Chapter 7 PPT

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17 Φεβ 2014 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 3 μήνες)

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Chapter 7

Organizations and
Information Systems

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2

Study Questions

Q1: How do information systems vary by scope?

Q2: How do enterprise IS solve the problems of
departmental silos?

Q3: What are the differences among CRM, ERP,
SCM and EAI systems?

Q4: How do inter
-
enterprise IS solve the problems
of enterprise silos?

Q1: How Do Information Systems Vary by
Scope?

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3

Data
isolated

in separated
information systems

Created
over time
as
personal and workgroup
support applications
implemented

Silos
duplicate

data and
become serious problems
as organizations grow

Q2:
How Do Enterprise IS Solve the
Problems Of Departmental Silos?

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4

An
information silo

is a management system incapable of reciprocal
operation with other, related management systems.

Fox Lake Country Club Departmental Goals
and Silos

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5

Departmental Information Systems:
Islands
of Automation

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6

How Do Enterprise Information Systems
Eliminate Silos?

Fox Lake
Country Club

Enterprise
Reservation

System

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7

What Problems Do Information Silos Cause?

Some of Departments Involved in Patient Discharge

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8

An Enterprise System for Patient Discharge

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9

How Do Enterprise IS Solve the Problems
Of Departmental Silos?

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10

Problems of Silos Created in Isolation

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12

How Do Organizations Solve the
Problems of Information Silos?

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13

Business Process Reengineering (BPR)

“Analysis and design of
workflows and processes
within an organization”
(wikipedia.org)

Enterprise systems not
feasible until network, data
communication, and
database technologies
reached sufficient level of
capability and maturity in
late 1980s and early 1990s.

Identify
Processes

Review,
Update,
Analyze
As
-
Is

Design To
-
Be

Test and
Implement
To
-
Be

Altering and designing business processes to take
advantage to
enable creation of stronger, faster,
more effective linkages among value chains

BPR is difficult, slow, and exceedingly expensive

Systems analysts need to interview key personnel
throughout organization to determine how best to
use new technology

BPR requires high
-
level and expensive skills and
considerable time

Business Process Reengineering (BPR)
(cont’d)

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Q3: How Do CRM, ERP, and EAI Support
Enterprise Systems?

Help organizations fundamentally rethink how they do
work to dramatically improve customer service, cut
operational costs, and become world
-
class competitors

Inherent processes save money and time in
business process reengineering (“industry best
practices”)

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15

Enterprise Application Integration (EAI)


Eliminate costs of developing complex
applications in
-
house

PeopleSoft

licensed payroll and limited capability
HRM systems, administration to large orgs.

Siebel

licensed sales lead tracking and
management system (acquired by
Oracle
)

SAP

licensed enterprise resource management
for
midsize and large organizations in all industries and
sectors (Oracle,
SAGE
,
Microsoft
)


Vendors

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16

sales lead
: the identification of a person or entity that has the interest and
authority to purchase a product or service.

A suite of applications, a database, and a set of
inherent processes for managing all interactions
(Vendors: SAP, Oracle, Salesforce.com, Microsoft)

Customer Relationship Management (CRM)

through
four phases of customer life cycle
:

Marketing, customer acquisition, relationship
management, loss/churn

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lead generation
:
to generate consumer interest or inquiry into products
or services of a business

to support customer
-
centric organization

Four Phases of
Customer Life Cycle

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Major Components of a CRM Application

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19

Suite of applications,
database, and set of
inherent processes
for consolidating
business operations
into single,
consistent,
computing platform

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)

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20

Suite of software to integrate existing applications together

Connects system “islands” via new software layer

Enables existing applications to communicate and share data

Provides integrated information

Leverages existing systems

leaving functional applications as
is, but providing integration top layer

Enables a gradual move to ERP

Enterprise Application Integration (EAI)

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EAI Automatically Makes Data Conversions
Among Different Systems

Virtual Integrated Database

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MRP


Manufacturing Resource Planning

Metadata
-

The design and specification of data structures


Manage firm’s order
-
related information
from supply of raw materials to delivery
of finished products.


Share information about


Orders, production, inventory levels,
delivery of products and services


Goal
: Right volume of products to
destination with least amount of time and
lowest cost


Supply Chain Management Systems (SCM)


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1
-
24

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24

Example of a Supply Chain Management System

Customer orders, shipping notifications, optimized shipping plans, and other
supply chain information flow among Haworth’s Warehouse Management
System
(WMS),
Transportation Management System
(TMS),
and its back
-
end
corporate systems.

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Q4: How Do Inter
-
enterprise IS Solve
the Problems of
Enterprise Silos
?

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Inter
-
enterprise PRIDE System

Collaborative
Management

Requirements
Gaps

Transition
Problems

Employee
Resistance

Q5: What Are the Challenges When
Implementing New Enterprise Systems?


Challenges


Difficulty


Expense


Risk

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No single manager in charge


Committees and steering groups

Collaborative
Management


Licensed products are never perfect
fit


Features and functions of complex
products makes identifying gaps
difficult


Deciding what to do with gaps. Adapt
to application or change application?

Requirements
Gaps

Challenges

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28


Careful planning and substantial training
critical

Transition
problems


Change requires effort and creates fear


Senior level management must
communicate need for change to
organization, and must re
-
iterate


Train key users ahead of time to create
positive buzz about new system


Video demonstrations of employees
successfully using new system


Encourage change with extra inducements

Employee
resistance

Challenges (cont’d)

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