Obstetrics & Gynecology


5 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

100 εμφανίσεις

Obstetrics & Gynecology
Resources on the Internet

Krishna B. Singh, MD

Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology

LSU Health Sciences Center

Shreveport, LA

Learning Objectives

After viewing this slide show, you
should be able to...



based applications and Internet


name two

of online learning




of the above


browse the website

of the department

The contents of these slides are provided for educational purposes only. Trademarks for the
companies, products and services listed here are held by their respective trademark owners.
Conflict of interest by the author: None.

Internet: Literature Review

1969 ARPANET: the Department of Defense

1970’s Networking tools: Telnet, Usenet, FTP

1980’s TCP/IP standardized; PC’s & Macintoshes

1990’s Web technology; Smart browsers

The Year of the Internet (1998)

Academic world evaluating potentials

Technology takes a tremendous leap!

ARPA means Advanced Research Projects Agency; Became DARPA in the mid ‘70s. The Web
went online in 1992: > 200 servers (1993), > 6.5 millions servers (1995). Hundred+ millions world
wide. In the last
four years

in the United States alone, the Internet has grown by 31,000 percent.

Growth of the Internet

The world’s largest computer network, “network of
networks” or “cyberspace”

Millions of all types of computers are connected

Highly disorganized, unstructured, widely distributed

Information may not be up to date or accurate

Different tools for accessing different types of

The Internet: What Is It?

In 1994, about 3 million people worldwide used the Internet.

In 1997, ~16 million people in
USA (43% of 40 million Internet users) used the Internet for
obtaining medical information
mostly (~80%) got information from the medical centers. In 2002, more than 160 million
people in USA had Internet access;
more than 100 thousand health sites were available!

What Internet Tools to Use?

Internet tools you can use are listed below:

mail and mailing lists: the most common tools

The World Wide Web: the multimedia version of the Internet

File Transfer Protocol (FTP): transfers files between computers

Listservs are discussion groups via E

Newsgroups is a network of discussion forums (Usenet)

Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a virtual meeting place

Gopher is a menu system to find Internet resources

Telnet allows you to connect to remote computers

What Is the World Wide Web?

Key points to Remember

A new tool to provide and access information on the Internet

Based on Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) and HTTP
(Hypertext Transfer Protocol); DHTTP (D=Dynamic)*

linear, flexible, and easy to use

The multimedia version of the Internet

Platform independent;
browser dependent
. Our Web site has

for Netscape© version 4.0 or later

*The recent trend in Web authoring is toward using DHTTP and scripting to increase
interactivity. In future, Extensible Markup Language (XML) would be widely used for this

How the Web Works?

The Web presents information as a series of "documents" often referred to as
Web pages, that are prepared using the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML).

Using HTML, the author can specially code sections of the document to "point"
to other information resources. These specially coded sections are referred to as
hypertext links

Users viewing the Web page can select the hypertext link and retrieve or
connect to the information resource that the link provides.

What Is the Web Language?

The Web is the universe of information available via hypertext transfer protocol
(HTTP) of the Internet.

The HTML (language, to write the page) and HTTP (protocol, to transfer the info)
together will allow to:

create "links" from one piece of information to another

incorporate references to graphics, sounds, and movies

"understand" other Internet protocols, such as FTP

What Are Web Links?

smart browsers
, hypertext
"links" can lead you to other
linked text documents, images,
graphics, animations, audio and
video files and databases (like
library catalogs). You don’t type
URLs anymore, everything
happens in the background!

This sample Web page is from the Smithsonian Institute.

How the Web Uses Links?

The Web links can incorporate graphics and "understand" other Internet protocols; it
can provide an easy
use interface for resources available via these protocols.

Web page




Gopher site
with images,
sounds, text

Library Catalogs


Software Repository


What Is Surfing the Web?

The Web is
, which means you do not have to follow a hierarchical path to
information resources. Simple
steps for browsing

and searching the Web are:

Go directly to the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) box, and type the address:


You can then jump from one link (resource) to another:

External link

Internal link

What Is Multimedia Web?

Because the Web is not
hierarchical and can handle
graphics, it offers a great
deal of flexibility in the way
information resources can
be organized, presented,
and described to you!

Site maps are down and dirty tools for navigation on the Web.
For a more efficient navigation, you’ll use the navigation bar.

What Technology Provides?

Web Tools & Techniques

Dynamic Text: uses cascading style sheets

Graphics/Images (GIF, JPEG)

3D Animation (Vector graphics)

Streaming Audio & Video

Virtual Reality Mode: learn laparoscopy

Interactive Applications (CAI, CAL, CAT)

Decision Support & Expert Systems

Hybrid Technology:

ROM+ Internet

Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. From our
Web site, go to the library, and click on
. Simply click on the link to save time

based Education Online

Teaching Medicine On the Net/Web

Curriculum administration & content

Electronic Medical Records & teaching files

Electronic publications & online libraries

Lectures on demand (virtual university)

Best of the Net

Women’s Health Care

Women’s Health Care: Yahoo! WebMD.com


committee opinions;
bulletins; guidelines for women’s health

Government: CDC; Healthfinder provides
specific site

Medical Centers provide useful information

What Key Advantages?

Examples of Web
based Curricula/Sites

Distance learning: Virtual Hospital @ University of Utah

Dynamic interactive learning: CD
ROM+ Internet

Interactive communication: Utah, Iowa, CA, NC, TX

Organizations: AMA, ACOG, AMIA, AAMC

Instant access resources: ClinWeb, MedWorld

Collaborative materials among teaching centers

Future Challenges for the Academic World

Technical issues: bandwidth, standardization

Attitude problems

faculty, students, admin

About 75% K
12 schools are wired for the Internet, but only 15% of the teachers would use
the Net in the class room. Study shows
83% medical schools

provide computer training to
students (AAMC 1998).

The Internet On Steroids

Summary So Far…

The World Wide Web is a system, based on hypertext and HTTP, for
providing, organizing, and accessing a wide variety of resources (text,
images, sound, video) that are available via the Internet. The Web is a
multimedia version of the Internet.


of the Web
based learning are its flexibility in organizing
and presenting information, its non
hierarchical easy
structure, its ability to handle and "understand" many different file formats
and Internet protocols, and its overall ease of use. There are only a few

related to logistics but
not related to technology

and tools!

USA Physicians Online

Physicians Online Computing

mail: used for research, communication

The World Wide Web: to search databases

Newsgroups; Listserve for specific information

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) for huge files

Internet Relay Chat (IRC), Forums


Videoconferencing; NetMeeting.

Computers In Medicine JAMA
; 1289: 1998

Attitudes and practices of physicians

Quality of information on the Internet

Guidelines for creating a Web site

Internet use in USA is growing rapidly: enormous quantity, but variable quality (JAMA 1997).
Guidelines for electronic publishing and E
mail for patient care published (1998).

Surveys About MD Online

American Healthcare Survey (1997)

About 300 physicians interviewed nationwide

Only 43% had used the Internet (25

About half believed online information was of high quality

But only 39% believed information was useful

Some 75% physicians thought highly of forums

Other recent surveys: AMA, Harris poll, Boston Group

Why aren’t more

going online?

lack of time, lack of PC skills and
knowledge (KAP studies of students, residents, physicians).

Web Portals And Gateways






The Web is a jungle, you will need
a road map. Surfing is easy, but
finding specific information on the
Internet is another story. Learn
some tricks for surfing and

by visiting our Web

Gateways and portals provide “everything” that you need on a given topic: Medical
news, medline, new items, journals, CME, consultations, assistance and answers to
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs).

Advantages of eLearning

Linked resources on different academic sites

Efficient way for delivering course materials

3A letter words: Any time, Any where, Anything!

Student centered learning vs. teacher focused

Supporting and complementary to traditional

Distant global audience, the intranet or VPN

Interactive synchronous or asynchronous

Power of PowerPoint

Thirty million lectures created daily; 250 million posted on the Web.
Click here

Limitations of eLearning

Access to computers, internet service providers

Multimedia websites with audio, video, simulations

Asynchronous learning experience can be frustrating

Infrastructure of website design, website applications

Information quality, content and timely postings @ websites

Students need basic computer skills, support and guidance

Awareness of the value of distance learning among faculty!

The Future Challenges

Higher bandwidth and throughput

DSL; T1 and T3; cable; satellite;
remote wireless access

Greater user friendly and smart technology, “push technology” such as

Security and copyright issues: signatures, validation, cash transactions
for billings and collections (HIPPA compliant)

Graphic Interface and Virtual Reality Domains (SUN, Silicon Graphics)

Virtual university, hospitals, clinics, and doctor’s offices

Hospital Information System (HIS) with integrated EMR

Web integration with TV and DVD/VCR for edutainment

Faster, smarter, and more user friendly computers/browsers

Departmental Website Design

The following items were selected for postings

Obstetrics & Gynecology Databases

Women’s Health Care Websites

Reproductive Medicine Websites

Gynecologic Oncology Websites

Maternal Fetal Medicine Websites

Medical Informatics Websites

Organizations & Institutions

Events & Announcements

Interactive Learning Modules

Methods and Materials:

Online academic resources provided basic materials for building the
infrastructure of our Web site at:

Website Growth 1998

Jan 01/01/1998
Dec 12/03/1998
Nov 11/04/1999
Oct 10/05/2000
Sep 09/06/2001
Aug 08/08/2002
Jul 07/10/2003
Jun 06/10/2004
May 05/12/2005
Apr 04/13/2006
Jan 01/01/1998 - Dec 12/31/2002 (10 Year Scale)
This was our Home page in 1997.
Please browse the current edition, and enjoy!

Internet/Web Summary

Content is the king, not the technology

Tons of resources on the Internet/Web*

Many ways of accessing information

Accuracy (?) but guidelines available

May be outdated (?) so look carefully

Remember the real world situations :

Future potentials are looking great!

he purpose for designing our site is to support learning resources for MS III, residents and
practicing physicians, according to established guidelines (see the