Global Marketing Management, 5e

wakefulchardΛογισμικό & κατασκευή λογ/κού

17 Φεβ 2014 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

81 εμφανίσεις

Global Marketing Management, 5e

Chapter 14

Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

1

Chapter 14


Sales and Cross
-
cultural
Management


Chapter Overview

1.
Market Entry Options and Salesforce


Strategy

2. Cultural Considerations

3. Impact of Culture on Sales Management


and Personal Selling Process

4. Cross
-
Cultural Negotiations

5. Expatriates

Chapter 14

Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

2

Introduction


The salesperson is the front line for many companies.


The success or failure of the company rests largely on
the ability of its sales force.


International sales management can be divided into
two categories: (a) international strategy
considerations, and (b) intercultural considerations.


Issues such as recruiting, training, supervising, and
evaluating sales force are an integral part of
international sales management.

Chapter 14

Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3

Chapter 15

Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

4

Exhibit 14
-
1: International Sales Strategy
and Intercultural Considerations



The sales management “process” starts with setting
objectives and strategy.



Other issues include: recruiting, training, supervising,
and evaluating. In addition, market entry methods
and level of integration are equally important
(Exhibit 14
-
2).

Chapter 14

Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

5

1.
Market Entry Options

and Sales Force Strategy

Chapter 15

Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

6

Exhibit 14
-
2: Degree of Involvement and
Sales Management Issues

1.
Market Entry Options

and Sales Force Strategy


Low
-
Involvement Options


Export Management Companies(EMCs)


Export Trading Companies (ETCs)


Sogoshosha

(Japanese general trading companies)


Examples:

Mitsubishi, Mitsui, Sumitomo, and Marubeni


Mid
-
level Involvement


High
-
Involvement


Role of Foreign Governments


Issues of host governments’ rules and practices


Companies as “corporate citizens” in the host countries

Chapter 14

Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

7

2. Cultural Considerations


Personal Selling


At the level of personal selling
,
there is little true
international
selling.


The sales task tends to take place on a national basis.


Personal selling is predominantly a personal activity.

Chapter 14

Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

8

3. Cultural Generalization


Cultural Generalization


Organization (Corporate) Culture


Relationship Marketing


Myers
-
Briggs Type Indicator

MBTI (
Exhibit 14
-
3)

Popular
tool for characterizing people which addresses their
cognitive styles and is based on the following
four personal
dimensions
:


1. Extrovert vs. Introvert


2. Sensing vs. Intuitive


3. Thinking vs. Feeling


4. Judging vs. Perceiving

Chapter 14

Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

9

Chapter 15

Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

10

Exhibit 14
-
3: Myers
-
Briggs Type Indicator
of Personal Characteristics


4. Impact of Culture on Sales Management
and Personal Selling Process



Sales force management consists of:

1.
Setting salesforce objectives

2.
Designating salesforce strategy

3.

Recruiting and selecting salespeople

4.
Training salespeople

5.
Supervising salespeople

6.
Evaluating salespeople

Chapter 14

Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

11


Salesforce Objectives


What the salesforce will be asked to do


Salesforce Strategy


Sales structures
: territorial salesforce, product
salesforce, and customer salesforce


Recruiting and Selecting


Training

Chapter 14

Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

12


4. Impact of Culture on Sales Management
and Personal Selling Process



Supervising


Motivation and Compensation


Management Style


Ethical Perceptions


Evaluating


Quantitative evaluations


Qualitative evaluations

Chapter 14

Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

13


4. Impact of Culture on Sales Management
and Personal Selling Process


5. Cross
-
Cultural Negotiations


Conducting successful cross
-
cultural negotiations is a
key ingredient for many international business
transactions.



Stages of the Negotiation Process:


Non
-
task surroundings


Task
-
related information exchange


Persuasion


Concessions and agreement

Chapter 14

Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

14

Chapter 15

Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

15

Exhibit 14
-
4: Negotiation Styles and
Guidelines in Five Countries

5. Cross
-
Cultural Negotiations


Cross
-
Cultural Negotiation Strategies


a.

Employ an agent or advisor


b.

Involve a mediator

c.

Induce the counterpart to follow one’s own negotiation


script

d.

Adapt the counterpart’s negotiation script

e.

Coordinate adjustment of both parties

f.

Embrace the counterpart’s script

g.

Improvise an approach.

h.

Effect symphony.


Chapter 14

Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

16

Chapter 15

Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

17

Exhibit 14
-
5: Culturally Responsive
Strategies and Their Feasibility

5. Cross
-
Cultural Negotiations


Consider these steps prior to strategy selection.

1.

Reflect on your culture’s negotiation practices

2.

Learn the negotiation script common in the counterpart’s
culture

3. Consider the relationship and contextual cues

4.

Predict or influence the counterpart’s approach

5. Choose a strategy

Chapter 14

Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

18

6. Expatriates


Expatriates

are home
-
country personnel sent overseas to
manage local operations in the foreign market.


Advantages of Expatriates


Better Communications


Development of Talent


Difficulties of Sending Expatriates Abroad


Cross
-
Cultural Training


Motivation


Compensation


Family Discord


Security Risk

Chapter 14

Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

19

6. Expatriates


The Return of the Expatriate


Repatriation


Repatriation is the return of the expatriate employee
from overseas.


GMAC Relocation Services’ 2001 Survey
reported a
number of effective ways to reduce attrition rates.
These include the following:


Chances to use international experience


A choice of positions upon return


Recognition


Repatriation career support

Chapter 14

Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

20

6. Expatriates


Generalizations for Using Expatriates


Expatriates are important whenever communication with
the home country office is at a premium.


Expatriates are especially important in complex
operating environments, or when elevated political risk
requires constant monitoring.


Chapter 14

Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

21