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web technologies that rela
te to the interface between web
servers and their clients. This information
includes markup languages, programming interfaces and languages, and standards for document
identification and display.



Languages Section

Includes all markup languages including HTML, XML, and SGML.
Documentation in this section currently includes an HTML Guide, XML Guide, and a Document
Type Definition (DTD) reading reference.


CGI Section

Includes four documents descri
bing implementation of the client to server web
interface. It includes information about the common gateway interface (CGI), server side
includes (SSI), JavaScript, and writing perl script programs


HTTP Section

Thic section currently includes an HTTP Ref
erence which is based on RFC 2616.
It has brief descriptions of the HTTP request and response headers and also lists the possible
response headers such as 404 (not found).



PHP is a scripting language that runs on the web server and the script code is

in the HTML document. It is easy to use with syntax similar to C which is why it is so popular.
This section includes a PHP Introduction manual.


JAVA Section

Documentation is being generated for this section. It currently contains some
web link


MIME Section

This section describes Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension along with its
purpose and it also includes a few MIME related web links.



Gif files used to add graphics to web pages.


A list of wa
ys that people can volunteer to improve Mass Effect Wiki, on the main page of that site.
Mass Effect Wiki is an example of content generated by

users working collaboratively.
Edit box
interface through which anyone could edit a

Web 2.0 websites allow users to do more
than just retrieve information. By increasing what was already possible in "
Web 1.0
", they
provide the user with
more user
interface, software and storage facilities, all through their browser. This has been called
"Network as


Major features of Web 2.0 include social networking sites, user contributed sites, self
publishing platforms, tagging, and social bookmarking.

Users can provide the data that is on a Web 2.0 site
and exercise some control over that data.

These sites may have an "Architecture of participation" that
encourages users to add value to the application as they use it.

Some scholars have made the case that
cloud computing

is a form of Web 2.0 because cloud computing i
s simply an implication of computing on the
The concept of Web
platform captures many of these characteristics. Bart Decrem,
a founder and former CEO of
, calls Web 2.0 the "participatory Web"

and regards the Web
source as Web 1.0.The Web 2.0 offers all users the same freedom to contribute. While this opens
the possibility for serious debate and collaboration, it also opens the
possibility for


by less mature users. The impossibility of e
xcluding group members who don’t contribute to the provision of
goods from sharing profits gives rise to the possibility that serious members will prefer to withhold their
contribution of effort and
free ride

on the contribution of others.

This requires what is sometimes called
radical trust

by the management of the website. According to Best,

the characteristics of Web 2.0 are: rich
user experience, user participation, dynamic content,
, web standards and
. Further
characteristics, such as openness, freedom

collective intelligence

by way of use
r participation, can
also be viewed as essential attributes of Web 2.0.The
/web browser technologies used in Web 2.0
development are
Asynchronous JavaScript

and XML (
Adobe Flash

and the
Adobe Flex

framework, and
/Ajax frameworks such as
YUI Library
Dojo Toolkit

Prototype JavaScript
. Ajax programming uses JavaScript to upload and download new data from the web server with
undergoing a full page reload.


Web applications have a variety of business uses. The most common is e
commerce, but you may
have need of other types of solutions that extend your business into the Internet or over a corporate
tranet or extranet. For all of these types of business applications, the basic principles of Web
development apply.Because e
commerce is the most common type of Web application for the
Internet, this section discusses e
commerce applications in general and

commerce resources
specifically for FrontPage.E
commerce applications allow you to sell goods and services to anyone
anywhere in the world. However, e
commerce is more than just posting a Web site of products. E
commerce solutions generally involve data
bases and credit card processing. Security is important for
commerce applications, so you should carefully and thoroughly research security measures that you
or your hosting company take on the Web server.The following links provide general information
bout e
commerce. You can perform your own search to locate e
commerce vendors and hosting

General E
commerce Resources

Ecommerce Guide on Internet.com

Commerce Times


Electronic Markets

Microsoft and FrontPage E
commerce Resources

Commerce and FrontPage 2002

Microsoft Small Business Solutions for Retail Businesses

Secure Sockets Layer: Protect Your E
Commerce Web Site with SSL and Digital Certificates

Add E
Commerce to Your App with XML and SQL Server 2000

Ecma International

Ecma International is
involved with developing global standards for information and communications
systems technologies and for global communication networks, of which the Internet is part. (Prior to
1994, Ecma was known as the European Computer Manufacturers Association, or EC
MA.) Ecma also
provides standards for Internet scripting and programming languages. ECMAScript standards form the
basis of the JavaScript, JScript, and C# programming languages.


IETF stands for Internet Engineering Task Force. The HTML Working Group o
f the IETF originally
defined the HTML language specification. In 1996, the World Wide Web Consortium took over this
task. However, the IETF continues to be an independent standards body with a large community of
members dedicated to evolving Internet arch
itecture and defining Internet protocols.




There are many Web technologies, from simple to complex, and explaining each in detail is beyond
the scope of this article. However, to help you get started with develop
ing your own Web sites,
beyond simple WYSIWYG designing of Web pages in FrontPage, this article provides brief definitions
of the major Web technologies along with links to sites where you can find more information,
tutorials, and reference documentation.


The links included in this article are only a representative set of resources that are
available on the Internet. Where appropriate, this article cites Microsoft resources, but you can also
find many links to non
Microsoft resources. You can lo
cate additional resources by performing your
own Web searches.

Markup Languages

Markup is used to in text and word processing documents to describe how a document should look
when displayed or printed. The Internet uses markup to define how Web pages shoul
d look when
displayed in a browser or to define the data contained within a Web document.

There are many different types of markup languages. For example, Rich Text Formatting (RTF) is a
markup language that word processors use. This section describes the
most common markup
languages that are used on the Internet.


HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language. HTML is the primary markup language that is used for
Web pages. HTML tells the browser what to display on a page. For example, it specifies text, im
and other objects and can also specify the appearance of text, such as bold or italic text.

World Wide Web Consortium

(W3C) defines the specification for HTML. The current versions of
TML are
HTML 4.01



DHTML stands for Dynamic HTML. DHTML combines cascading style sheets (CSS) and scripting
to cr
eate animated Web pages and page elements that respond to user interaction.


XML stands for Extensible Markup Language. Similar to HTML, XML is a markup language designed for
the Internet. However, unlike HTML, which was designed to define formatting of

Web pages, XML was
designed to describe data. You can use XML to develop custom markup languages.

Programming Languages and Technologies

Programming languages enable you to create custom applications and add functionality that is not
already part of an ap
plication. On the Internet, programming languages enable you to create visual
animation, respond to user actions, validate forms, interact with databases, and provide e
solutions.Programming languages come in two flavors: interpreted and compiled.

Most scripting
languages are interpreted, which means that you write the code and the browser or server
understands what to do with it. Compiled languages require an added step that translates the code
into machine language code, which is then stored in a

separate file with either a .dll or .exe file name

JavaScript (JScript/ECMAScript)

JavaScript is an interpreted scripting language commonly used on the Internet for creating Web pages
that respond to user actions, such as when a user moves a mo
use pointer over an image or clicks a
form button. Combined with HTML and CSS, JavaScript allows you to create Dynamic HTML pages.

JavaScript is generally used for client
side scripting; as a result, users can easily view JavaScript code
along with the HTM
L code in a page. Although it may be used for server
side scripting, JavaScript
works best for visual animation (such as changing an image when a user moves the mouse pointer
over it) or for validating form fields.


VBScript is an interpreted scrip
ting language that is a subset of Microsoft Visual Basic. As a result, the
structure and syntax are similar to Visual Basic, making VBScript an easy scripting language to learn.

Although VBScript can be used for client
side scripting in Internet Explorer,
most other browsers do
not include a VBScript interpreter. Therefore, VBScript is most commonly used in server
side scripting
for Web pages that use classic

Visual Basic .NET

Visual Basic .NET is the next generation of the Visual Basic programming language. Visual Basic .NET is
a compiled, object
oriented language that leverages the .NET Framework for developing powerful
b applications.

Visual Basic .NET uses the same syntax as earlier versions of Visual Basic but also leverages the
namespaces and classes that are part of the .NET Framework. As with VBScript and earlier versions of
Visual Basic, Visual Basic .NET is a rel
atively easy programming language to learn.


Java is a compiled object
oriented programming language that was designed for use on the Internet.
In 1995, Sun Microsystems designed the Java programming language and introduced it to Web
developers as a wa
y to include animation and dynamic elements in Web pages. Java syntax is similar
to C++ but is considered easier to learn.Java code is generally used for server
side processing but can
also be run on the client by using the
Java virtual machine


ASP is an abbreviation for Active Server Pages. ASP is a server
side scripting technology that you can
use to create dynamic Web pages. ASP code is generally embedded in the HTML within a page, and
L pages that contain ASP have an .asp file name extension; however, because

processing is done
on the server, the ASP code is not sent to the browser, and visitors to your site never see your ASP
code. Client computers receive only the resulting HTML.


ASP.NET is the next generation of server
side processing for

programming. You can write ASP.NET
code in C#, Visual Basic .NET
, or any language that is supported by the .NET Framework. Because
ASP.NET is part of the .NET Framework, you can develop ASP.NET applications that utilize any of the
namespaces and classes in the .NET Framework.


A Web ser
ver is the computer on which you host your Web site. It is connected directly to the Internet
and sends hosted Web pages to the client using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). If you host
your FrontPage site through an Internet service provider (ISP),

Web presence provider (WPP), or Web
host provider (WHP), you may have access to several different types of Web servers. The most
common Web servers available are Windows
based servers running Microsoft Internet Information
Services (IIS) and UNIX
based se
rvers running Apache.Depending on how you develop your Web site,
you may have specific server requirements. For example, ASP requires a Windows
based Web server;
PHP requires a PHP interpreter. You should discuss your needs with your provider or verify tha
t your
Web server provides the required resources

for server
side processing.

Internet Information Services

Internet Information Services (IIS) is a Web server designed to process HTTP and FTP requests on
Windows operating systems. IIS is part of the Micr
osoft Windows NT, Microsoft Windows 2000, and
Microsoft Windows 2003 operating systems, and you can install and enable IIS on Windows XP
computers for testing ASP and ASP.NET applications.


Apache is an open
source Web server that runs on UNIX
operating systems, such as Solaris and Linux,
but can also be installed on Windows
based servers. Apache Web servers provide simple HTTP

FrontPage Server Extensions

The FrontPage Server Extensions from Microsoft are a set of programs that suppo
rt administering,
authoring, and browsing a FrontPage
extended Web site. Users running the FrontPage client can
create and manage professional
looking Web sites, whether they are creating personal Web pages or
corporate Internet or intranet sites. FrontPag
e Server Extensions give you, as the administrator, tools
for managing site security, organizing your content into sub sites, and checking site usage.

SharePoint Team Services

SharePoint Team Services from Microsoft is a server technology designed for work
group collaboration
and includes features for sharing files and information over a corporate network. SharePoint Team
Services incorporates the FrontPage 2002 Server Extensions. As a result, much of the documentation
about SharePoint Team Services also con
tains information about administering FrontPage Server

Windows SharePoint Services

Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services is the second generation of SharePoint Team Services. The
same as SharePoint Team Services, Windows SharePoint Services is
a server technology designed for
workgroup collaboration over an intranet or extranet. Windows SharePoint Services includes many of
the features that were part of SharePoint Team Services.


Databases allow you to store information for easy retriev
al. On the Internet, databases are used to

store users' logon information, product information, and customers' orders, among other things.
There are almost as many database products as there are reasons and ways to use databases.When
you create a database

from within FrontPage, FrontPage automatically creates a Microsoft Access


Microsoft Access is an easy database application with which to work and provides powerful database
capabilities. Because Access databases are file
based rather than

based, all you need to work
with Access databases is the database file itself, which has a file name extension of .mdb. You can
easily transfer this file to the hosting Web server, and access the data inside the file by using ASP,
PHP, or the Datab
ase Interface Wizard in FrontPage.

SQL Server

Microsoft SQL Server is a secure, robust, and scalable database application that can grow with the
needs of e
commerce and financial Web applications. If you choose to use the SQL Server database
platform, you
need SQL Server installed on the host Web server. If you do not control your host Web
server, you need to verify that your ISP provides SQL Server database services.

Oracle Database

Oracle Database is a powerful relational database management system develo
ped by . Oracle, like SQL
Server, is a database application for large, transaction
based and e
commerce Web applications.


Semantic Web

is a collaborative movement led by the
World Wide Web Consortium


promotes common
rmats for data
disambiguation needed

on the
World Wide Web
. By encouraging the
inclusion of

content in web pages, the Semantic Web aims at converting the current web of
unstructured document
clarification needed

into a "web of data". It builds on the W3C's
Description Framework


Limitations of HTML

Many files on a typical computer can be loosely divided into human readable

and machine
. Documents like mail messages, reports, and brochures are read by humans. Currently,
the World Wide Web

is based mainly on documents written in
Hypertext Markup Language

), a
markup convention

that is used for coding a body of text interspersed with multimedia objects such as
images and interactive forms. Metadata tags provide a method by which computers can categorise
the content of web pages

Semantic Web solutions

The Semantic Web takes the
solution further. It involves publishing in languages specifically designed
for data:
Resource Description Framework

Web Ontology Language

(OWL), and Extensible
Markup Language (
). HTML describes documents and the links between them. RDF,

OWL, and
XML, by contrast, can describe arbitrary things such as people, meetings, or airplane parts.



has prompted the devel
opment of websites that mimic desktop applications, such as
, the
, and
show presentation
. In 2006
Google, Inc.

acquired one of the
known sites of this broad class,




sites replicate many
features of PC authoring applications.

Several browser
based "
operating systems
" have emerged, including

.(No longer

Although coined as such, many of these services function less like a traditional operating
system and
more as an application platform. They mimic the user experience of desktop operating
systems, offering features and applications similar to a PC environment, and are able to run within any
modern browser. However, these so
called "operating systems" do not

directly control the hardware
on the client's computer.

Numerous web
based application services appeared during the
com bubble

of 1997

2001 and
then vanished, having faile
d to gain a critical mass of customers. In 2005,

acquired one of the
known of these,
, for

$45 million.

Distribution of media


Many regard syndication of site content as a Web 2.0 feature. Syndication uses standardized protocols
to permit end
users to make us
e of a site's data in another context (such as another website, a
browser plugin, or a separate desktop application). Protocols permitting syndication include


simple syndication, also known as web syndication),

(as in RSS 1.1), and
, all of them
based formats. Observers have started to refer to these technologies as
web feeds

ed protocols such as


(both for social networking) extend the functi
onality of
sites or permit end
users to interact without centralized websites.

Web APIs

Web 2.0 often uses machine
based interactions such as

. Servers often expose
Application programming interfa

(API), but standard APIs (for example, for posting to a
blog or notifying a blog update) have also come into use. Most communications through APIs involve
XML or


REST APIs, thr
ough their use of self
descriptive messages and
hypermedia as the engine of application
, should be self
describing once an entry

is known.
Web Services Description Language

(WSDL) is the standard way of publishin
g a SOAP API and there are
a range of web service
, or E
nterprise Mashup Markup Language by the
Open Mashup Alliance
, is an
XML markup language for creating enterprise mashups.

Business Semantics Management



(BSM) encompasses the technology, methodology,
zation, and culture that brings business stakeholders together to collaboratively realize the
reconciliation of their heterogeneous metadata; and consequently the application of the derived
business semantics patterns to establish semantic alignment betwee
n the underlying data structures.

Semantic Reconciliation

Semantic reconciliation is a process cycle constituted of four subsequent activities: scope, create,
refine, and articulate. First, the community is scoped: user roles and affordances are appointed
. Next,
relevant facts are collected from documentation such as, e.g., natural language descriptions, (legacy)
logical schemas, or other metadata and consequently decomposing this scope in elicitation contexts.
The deliverable of scoping is an initial uppe
r common ontology that organizes the key upper common
patterns that are shared and accepted by the community. These upper common patterns define the
current semantic interoperability requirements of the community. Once the community is scoped, all
ers syntactically refine and semantically articulate these upper common patterns.

Pragmatic Perspective Unification

During unification, a new proposal for the next version of the upper common ontology is produced,
aligning relevant parts from the common and

divergent stakeholder perspectives. Ultimately, if the
semantic reconciliation results in a number of reusable language
neutral and context
patterns for constructing business semantics that are articulated with informal meaning descriptions,
hen the unification is worthwhile

Semantic Application

Semantic application is a process cycle constituted of two subsequent activities: select and commit
where the scoped information systems are committed to selected consolidated business semantic
s. This is done by first selecting relevant patterns from the pattern base. Next, the
interpretation of this selection is semantically constrained. Finally, the various scoped sources and
services are mapped on (read: committed to) this selection. The sele
ction and axiomatization of this
selection should approximate the intended business semantics. This can be verified by automatically
verbalization into natural language, and validation of the unlocked data. Validation or deprecation of
the commitments may
result in another iteration of the semantic reconciliation cycle.