Introduction to Networking

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23 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 15 μέρες)

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T&M Networking Seminar

1

Sponsored by:



Yokogawa Corporation of America



Jeff Rainey



Introduction to Networking

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Networking Seminar


Assume this is a new subject for everyone


Instrument tech, supervisor, engineer, manager


Learn terms


Look at networking technology


Live demonstrations

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Why is Networking Important?


Convergence of industrial & business platforms


Networking offers cost effective performance


Common physical media for different vendors


LAN networks are everywhere


Career Enhancer!!!

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What You Will Learn


Basic hardware and addressing


TCP/IP protocol


Routers, Bridges, & Switches


Web servers, Email & FTP


Dial
-
up networking


LabView and Yokogawa


Wireless networking


Additional Resources

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A Network is..

Instrument

PC

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Local Area Network

A communications network made up of servers,

workstations, a network operating system and

communications link that serves users within a

confined geographical area.


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What is Client/Server computing?

The client requests information.

The server processes the request and sends a
response back to the client.

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Open System Interconnection

An architectural model developed by the

International Standards Organization (ISO)

for the design of open systems networks. All

communication
functions

are divided into

seven standardized layers: Physical, Data Link,

Network, Transport, Session, Presentation,

and Application.


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Making Networks Interoperable

OSI 7 Layer Reference Model


Application

Presentation

Session

Transport

Network

Data Link

Physical

You Driving

Gas/Break/Steering

Instruments

Engine

Electrical System

Drive Train

Tires

“Standardized Components’”

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OSI 7 Layer Model & Ethernet

Wiring & hardware

Moves the data

Reliable data flow

Your program

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What is Ethernet ?



Concerns the two bottom layers of OSI model



Defines the wire (physical media)



Defines how to share the wire



Defines hardware device drivers (NIC cards)



Defines message format


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“Ethernet” Facts

Xerox develops

original Ethernet

at its Palo Alto

Research Center.

It is 2.94 Mbps

running on thick

coax.

Digital, Intel and

Xerox publish

DIX V1.0 as

10 Mbps

enhancement of

original Ethernet.

DIX V2.0 is

released.

Commonly

known

as Ethernet II

IEEE releases

802.3 CSMA/CD.

Frame definition

is different than

DIX V2.0.

802.3 is often

incorrectly

referred to as

Ethernet

IEEE releases

10baseT

twisted pair

standard for

802.3

1970

1980

1982

1985

1990

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10
base
T

Speed

Physical Media

(Twisted Pair)

Cat 5
:

voice and data at 100 mbps

UTP
:
unshielded twisted pair (normal in office)

Patch cable
: straight thru; used with hubs & routers

Cross cable
: crossed; used for PC to device direct

RJ45
: standard 10baseT (twisted pair) connector*

Ethernet: The Wire

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Physical Layer Specifications

“Thicknet”

“ThinNet”

“Fiber


Optic”

“Fast

Ethernet”

“ Your

Office”

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IEEE 802.3 Ethernet CSMA/CD


(Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection)


All devices on the segment hear every broadcast


Devices wait until “the wire” is empty


Allows two devices to try and talk at the same time


Collisions occur (contention based)


Has methods to handle collisions


Non
-
deterministic, delivery time is not guaranteed

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Network Interface Card

A computer card containing an Ethernet

controller chip and communications transceivers


able to connect to the “wire” and talk using

Ethernet rules and format.

Desktop “NIC” Card

Laptop PCMCIA Card

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4 Port Mini Hub


Hubs

8 Port Hub

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OSI 7 Layer Model & Addressing

Physical address

“Ethernet or MAC”

Like an auto VIN #

Logical
Address

“IP”

like an auto

license plate

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Ethernet Address

(MAC
-

media access control)

00
-
00
-
64
-
13
-
34
-
04



Vendor

Device

48 bit number as 6 bytes

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IP Address



32 bit number shown as 4 bytes (each 0
-
255 or 255.255.255.255)



IP addresses are unique.



No two machines can have the same IP number.



IP addresses are global, standardized, and controlled



Most companies have an assigned IP address



Defined in different classes by number of hosts supported

139.173.190.239

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IP Address

Class
A

1
-
127


20
.10.2.5


16, 277,214 hosts

Class
B

128
-
191


134.140
.2.5


65,534 hosts

Class
C
192
-
223


192.230.10
.5


254 hosts



network
.host.host.host

network.network
.host.host

network.network.network.
host

20
.10.2.5

134.140
.2.5

192.230.10
.5


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Subnets

Class
B

128
-
191


134.140
.2.5


65,534 hosts

network.network
.host.host

134.140
.2.5


IP Address


134.140.2.5


Subnet Mask


255.255.0.0


Need subnet mask to know network vs. host


255 means network, 0 means host for default masks


You can “steal” addresses from hosts to make more networks


This is called “subnetting”


IP Address


134.140.2.5


Subnet Mask


255.255.248.0

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Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

Process of automatically assigning an IP

address when a device is connected to a

local area network. Conserves IP addresses

and makes network management easier.

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Static vs. Dynamic IP Addressing

Static IP

Dynamic IP

(DHCP)

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Domain Name Service

Software running on a host machine that links

an IP address with a name. Allows users to

connect to a device by IP address or by name. For
example “ ip address 30.85.1.26”
which you might
read as something like
“instrument named 26, on
network 1, on host 85, of network 30."

or with DNS
would be





dx200.yca.com

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DNS (Domain Name System)



COM

-

commercial entities



EDU

-

four year colleges and universities



NET

-

network providers and network information centers



ORG

-

miscellaneous organizations such as non
-
profit groups



GOV

-

United States Federal Government entities



MIL

-

United States military



COUNTRY CODES

-

a two letter country abbreviation


.uk for United Kingdom, .fr for France


Assigns names to IP addresses


Different extension types


Country identifiers

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Looking at Your Network

winipcfg (W95, W98)

ipconfig (NT 4.0/2000)

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Looking at Your Network

“Pinging” to test an IP address

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Tracing Your Internet Trip

tracert www.yahoo.com

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Configuring Your PC’s IP

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FTP



21


Telnet



23


SMTP (email)


25


www
-
http



80


POP3



110


MV data



34260


MV maintenance

34261

Logical connections to a physical Ethernet
connection. Ports are dedicated to one
function. Think of ports as different doors into
the same house.



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OSI 7 Layer Model & TCP/IP

“A suite of protocols that manage the routing and
delivery of messages on an internet or over the
Internet”

Application

Transport

Internet

Network Interface

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Packet

A single Ethernet message of variable length

and content that moves over the network.


Devices on the network move data one

packet at a time.


The network does not know what type of data

is traveling in a packet. It could be email, data,

graphics...


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LAN

133.140.2.161

133.140.2.162

133.140.2.163

133.140.2.170

LAN

Data Flow in a Ethernet

TCP/IP Network

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Routers, Bridges, and Switches

Router:

Filters network packets

by protocol and IP (logical)

addresses. More expensive and

complex than bridges. Used to

make a Wide Area Network (WAN)

Works at network level
.

Bridge:

Connects different networks (i.e. Ethernet and Token Ring) or

two networks of same type. Filters using Ethernet (physical) address and

works at the data link level.

Switch:

Works with Ethernet address like a bridge. Connects multiple

LAN’s giving each one full 10 Mbps bandwidth. Creates separate collision

domains.

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Broadcast Domains

WAN

DARWIN

DC100

MV200

MV200

Router

10.196.4
.1

Plant B

Router

10.196.3
.1

PC

PC

Router

10.196.2
.1

Corporate

PC

Public

210.146.24.1

Public

210.146.26.1

Public

210.146.23.1

DARWIN

DA100

WE System

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Web Server

Application software embedded in a network

device that automatically delivers a pre
-
formatted


screen and data views to a PC when a browser

(Internet Explorer or Netscape) connects to the


device over a network.


Uses software technology like html, JAVA, and
CGI.


Provides access without custom software!

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Web Server

MV200

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File Transfer Protocol

A format and procedure making it easy

to send/receive/view files between devices on a

network.

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“Software” for FTP

Server

Client

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Device=FTP Client, PC=FTP Server

Via an FTP server on

the PC, Yokogawa FTP client

will request a connection and

automatically send files

to the PC.

Server

FTP Client “Pushes” Files


or


or

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Device=FTP Server, PC=FTP Client

FTP Server

FTP Client

PC “pulls” files


or


or

Via an FTP server on the
device, the PC FTP client
will request a connection
and allow user to select and
transfer files from the
instrument to the PC


on demand.

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Examples of Using FTP


Save DL1740 setup to PC


Save waveform file from WT1600


Manual transfer of DL/WT files to PC

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Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

Post Office Protocol Version 3

SMTP is a protocol in OSI 7 layer model that

defines format and procedure for a network

device to send “email” to another device on the

network.


POP3 is a protocol that defines how to retrieve

email on the Internet

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Email Server/Client

Mail server



POP

SMTP


or


or

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Dial Up Networking

Software built into Windows 95/98, NT, and 2000

that allows a PC to make a phone connection to

another device via standard phone lines and

modems. Once connected, the two devices can

communicate as if they were physically connected

on the same Ethernet LAN.

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Tech Overview: Dial
-
Up
Networking


Standard function in all Microsoft OS platforms

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Dial
-
In Networking

DAQSTATION

is connected to

remote computer.

All software on

remote computer

runs as if PC was

connected locally.

LAN Modem

(Dial Up Router)

MV200

Dial up router sees incoming call and
prompts for username and password.

Then connects remote computer

to the local area network.

10baseT

Remote user wants to make

connection to network

using phone lines. Uses

dial
-
up networking and

places call from modem to dial
-
up router.

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Dial
-
Out Networking

DAQSTATION

initiates auto file

transfer and sends

data files via ftp

to YCA FTP server

LAN Modem

(Dial Up Router)

MV200

DAQSTATION

initiates alarm

email and send

SMTP email

to YCA email server

Dial out router sees

that FTP or email packet

is not on local network so

dials pre
-
programmed

number to find remote LAN

10baseT

Email and FTP servers

accept remote connection


through modem and allows

FTP or email transfer

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Custom Interfaces Using Networks


Create custom interface applications that work over the
network with standard programming environments such
as Visual Basic, C++ & LabView


LabView is the most common environment and most
instrument manufacturers provide free LabView drivers
that can be used to create these custom applications




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LabView Drivers

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LabView Application Examples


Environmental Chamber Control


Motor Control


Ballast Lighting Test


Remote Control


Data Acquisition and Control

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LabView Application


DAQ Engine (DARWIN)

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Wireless Networking with Radios


Solve difficult wiring problems


Long distance capabilities


Flexibility


Reduced wiring costs


Mobility


Noise resistance


No licensing


Data security

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802.11b Wireless Radio



Up to 9 miles* operating range



2.4 GHz frequency band



Point
-
to
-
point, point
-
to
-
multipoint

connectivity



Direct Sequence Spread

Spectrum (DSSS)



64
-
bit or 128
-
bit WEP encryption



Mac Address filtering



Supports up to 1,024 users



Can be configured as a wireless

bridge or a traditional access

point



Removable antenna for use

with add on high
-
gain antennas

* With the use of High Gain Antennas


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Terms Review


LAN
-

Local Area Network


OSI
-

Open System Interconnection


NIC
-

Network Interface Card


DHCP
-

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol


DNS
-

Domain Name System


Ports
-

Logical connections to a physical Ethernet connection


Packet
-

A single Ethernet message


Web Server
-

Application software embedded in a network device


FTP
-

File Transfer Protocol


SMTP
-

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol


POP3
-

Post Office Protocol Version 3


DUN
-

Dial Up Networking

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Additional Resources


http://www.yca.com/seminars/tmnetsem/


Copy of PowerPoint


PDF’s of tutorials and white papers