Broadcasting in Multi-hop Cluster-Based

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Copyright ©
2011,
MBL@CS.NCTU



Scalable
and Energy
-
Efficient
Broadcasting
in Multi
-
hop
Cluster
-
Based
Wireless Sensor
Networks



Long Cheng


,
Sajal

K. Das

, Mario Di Francesco

,
Canfeng

Chen

and
Jian

Ma

§


State Key Lab of Networking & Switching Tech., Beijing Univ. of Posts and
Telecomm., China


Center for Research in Wireless Mobility and Networking (
CReWMaN
), University of
Texas at Arlington, USA


Nokia Research Center, Beijing, China

§
Wuxi
Sensingnet

Industralization

Research Institute, Wuxi, China

Copyright ©
2011,
MBL@CS.NCTU

Outline


Introduction


Network Model


Distributed
heuristic
broadcasting over
CHs
(BOCH
)
Protocol Description


Simulation


Conclusions


References

Copyright ©
2011,
MBL@CS.NCTU

Introduction


In

large

scale

WSNs,

in

order

to

extend

network

lifetime

and

achieve

the

network

scalability

and

robustness

objectives,

one

common

approach

is

to

group

sensor

nodes

into

clusters,

forming

the

hierarchical

clustering

structure

(
called

cluster
-
based

WSNs)



Each

cluster

has

a

leader,

referred

to

as

the

cluster

head

(CH
)



A

CH

may

simply

collect

sensed

data

in

its

cluster

or

perform

aggregation/fusion

of

collected

sensed

data,

sleep

scheduling,

etc

Copyright ©
2011,
MBL@CS.NCTU

Introduction


Cluster
-
based

WSNs

have

many

advantages

1.
First,

the

energy

consumption

can

be

significantly

reduced

since

only

one

representative

node

per

cluster

needs

to

be

involved

routing

2.
In

addition,

cluster

of

nodes

can

be

managed

more

easily

3.
Finally
,

communication

bandwidth

is

conserved

since

redundant

exchange

of

messages

among

sensor

nodes

is

avoided


Copyright ©
2011,
MBL@CS.NCTU

Introduction


Existing

works

either

assume

that

CHs

are

richer

in

resources,

i
.
e
.
,

have

longer

radio

ranges

than

ordinary

nodes,

so

that

a

direct

link

between

CHs

is

available,

or

that

clusters

are

constructed

within

very

limited

hops



However,

these

are

not

always

realistic

assumptions

since

the

CH

may

be

a

regular

sensor

node

and

the

sink

is

often

not

directly

reachable




CHs

communicate

with

each

other

by

using

multi
-
hop

communication

through

the

sensor

nodes

inside

the

clusters

Copyright ©
2011,
MBL@CS.NCTU

Network Model


Each

sensor

node

has

a

fixed

level

of

transmission

power

and

the

wireless

channel

is

bidirectional



The

network

has

already

been

clustered

by

adopting

an

existing

multi
-
hop

clustering

algorithm



Each

sensor

node

can

be

a

member

of

only

a

single

cluster




The

role

of

being

a

CH

may

be

rotated

periodically

among

the

nodes

of

the

cluster




Copyright ©
2011,
MBL@CS.NCTU

Network Model


Each

cluster

member

has

a

route

to

its

CH

and

knows

the

hop

distance



Each

node

maintains

a

1
-
hop

neighbor

table

thus

knows

whether

it

is

a

border

node

or

not,

border

nodes

are

those

nodes

that

have

at

least

one

neighbor

that

belongs

to

other

clusters



Copyright ©
2011,
MBL@CS.NCTU

BOCH Protocol


Cross CHs route construction


Cdeg
(
v
)

:

ClusterDegree

of

a

border

node

v

as

the

number

of

different

clusters

its

immediate

neighboring

nodes

belong

to




In

a

cluster,

each

border

node

independently

starts

a

backoff

timer

to

send

a

GATEWAYCLAIM

message

to

its

CH



Once

receiving

such

a

message,

the

CH

knows

the

existence

of

at

least

one

neighboring

CH

and

the

corresponding

path

toward

it

(including

the

hopcount
)

Copyright ©
2011,
MBL@CS.NCTU


H
(
a
)

:

denote

the

hopcount

from

A

to

its

CH



normalized

hopcount
1

Nhc
(
a,CH
1
,

CH
2
)

from

CH
1

to

CH
2

through

border

node

A






v

is

A’s

immediate

neighbor

which

belongs

to

CH
2

BOCH Protocol


Cross CHs route construction

Copyright ©
2011,
MBL@CS.NCTU


Ahc
(
a
)

denote

the

average

normalized

hopcount

from

CH
1

to

all

neighboring

CHs

that

can

be

connected

through

the

border

node

A

where

CH
j

is

a

CH
1
’s

neighboring

CH

that

is

connected

through

A






BOCH Protocol


Cross CHs route construction

Copyright ©
2011,
MBL@CS.NCTU



denote

the

backoff

delay

for

the

border

node

A

where

τ

is

a

time

slot

unit





A

GATEWAYCLAIM

message

sent

from

a

border

node

j

includes

its

Ahc
(
j
)

value,

and

the

neighboring

CH

set

it

can

connect,

denoted

as

Nch
(
j
)



BOCH Protocol


Cross CHs route construction

Copyright ©
2011,
MBL@CS.NCTU



BOCH Protocol


Cross CHs route construction

Copyright ©
2011,
MBL@CS.NCTU

BOCH Protocol


Broadcasting over CHs

Copyright ©
2011,
MBL@CS.NCTU

BOCH Protocol


Local recovery mechanis
m


Once

the

CH

changes,

the

border

nodes

of

the

cluster

will

initiate

a

new

cross
-
CHs

path

construction

process



At

the

same

time,

the

CH

rotation

will

also

trigger

that

the

border

nodes

of

neighboring

clusters

send

notification

messages

to

their

CHs

Copyright ©
2011,
MBL@CS.NCTU

Simulation metric


Control

message

transmissions

as

the

total

number

of

control

message

transmissions

to

establish

the

routes

spanning

all

CHs



Broadcasting

transmissions

metric

is

also

measured

as

the

total

number

of

transmissions

when

a

source

CH

broadcasts

a

single

packet

to

all

other

CHs



The

cluster

size

is

set

to

5
×
5

Copyright ©
2011,
MBL@CS.NCTU

Simulation

result

Copyright ©
2011,
MBL@CS.NCTU

Simulation

result

Copyright ©
2011,
MBL@CS.NCTU

Simulation

result

Copyright ©
2011,
MBL@CS.NCTU

Simulation

result

Copyright ©
2011,
MBL@CS.NCTU

Conclusion


The

proposed

solution

for

broadcasting

over

CHs

is

designed

for

the

scenario

where

a

direct

link

between

CHs

is

not

available




After

the

multi
-
hop

clusters

have

been

formed,

each

CH

efficiently

establishes

the

inter
-
cluster

routes

to

its

neighboring

CHs




An

efficient

broadcasting

over

CHs

scheme

is

performed

whenever

a

source

CH

has

a

packet

to

broadcast

to

other

CHs


Copyright ©
2011,
MBL@CS.NCTU

References

Long

Cheng
;

Das,

S
.
K
.;

Di

Francesco,

M
.;

Canfeng

Chen
;

Jian

Ma
;

,

"Scalable

and

Energy
-
Efficient

Broadcasting

in

Multi
-
Hop

Cluster
-
Based

Wireless

Sensor

Networks,"

Communications

(ICC),

2011

IEEE

International

Conference

on

,

vol
.
,

no
.
,

pp
.
1
-
5
,

5
-
9

June

2011