformance part of
Appiication Services in OSI.

OSI Operations/Behavior/Notifications
are part of Communication Model in
Internet: get/set and response/alarm.


Create/Delete Object Class.

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22

Standards, Models, and Language


Communication Model


Communication of information between agent and manager and
between managers:


Transport Medium of Message Exchange ( Transport Protocol ).


Message format of Communication ( Application Protocol ).


Actual Message ( Command and Responses ).





Copyright @ 2011 Mani
Subramanian

Manager: Applications initiate Operations/Requests.

Agent: Executes Operations/Request on Network Elements (Managed Objects)

Notifications/Traps:
Unsolicitated Messages
( Alarms ) generated by
Agent.

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Standards, Models, and Language


Communication Model





Copyright @ 2011 Mani
Subramanian

Transport:

OSI uses C
-
O (CONS,
X.25) and C
-
L (CLNP).

Internet uses C
-
L (UDP).

Applications: Invoke the
Communication Layer
protocol.

Services: Operations
using requests,
responses, and alarm
notifications.

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Standards, Models, and Language


Abstract Syntax Notation One: ASN.1


Formalized set of rules on the structure and meaning of the
language of communication.


Language Syntax and Semantics


Developed by ITU
-
T and ISO for use with application layer.


Abstract Syntax:


Set of rules used to specify data types and structures for storage of
information.


Applicable to the Information Model.


Based on Backus
-
Nauer Form (BNF) defined as:


< name > :== < definition >


Transfer Syntax:


Set of rules for communicating information between systems.


Applicable to the Communication Model.


BER (Basic Encoding Rules) used to convert textual ASN.1 syntax to
machine
-
readable code.


Each element encoded in Type
-
Length
-
Value Encoding.


Makes Application Layer protocols independent of lower layer protocols.





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Subramanian

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25

Standards, Models, and Language


Abstract Syntax Notation One: ASN.1


Definition:


<entity> ::= <definition>



Rules:


<digit> ::= 0|1|2|3|4|5|6|7|8|9




<number> ::= <number> | <digit> <number>


<op> ::= +|
-
|x|/


<SAE> ::= <number>|<SAE>|<SAE><op><SAE>


Example:


number 9 is
primitive
9


number 19 is
construct

of 1 and 9


number 619 is
construct

of 6 and 19




Copyright @ 2011 Mani
Subramanian

<entity>
definition

or
assignment

is “
defined as

one or more sequences of
“entity”. More sequences are
separated by veritical bar , “|”.

Primitives

Entity constructed from entity and constructs of primitives.

The word presented in angle
brackets is a
placeholder
, not
meant to be literally used in a
statement; its rules are further
defined elsewhere.


The placeholder <word> is
defined directly following
<word> ::=.



Entity SAE
constructed
from entities and primitives
<digit> and <op>.

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Standards, Models, and Language


Abstract Syntax Notation One: ASN.1


Basic Assignments associated with <entity>.



<BooleanType> ::= BOOLEAN



<BooleanValue> ::= TRUE | FALSE



ASN.1 Module


Group of Assignments




person
-
name

Person
-
Name::=

{


first

"John“,


middle

“T“,


last

"Smith”

}




Copyright @ 2011 Mani
Subramanian

Data Type Assignement

Value Type Assignement

Lower Case:
Name of the data
type.

Upper Case:
Name of the
ASN.1 module.

In
-
line Assignments

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27

Standards, Models, and Language


Abstract Syntax Notation One: ASN.1


ASN.1 Construction Mechanisms:


Used to build structured data types.


Alternative: CHOICE


List: SET and SEQUENCE


Repetition: SET OF and SEQUENCE OF


ASN.1 References


Backward and Forward Reference.


Example Constructs:

personnelRecord PersonnelRecord ::= SET {


Name,


title

GraphicString,


division

CHOICE





marketing [0] SEQUENCE







{ Sector,






Country},





research [1] CHOICE





{product
-
based [0] NULL,






basic [0] NULL},





product [2] SEQUENCE





{Product
-
line, Country)


. . .




Copyright @ 2011 Mani
Subramanian

Externally defined Data
Types: Name, Sector,
Country, Product
-
line.

Set Type is an unordered
list of types.

Sequence Type is an
ordered list of types.

Choice Type takes one
value from a specified list
of distinct types.

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28

Standards, Models, and Language


Abstract Syntax Notation One: ASN.1


SEQUENCE


Ordered list of types (same or different) enclosed in braces.


SEQUENCE OF


Ordered list of same type enclosed in braces.

AirlineFlight ::= SEQUENCE {



airline IA5String,


flight NumericString,


seats SEQUENCE {




maximum INTEGER,



occupied INTEGER,



vacant INTEGER },


airport SEQUENCE {



origin IA5String,



stop1 [0] IA5String OPTIONAL,



stop2 [1] IA5String OPTIONAL,



destination IA5String },


crewsize ENUMERATED {




six (6),



eight (8),



ten (10) },


cancel BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE }


Copyright @ 2011 Mani
Subramanian

{ airline "American",


flight "1106",


seats { 320, 107, 213 },


airport { origin "BWI", destination "LAX" },



crewsize 10 }

OPTIONAL after the type
indicates the type is optional
in the ordered list.

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29

Standards, Models, and Language


Abstract Syntax Notation One: ASN.1


SET


Unordered list of distinct types enclosed in braces.


SET OF


Unordered list of the same types enclosed in braces.


Person ::= SET {


name IA5String,


age INTEGER,


female BOOLEAN }


Copyright @ 2011 Mani
Subramanian


The following represents the same instance:

{"Maggie", 4, TRUE}

{TRUE, "Maggie", 4}

{4, TRUE,"Maggie"}

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30

Standards, Models, and Language


Abstract Syntax Notation One: ASN.1


CHOICE


Value from a specified list of distinct types.


Prize ::= CHOICE {


car IA5String,


cash INTEGER,


nothing BOOLEAN }


Winner ::= SEQUENCE {


lastName VisibleString,


ssn VisibleString,


cash < Prize }

Copyright @ 2011 Mani
Subramanian

The following are valid instance of Prize type:

nothing

TRUE

car

“Lincoln”

cash

25000

{


lastName

“AU”


ssn


“222334444”


cash


5000

}

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31

Standards, Models, and Language


Abstract Syntax Notation One: ASN.1


Module Definition

<module name> DEFINITIONS ::= BEGIN


<name> ::= <definition>


<name> ::= <definition>

END



DEFINITIONS: Keyword primitive indicate <module name> is
being defined.


BEGIN: Starts body of the module.


END: Ends body of the module.


Modules can be imported into and exported from other modules.


Assignments are reusable.


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32

Standards, Models, and Language


Abstract Syntax Notation One: ASN.1


Copyright @ 2011 Mani
Subramanian

Symbol


Meaning

::=


Defined as

|

or, alternative, options of a list

-

Signed number

--

Following the symbol are comments

{}

Start and end of a list

[]

Start and end of a tag

()

Start and end of subtype

..

Range

ASN.1 Symbols

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33

Standards, Models, and Language


Abstract Syntax Notation One: ASN.1


ASN.1 Keywords

KEYWORD


BRIEF DESCRIPTION


BEGIN


Start of an ASN.1 Module.

CHOICE


List of alternatives.

DEFINITIONS


Definition of a data type or managed object.


END



End of an ASN.1 module.

EXPORTS


Data types that can be exported to other modules.

IDENTIFIER


A sequence of non
-
negative numbers.

IMPORTS


Data types defined in external modules.

INTEGER


Any negative or non
-
negative number.

NULL


A placeholder.

OBJECT


Used with IDENTIFIER to uniquely identify an object.

OCTET


Unbounded 8
-
bit bytes (Octets) of binary data.

OF




Used with SET and SEQUENCE.

SEQUENCE


Ordered list maker.

SEQUENCE OF

Ordered array of repetitive data.

SET



Unordered list maker.

SET OF


Unordered list of repetitive data.

STRING


Used with OCTET for denoting a string of octets.



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34

Standards, Models, and Language


Abstract Syntax Notation One: ASN.1


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ASN.1 Data Type Conventions

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Standards, Models, and Language


Abstract Syntax Notation One: ASN.1


Copyright @ 2011 Mani
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Data Types are uniquely defined with
a tag ( class and number), except
Other Data Type.

Data Types are defined based on
Structure and Tag.

Structure is subdivided into four
categories.

Tag is subdivided into Class and
Tag number.

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36

Standards, Models, and Language


Abstract Syntax Notation One: ASN.1


Objects and Data Types


Four Categories of Data Type Structures


Simple Type
: Primitive, atomic.


Example:

PageNumber

::= INTEGER


Structured Type
: Contains other types (types within structured
type are called
component types
)


Example:


PageNumber

::= INTEGER


ChapterNumber

::= INTEGER


Separator ::=
-


BookPageNumber

::= SEQUENCE





{
ChapterNumber
, Separator,
PageNumber

}


{ 1
-
1, 2
-
3, 3
-
39 }


BookPages

::= SEQUENCE OF {
BookPageNumber
}


BookPages

::=


SEQUENCE OF {

SEQUENCE






{
ChapterNumber
, Separator,
PageNumber
} }


{ 1
-
1, 1
-
2, 1
-
3, . . . , 2
-
1, 2
-
2, 2
-
3, . . . }




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37

Standards, Models, and Language


Abstract Syntax Notation One: ASN.1


Objects and Data Types


Tagged Type
: Type derived from another type and given new
Tag ID.


Type1 ::= VisibleString


Type of TLV


1A 0001 1010







Type2 ::= [APPLICATION 3] IMPLICIT Type1


Type of TLV


43 0100 0011







Other Type
: Data type not defined, but chosen from CHOICE
and ANY types.





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Tag class: Application = 01

Tag = 011

Tag class: Universal = 00

Tag = 1 1010

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38

Standards, Models, and Language


Abstract Syntax Notation One: ASN.1


Objects and Data Types


Other Type
: Data type not defined, but chosen from CHOICE
and ANY types.


Research ::= CHOICE



{




product
-
based

VisibleString,




basic



VisibleString



}



Research ::= CHOICE



{




product
-
based

ANY,




basic



ANY



}







Copyright @ 2011 Mani
Subramanian

CHOICE construct select
one of two alternatives
between “product
-
based”,
and “basic”.

Type ANY, without further
specification, is incomplete.
It must be supplemented by
any valid ASN.1 type
defined in another module.

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Standards, Models, and Language


Abstract Syntax Notation One: ASN.1


ENUMERATED Type


Special case of INTEGER data type.












Data type can only take the values defined in the list.










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40

Standards, Models, and Language


Abstract Syntax Notation One: ASN.1


Basic Encoding Rules ( BER )


Encoding Specification Developed and Standardized by CCITT
(X.209) and ISO (ISO 8825).


Describes a method for encoding values of each ASN.1 type as
a string of octets.


Type
-
Length
-
Value ( TLV ) Encoding Structure


Type: Indicates the ASN.1 type, consisting of the class, and whether
the “value” encoding is primitive or constructed of more TLV
structures.


Length: Indicates the length of the “value”.


Value: Indicates the value as a string of octets.


TLV Recursive:


Any ASN.1 type consisting of multiple components or constructs,
the TLV “value” will consist of TLV structures.




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41

Standards, Models, and Language


Abstract Syntax Notation One: ASN.1


Basic Encoding Rules ( BER )




Copyright @ 2011 Mani
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The Identifier or Type bits 8
-
7 specifies
the “Class”, the form of the encoding
“Primitive or Construct” and the “Tag
Number”.

“Construct” encoding will have TLV
structures embedded within the Value or
Content.

Primitive Encoded Form

Constructed Encoded Form

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Standards, Models, and Language


Abstract Syntax Notation One: ASN.1


Basic Encoding Rules ( BER )




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ASN.1 Primitive Encoding:

A ::= INTEGER

BER Encoding when A set to 5:

T L V

02 01 05

Tag:

0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0

Tag = INTEGER = 2

Class = UNIVERSAL = 0

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Standards, Models, and Language


Abstract Syntax Notation One: ASN.1



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44

Standards, Models, and Language


Abstract Syntax Notation One: ASN.1


Basic Encoding Rules ( BER )

PersonnelRecord ::= [Application 0] IMPLICIT SET {


Name,


title [0] VisibleString,


number EmployeeNumber,

}

Name ::= [Application 1] IMPLICIT SEQUENCE {


givenName

VisibleString,


initial


VisibleString,


FamilyName

VisibleString

}



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PersonnelRecord Length Value

60 81xx Name Length Value


61 10 VisibleString Length Value


1A 04 “John”


VisibleString Length Value


1A 01 “P”


VisibleString Length Value


1A 05 “Smith”


Title Length Value


A0 0A


VisibleString Length Value


1A 08 “Director”


Emp… Length Value


Number


42 01 33

0110 0000

01 = Application

1 = Construct

00000 = Tag

EmployeeNumber ::= [APPLICATION 2] IMPLICIT INTEGER

1010 0000

10 = Context Specific

1 = Construct

00000 = Tag

0110 0001

01 = Application

1 = Construct

00001 = Tag

0001 1010

00 = Universal

0= Primitive

1 1010 = VisibleString

0100 0010

01 = Application

0= Primitive

0 0010 = INTEGER

[Class Number] without
IMPLICIT or EXPLICT
defaults to EXPLICIT.

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45

Standards, Models, and Language


Abstract Syntax Notation One: ASN.1


MACROS


Permits extension of ASN.1 language to define new data types
and values.


Similar to macros in application software.





Copyright @ 2011 Mani
Subramanian

Defines syntax of the
new types.

Defines syntax of the
new values.

Define and describe
any new types
defined.

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46

Standards, Models, and Language


Abstract Syntax Notation One: ASN.1


MACROS

OBJECT
-
IDENTITY MACRO

BEGIN


TYPE NOTATION ::= “STATUS” Status





“DESCRIPTION” Text






ReferPart


VALUE NOTATION ::= value (VALUE OBJECT IDENTIFIER)






Status ::= “current” | “deprecated” | “obsolete”






ReferPart ::= “REFERENCE” Text | empty






Text ::= “value”(IASString)”

END




Copyright @ 2011 Mani
Subramanian

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47

Standards, Models, and Language


OSI Functional Model


Five Models: Addresses user
-
oriented applications.


Configuration Management


Settings and changing of configurations of networks and network
components ( switches, hubs, bridges, routers ).


Fault Management


Detection and isolation of the problem causing the failure in the
network.


NMS constantly monitors and displays in real
-
time major and minor
alarms.


Restoration could involve reconfiguration, but might not include
fixing the cause of the problem.


Trouble Ticket administration used to track problems until resolved.


Performance Management


Concerned with the performance behavior of the network.


Network
-
monitoring system that measures the traffic and
performance statistics (traffic volume, network availability, and
network delay) on the network.


Performance monitoring gather statistics on all protocol layers.


Web traffic, Internet mail, file transfers.





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Subramanian

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Standards, Models, and Language


Functional Model


Security Management


NOC security database authorizes access to the network, network
resources, network information, and secured communication.


Firewalls implemented to protect corporate network and network
resources.


Cryptography used to ensure secured communication.


Alarm generated on unauthorized access.


Accounting Management


Administers cost allocation of the network usage.


Metrics to measure:


Usage of resources and services.


Traffic data gathered from Performance Management tools.


Service Providers: Service and Business Management


Performance Management ( traffic statistics ), Fault Management ( Trouble
Ticket Administration Data ), and Accounting Management.




Copyright @ 2011 Mani
Subramanian

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CONFIDENTIAL

49

Standards, Models, and Language


Functional Model




Copyright @ 2011 Mani
Subramanian