English Language and Literature Department English Education Program Faculty of Languages and Arts Semarang State University 2011

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English Language and Literature Department

English Education Program Faculty of Languages and Arts

Semarang State University

2011


PART I: PRINCIPLES


Advantages

provided by the Internet for language learning:


5 C's:

capacity for both asynchronous and synchronous
communication

throughout the world at low cost; immediate access to authentic materials from
other
cultures

in rich multimedia form, including visual, audio, and textual
resources; vast quantities of information available in the target language enabling
connections

on many different topics; wealth of foreign
-
language resources
facilitating
comparisons

between target language and culture and student's own;
extremely powerful tool for
community

building beyond the school setting


Motivational power:

increased time on task, enjoyment and sense of satisfaction


Resource
-
based learning:

potential to link many different types of resources and
provide a guided path through them; potential to provide access to many primary
sources, archival materials, databases, etc. to facilitate original research


Control over learning:

students can choose time, place, and pace of learning


Interactivity:

potential for choosing how to pursue and synthesize information, for
commenting on information, for self
-
assessment quizzes, for contributing
information


Publication:

potential for easy and inexpensive publication of student work for
classmates and even for a worldwide audience


Updatability:

infinitely changeable, can be kept very current


Time and learning curve:

always assume that preparation of materials
will take you at least twice as long as your wildest estimate; be prepared
for frequent problems with the technology and with students' use of the
equipment; Internet sites and computer software change so rapidly that
you must frequently refresh your materials and skills


Differential access:

even if your institution provides excellent facilities
and support, some of your students will not have good access to
functioning equipment and to the Internet


Equipment failure and software incompatibility:

even the best
-
maintained equipment will sometimes function poorly or break down
(frequently at the most inopportune time); the rapid pace of product
development (and the vicious competition among developers) constantly
raise incompatibility issues even on the Web, which was created to be
universally accessible regardless of platform and software.


Cost:

providing equipment, facilities, and adequate support staff is very
expensive, though an adequate technological infrastructure is
increasingly accepted as integral to the educational mission rather than
an add
-
on


Be aware of
what

tools are available and of
how

others have employed these in
teaching; the tools and examples we are looking at today will get you started, but
there are many sites on the Web that discuss these issues in more detail.


Find out what kinds of resources relevant to your target language and culture are
already on the web.


Think about how these tools and resources would enable you and your students to
do something new, or to do something old in a new and better way, or to do
something in a way that would be more interesting and engaging to the students
(and to you!).


As you begin to design one or more Internet projects, draft learning goals for
these assignments that are directly related to the objectives of your course; this
will ensure that the projects are integral to the course, not simply technological
bells and whistles. It is especially important that your students understand
why

they are doing these assignments and how they fit into the course as a whole.


Make sure that your students understand how to use the tools you are asking
them to employ.


Outcomes assessment is particularly important to find out if the new types of
assignments are accomplishing their aims; also, graded assessment will convince
the students that these assignments are essential parts of the course.


Asynchronous:

Written communication with other
learners or with native speakers. Advantages of these
tools include independence of specific time and place
requirements and low cost, ease of preserving a
record of the communication and reviewing it for
learning purposes, promotion of thoughtful
discussion on authentic topics of interest to the
participants, facilitation of student collaborative
projects, online submission of assignments and file
sharing, and the potential to actively involve students
in the production of learning. There are few
disadvantages, though sometimes students require
incentives to participate, discussion can develop
slowly, and there is little of the immediacy or time
pressure of face
-
to
-
face communication


E
-
mail:

Students can be paired with informal
"
keypals
" or enrolled in more formal "tandem
learning projects" through organizations.


Archived Messaging:

Students can also
communicate in the target language through a
listserv
, where messages are sent to all
subscribed members via e
-
mail, or a
message
board
, where messages are posted and read on a
central website. These are easiest to manage (but
also least authentic) when confined to members
of a single class; they become more exciting
when they involve students from another school
or even country, but such exchanges create more
logistical problems.


Synchronous:

Advantages of these tools include
the immediacy and spontaneity of real
-
time
communication in the target language
(duplicating many characteristics of face
-
to
-
face
conversation though the medium is text), ability
to brainstorm and receive immediate responses,
ability to preserve a conversation in the form of a
written log and, in the case of MOOs, potential
for role playing, resource creation, and
imaginative immersion in other times, places,
languages, and cultures. However, scheduling
can prove difficult, the tools work best with
relatively small numbers of participants at a time,
and technological lag or slow typing can impede
discussion. Some of these methods can be
accompanied by audio and video, though these
are still somewhat difficult over the Internet.


Internet Relay Chat (IRC):

Chat programs have the
advance of student familiarity and interest; for that
very reason, however, they may promote frivolity and
triviality.


MOO:

The acronym MOO stands for
M
ulti
-
User
Domain
O
bject
O
riented. MOOs, originally adapted
from online games (MUDs), enable people in
disparate locations to communicate in real time in the
manner or
chatrooms
, but the conversations in MOOs
take place in an “online place” with different spatial
locations, objects which can be manipulated, and
extensibility (i.e., users can add to the environment
by building new rooms and creating new objects).
Pure MOOs are completely text
-
based, but more
modern MOOs interweave MOO and Web technology
to create virtual environments with multimedia
features;


Computer
-
Managed Learning Environments:

Also
called Virtual Learning Environments, these pre
-
packaged programs provide a single interface
that incorporates many technological tools for
online delivery and management of courses,
typically including various types of asynchronous
and synchronous communication, web pages,
file
-
sharing, online quizzes and tests, etc.
Normally these packages are adopted
institutionally. They can provide tremendous
savings in time for faculty and familiarity and
ease of use for students, though the single
interface can give a “cookie cutter” look and feel
to courses


Designing Web
-
Based Assignments:

These are a
few types of assignments; the possibilities are
nearly endless.

1. Finding and Evaluating Information on the Web:

Knowing how to locate information on the web is
a crucial skill that everyone should possess, not
only for academic and professional success, but
also for many facets of daily living. It is very
important that students be
taught

how to search
effectively and how to evaluate web sites when
found, but this can be accomplished via
resources already on the web:



2.
WebQuests
:

The
WebQuest

is a educational
model for designing web assignments originally
developed at San Diego State University.
WebQuests

are problem
-
solving projects
intended to develop and assess all the aspects of
web information literacy mentioned above; in the
words of the developers, “
WebQuests

are
designed to use learners' time well, to focus on
using information rather than looking for it, and
to support learners' thinking at the levels of
analysis, synthesis and evaluation.”
WebQuests

emphasize authentic tasks and products. The
WebQuest

home page includes very detailed
training materials; you can use their Portal page
to search for examples of language or culture
WebQuests

drawn from different educational
levels.

3. Using Student Web Publishing as an Assessment
Device:

Besides helping students to develop a
valuable skill, web publishing can be a powerful
incentive for students to produce high
-
quality
work, to learn the importance of paying attention
to details, to learn how to direct their work to a
particular audience, and to develop writing and
synthetic skills. A case study in the University of
Warwick's TELRI project of an
intermediate French
course

that had teams of students research and
create web pages is available in Adobe Acrobat
format; project directors reported that the
student web publishing was successful in
“increasing communication in the target
language; providing a
purpose

and
focus

for
expressing and exchanging meaning; enabling
independent learning.”


4. Providing Interactive Exercises and/or Tests:

Well
-
designed web
pages are never purely passive, since they involve choices of where and
when to click, how many levels of materials to pursue, etc. However,
there are now many ways to make web pages truly interactive, from
relatively simple fill
-
in forms, to
Javascript

quizzes, to applets that
enable simulations or complex database queries. The following sites
allow teachers to create their own exercises using downloadable
programs:


Hot Potatoes
: Although not freeware, this software can be downloaded
free of charge by educators in publicly
-
funded institutions. Now
available only in a Windows version, this easy
-
to
-
use software (originally
designed for language teaching) enables users to create interactive
multiple
-
choice, short
-
answer, jumbled
-
sentence, crossword,
matching/ordering and gap
-
fill exercises for the Web.


Quia

offers a collection of educational tools and templates that enable
registered users to create 14 types of educational games and activities,
quizzes with 8 different question types, surveys, and web pages. There
is an annual registration fee of $49. Students can use the activities
already created by teachers; they are available in Spanish, French,
German, and Latin.


DiscoverySchool.com

offers teachers a number of online educational
tools, including
Puzzlemaker
, Quiz Center, Lesson Planner, and
Worksheet Generator. Registration is free.


Interactive Exercise Makers
.


Barbara F. McManus, Professor of Classics
Emerita
, The College of New Rochelle.


Kutztown University Department of Modern
Language Studies Teachers' Conference.

e
-
mail:
bmcmanus@cnr.edu

or
bmcman@optonline.net


“Creative Language Teaching with Internet
Technology”, April 26, 2005. Downloaded from
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Ⱐ㈰㄰





Presentation software has become a standard
accompaniment to lectures in education.
PowerPoint presentations are easy to design,
and pre
-
made presentations are easy to find
on the Web, but too many teachers use
PowerPoint ineffectively, incorporating too
much text, distracting special effects, and too
many slides. Below are some tips to help you
avoid these pitfalls.


Use PowerPoint to present what is not possible with a chalkboard.

Presentation
software is great for displaying art, architecture, graphs, and maps. Many great
presentations need nothing more than images and titles to reinforce the lecture or
discussion in class.


Use text as prompts.

In general, keep the text on your slides to a minimum. We
have been in both middle school and graduate classes where students dutifully
copied every word on the screen to their notebooks verbatim. Those students
can’t possibly listen to the conversation, probe their own thoughts, and practice
being stenographers at the same time. Rather than putting all your lecture notes
on the screen, just put a few words that will help students follow the day’s
conversation, perhaps supplemented with some new vocabulary or other
important dates.


Use simple designs
. For most presentations, consider using the default white
screen/black text template. Spend your time working on teaching a great class
rather than fussing too much with the design of your slides.


Avoid fancy animations and graphics. Before you have that image zoom in with a
curly
-
q pattern from the bottom of the screen, think to yourself: is this really
going to help anyone learn? The occasional funny sound or gimmick might wake
up some dozing heads, but these quickly devolve from novelty to distraction.


Source:
http://edtechteacher.org/presentations.html


Introduction


While browsing the forum in search of an idea I felt I
could comment on, I stumbled upon this question,
which had gone unanswered for quite some time:


Please, what are the teaching/learning strategies that
an ESL teacher can apply while he/she is using the
Internet with students?



As a result, and due to my feelings and experience
on the subject, the following article attempts to
address the question posted, by
focussing

on one
specific area of Internet based learning.



With the increase of computer and Internet availability in
language schools on the rise, many teachers, with little or
no training or experience in this medium as a language
learning tool, have surely asked themselves this question
once or twice when faced with the prospect of getting out
of the comfortable (for teacher) textbook, and onto the
Internet with their classes.


I would like to direct the reader to one particularly
engaging and wide
-
ranging option available using the
Internet which is both learner
centred

and teacher active.
An option which potentially involves learners in practice of
all skills and systems in English, while at the same time
promoting learner independence and collaboration. In
language teaching circles, this is known as a
WebQuest
.


A
WebQuest

is in essence a mini
-
project using
authentic language and carefully staged steps, which,
as learners work through them, reach pre
-
set goals
and work towards the production of original output,
which is finally cemented of a presentation of some
kind. This, the participants will have arrived at by
means of navigating the Web, while involved in a
variety of skill enhancing activities.


To paraphrase Philip Benz (2001), a
WebQuest

is a
constructivist approach to learning, where with the
proper guidance and “scaffolding” students can
accomplish far more actual learning than in
traditional transmission
-
of
-
knowledge situations.


With this lofty goal in mind, let’s take a brief look at just what exactly is
involved:


In
Webquests

in the Language Classroom
,
Dudeney

(2002) outlines four main
components of a well
-
built
WebQuest
:


The first is an introductory phase, which like the lead
-
in to any good lesson,
will engage learners in the overall theme of the project, deal with any key
vocabulary or concepts necessary to deal successfully with the upcoming
tasks, and set the overall context.


Next will come a series of tasks which will be explained clearly so that
learners will know exactly what is expected of them as they proceed through
the project.


Following the clear task guidelines, “the process stage of a
WebQuest

guides
the learners through a set of activities and research tasks, using a set of pre
-
defined resources, usually presented in the form of a web link...the process
stage will usually have one or more products which the learners are expected
to present at the end.”


From the eventual ‘products’, an evaluation stage, which involves both self
-
evaluation as well as teacher evaluation, will round out the project and allow
for feedback on both language performance and language learning based
outcomes.


The ultimate goal of such a project is, to my mind, language acquisition.
Additionally, learners can exercise a substantially high degree of independence,
(as well as interdependence as they collaborate with their classmates), which in
turn promotes development of learner autonomy and creativity (Benz 2001). As
well, and this is an integral component of such a project, participants will have the
opportunity to employ and develop critical ‘higher
-
level’ thinking skills, as they
not only meet and grapple with large amounts of authentic, real
-
world language,
but are also motivated to reach an understanding of it in order to transform this
given information into something new, something of their own, and something
that can be reacted to by others. (
Marzano

1992)


The upshot of this is that not only are learners motivated to use and develop skills
such as analyzing, synthesizing and evaluating, collating and organizing
information, and interpreting language for meaning, to name a few, but are also
involved in
practising

collaborative oral skills as they negotiate their way through
the various tasks with their classmates (
Brabbs

2002).


In my experience, this approach is ideal preparation for learners who may be
hoping to study in an English language University, and helps those who hope to
use English in their work to develop vital higher
-
level skills in the language which
will likely be required in the workplace. This kind of online project, however, is by
no means limited to this profile of an English language learner. As with all ELT
teaching materials, it is much more about grading the task and setting clear
language learning objectives than excluding learners from dealing with potentially
complex authentic language because of a preconceived level of learner proficiency
on the part of the teacher.
WebQuests

are for everyone.


The teacher maintains an essential role in this process as
not only the one who would normally select or set up the
WebQuest
, but who also plays an important role as
facilitator
-

providing support, feeding in language as
necessary, monitoring and eventually, taking on a role in
an evaluating capacity. In my experience, it is important to
strike a delicate balance between helping students make
their way through the project, and trespassing on their
autonomy. Remember that it is such autonomy which is
likely to boost learner self
-
confidence and motivation.
There is also the implication that, as much of the project
work takes place on the Internet, the teacher must ensure
that all participants are sufficiently versed in basic
navigation skills. This might even provide an opportunity
for student teaching, as there will surely be some in your
groups who can impart this kind of information and design
some light practice activities.


Motivation is a key issue here, and in my own classes
I have witnessed otherwise shy students come to life
within a project of this kind as they not only have an
opportunity to use their computer savvy (or learn a
great deal as they go), but with the combination of
clear goals and tasks enabling them to function more
as a user of English, and not simply a bottomless pit
needing to be filled up with isolated language items,
motivation often soars. In addition, due to the level of
learner autonomy, the impact of working with real
-
world English, and the flexibility inherent in the level
of output as the project develops, and in the various
production phases, even the more confident learner
will be challenged.


As described above, learners will be asked to create one or more
projects which are directly linked to the success of their task
completion in the process stage. This is the tangible outcome of all
their hard work and is the part which is subject to evaluation. This is
an essential ingredient to a
WebQuest
, or any other project for that
matter, and the criteria of this should be made clear and available to
the students from the start. Clear teacher
-
learner evaluation criteria
is a must, as it gives clear guidelines as to what is expected from the
learner throughout the project as well as what learning outcomes are
desirable (
Dudeney

2002). These guidelines can, and should be
modified to distinguish between, and allow for both oral
presentation and written work.


Typically, a well designed
WebQuest

will include an opportunity for
learners to undertake self
-
evaluation as well, which may be guided
by thought
-
provoking questions geared towards both what the
student feels they have learned in the realm of language, as well as
asking them to look at the type of experience they have just
undertaken and how that relates to their progress as a whole. They
might also be asked what they see as the advantages or otherwise
using the Internet compared to a more traditional, classroom and
printed materials approach.


Ok, now that the teaching and learning strategies are reasonably
clear
-

how do you go about building your own
WebQuest
? Well,
luckily, there are plenty of them which have already been
carefully thought out and are available for all to use, so it isn’t
necessary to re
-
invent the wheel each time you embark on a
project of this nature. Of course ideally, you want something that
fits in with both your learners’ needs and interests, and keeping
in mind any time (or other) restraints you may have as well.
Below are links to a number of excellent EFL
-
teacher
-
made
examples for different levels and each with a different focus. If
you find that you would much rather build one yourself, you will
also find information leading you to that possibility on the same
page:


http://www.theconsultants
-
e.com/webquests/


For a different focus, and a more thorough look at an across the
curriculum approach, the following link to San Diego University
where it all began, is probably one of the best places to start:


http://webquest.sdsu.edu/


Some reminders when deciding to give it a try with
your own class: of course, go through the whole thing
yourself to be sure that everything is what it appears
to be. Often times, on
WebQuests

that were made
some time ago, links can go dead, so be sure to
check them all and be ready with an alternative one if
necessary. Check your computer equipment at your
school to be sure your hook
-
up is fast enough to
download the necessary web sites. Nothing can be
more frustrating than waiting for a very long time in
front of a computer screen. In reality, many computer
facilities at schools will be a bit slower than your
high
-
powered laptop at home, so it may be worth
alerting students to that fact and staging your project
accordingly.


WebQuests

are motivating, fun, reflect real
-
world roles
and tasks, invite collaboration, promote and exercise
‘higher
-
level’ thinking process and practice skills inherent
to any language learning project, such as reading for main
ideas and detail, negotiating meaning through spoken and
written communication, incorporate listening skills, peer
teaching and interaction, as has been observed:


“Learners are not able to simply regurgitate information
they find, but are guided towards a transformation of that
information in order to achieve a given task.” (
Marzano

1992)


Students are involved in creating and producing something
of their own, with peer and teacher support and not only
receive valuable feedback from their teacher, but are
involved in reflecting on their work and engage in self
-
evaluation as well.


Well, what more could you want?


Benz, P. (2001). ‘
Webquests
, a Constructivist Approach’.

http://www.ardecol.ac
-
grenoble.fr/english/tice/enwebquests.htm


Brabbs
, P. (2002). ‘
Webquests
’ English Teaching
Professional, issue 24: 39
-
41


Dudeney
, G. (2002) ‘
Webquests

in the language
Classroom’. Net Languages, Barcelona.
http://www.dudeney.com/downloads/webquests.pdf

(note
this link is direct to a PDF. You may also be interested in
Gavin
Dudeney's

site
http://www.theconsultants
-
e.com/
:
this is a commercial site offering online training.)


Marzano
, R.J. (1992). ‘A different kind of class’: Teaching
with dimensions of learning.


Alexandria VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum
Development. In
Dudeney
, G.(2002) ‘
Webquests

in the
language Classroom’
http://www.dudeney.com/downloads/webquests.pdf


“Teaching technologies: teaching English
using the internet”
written by Scott Shelton

Source:
http://www.onestopenglish.com/support/me
thodology/teaching
-
technologies/teaching
-
technologies
-
teaching
-
english
-
using
-
the
-
internet/146531.article

Wassalamu’alaikum

Thank you

for

your attention