e-Learning in higher education:

wafflejourneyΤεχνίτη Νοημοσύνη και Ρομποτική

14 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

45 εμφανίσεις

e
-
Learning in higher education:
challenges and opportunities

Professor David Dewhurst

Director of Educational Information Services

College of Medicine & Veterinary Medicine

University of Edinburgh

What I will cover


e
-
Learning at the University of Edinburgh


Today’s students


on
-

and off
-
campus courses


content creation, virtual patients


VLEs
, repositories, (reusable) learning objects


Personal Response Systems


clickers


Web 2.0, 3
-
D worlds


the role of the learning technologist


Financial crisis


National and international contexts


Collaboration


Open content


Challenges & opportunities


Students


Digital ‘natives’
-

start at very early ages <6y


Connected
-

mobile technologies


Prefer experiential learning
-

learn by doing


Immediate
-

just
-
in
-
time, just
-
enough


Social & collaborative
-

learn informally from others, use social web
technologies


Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, delicious


Time
-
constrained


Multi
-
modal communication


Email and instant messaging rather than oral


communication with images/video
-

camera phones, Flickr/Youtube


MP3 players, podcasting, YouTube


Web is information universe
-

Wikis and Blogs, Google



Do they know how to learn effectively?

0
20
40
60
80
100
120
1990
1991
1993
1995
1997
1999
2001
2003
2005
2007
2008
Percentage Ownership

Year

Student Computer Ownership (UoE)

Edinburgh Student Data

2007



-

94% of students had a computer

-

84% of these were laptops

-

only 34% brought their laptop to the
University (64% in 2008)


Gadgets



-

81% had an MP3 player

-

4% had a PDA (pre
-
iphone)

-

94% had a mobile phone

-

69% had a digital camera

-
79% carried a USB memory stick



What are the implications for university
computer
-
labs/teaching facilities?

Academic staff


Content authors , domain experts


Time
-
poor, strong research focus


Few incentives to
prioritise

teaching


Often educational skills are not well
-
developed


need pedagogical support


need staff development


Varying degrees of IT familiarity


need learning technologists
but often difficult to
engage with them in the most productive manner


Courses


On
-
campus UG (>600 degree courses), PGT (>300 courses)


blended
-

enhanced by
e
-
learning


Content delivery & educational processes supported by VLE


Learning resources


web
-
based materials, virtual patients, assessments, multimedia
CALs
,


Use of Web 2.0 and Virtual worlds is limited to enthusiasts

2007
-
08 Student
Numbers


Total:

25,143

(18,159 UG; 3,524 PGT;
3,460 PGR )


Medicine & Vet Med:

2,133 UG; 338 PGT; 772
PGR


2008)


Courses


Online Distance Learning Courses


All Masters in niche research areas, mostly 2/3y PT


totally online interaction with content, educational
process and tutors


MVM now has 13 online Masters (
UoE

total = 22)


Examples

Surgical Sciences

Pain Management

Clinical Education

Translational Medicine

Anaesthesia Practice

International Animal Health

ENID Diseases

Equine Science

Health Informatics

Course Content


1985


1998 most digital content was multimedia
CDROMs


Interactive tutorials


Simulations of experiments


Cases


Teaching & Learning Technology
Programme

(TLTP £36.7m) UFC 1992
-
2000


Developed by ‘production teams’


not scalable


Course Content


1995
-

2007 Internet, VLEs, Learning Objects, Repositories,
Reusability,


less rich content


often just PowerPoint, lecture notes


Edinburgh


authoring tools
EROS, Labyrinth (virtual patients)


Sharing and reusability


JISC X4L [Edinburgh ACETS]; JORUM


Extending the lifetime of multimedia CALs
-

ReCAL





EROS

Virtual Patients


Case
-
based learning been around for years


Contextualise learning to clinical setting


Edinburgh has numerous examples


Can have lots of linked resources


explanations,


animations, quizzes


One variation is to release details in ‘real time’


Can also present multiple actor scenarios


Linear

Virtual Patients


Branching scenarios


learner explores


Good for teaching
decision
-
making skills


Often more difficult to write


Labyrinth, VUE


3
-
step process:
storyboarding


VUE


Labyrinth


Good for
collaborative group work


Potential for automatic assessment

Branching

The Virtual Patient concept


I
nteractive

simulation of a
real
-
life clinical
scenario



create a
character,

fictional or otherwise



Identify the
learner’s role



Set the scene
with an
engaging narrative
-

key
to learner engagement and immersion. Within
a story the
Scenario location
may change e.g.
home/workplace, doctor’s surgery, hospital



Good for learning:


Clinical skills
: history taking; physical examination;
ordering tests; interpreting test results; diagnosis and
treatment;


Clinical decision making skills





“Setting the Scene”

2. The student’s role and the
location have been identified

3. The character “Lucius”
has been introduced

4. The history to the incident and
the patient’s current condition
described

5. The student has been asked to
make clinical decisions based on the
information

1. Avatar used to make the
patient seem more ‘real’

Advancing the story:
revealing information, providing feedback

1. More information has been
provided about the patient which
the student must interpret

2. Feedback has been provided
about the practise of introducing
yourself

3. Additional information about
the ABCD survey has been
provided in a pop
-
up window

Enriching the story

1. Real images of chest x
-
rays enrich
the learning experience

3. External hyperlinks to other
sources of information added

2. More information provides
details of the reasons for choosing
an erect Chest X
-
ray (as opposed to
a supine X
-
ray)

Providing feedback for incorrect choices

1. Information has been provided
detailing the reasons why the
student’s diagnosis was incorrect.

2. New information has been
provided about treating the
diagnosed condition, even though it
is not present in this patient.

The end of the story

1. Avatar shows the patient after
discharge. This makes the patient
and the outcome seem more ‘real’.

2. The patient’s follow up
treatment is summarised.


Virtual Patients


linked resources; release details in ‘real time’


Virtual Patients


multiple actor scenarios


Virtual Patients


UoE & Royal College of Surgeons in Edinburgh have
collaboratively developed an online MSc in Surgical Sciences
with a course built around VPs and a wiki knowledgebase of
underlying physiology, anatomy and pathology

Storyboarding

Labyrinth

Course Content


2007


era of Web 2.0


Relatively easy for teachers to create ‘fit
-
for
-
purpose’ content


Student generated content e.g. weblogs (reflective journals)


Wikis



collaborative creation of content or supplementary lecture
information


Social bookmarking
(personalised expansion of reading lists and
annotation)


Social networking


course discussion, peer learning, teacher
led/moderated discussion


Immersive technologies


role
-
playing, virtual reality


Audio and video


student feedback via MP3 delivered through VLE


iTunesU


educational downloadable lectures, marketing/PR


Youtube, podcasts of lectures, video lectures (lecture capture)


What are the implications for VLEs?

What is the role of the learning technologist?

Second Life



2007



3D Virtual Worlds



Does this offer real
educational opportunities?


Course Content


2007




Personal Response Systems “clickers”



Question

Individual poll

Students discuss

Re
-
poll






Peer Instruction

Support


Central support services


e
-
Learning


technical and pedagogical support


under
-
resourced


IT


infrastructure, VLEs, tools, applications


Library


online journals, texts


Repository of (reusable) learning objects


piloted unsuccessfully


Teaching facilities, learning and study spaces,
pilot lecture capture


Online Distance Learning Unit


Staff development


how to deliver a good lecture, how to use PRSs


Support for student learning e.g. study skills



School/Faculty/Departmental services


e
-
Learning


Medicine & Vet Med VLEs, authoring tools, admin tools


IT


servers, teaching spaces


Teaching facilities management


rooms policies, booking


Graphic design


research and teaching support


Should these be local or central functions?

Teaching & Learning Spaces

Vision &

drive

Academics

Student

learners

Resources

Faculty/School/Depart
mental Support

Research

Current financial climate


Possible loss of key teachers


Demand for university places will increase but fewer
students able to afford fees


tuition fees ceiling?


will HEIs offering more flexible study patterns prosper?


Fewer resources for research


endowments, donations,
industrial research contracts down


Fewer resources to update platforms/tools or invest in new
applications


Fewer resources for staff development


Opportunity to realise the potential of e
-
learning?


Will it drive collaboration & greater resources sharing?


HEIs poor history of sharing (BioNet, CTIs, TLTP, Jorum)


Will it stimulate a move towards ‘open content’?


e
-
Learning Collaborations

Scotland


CLEO


dental education


Scotland


Malawi Partnership IDF
e
-
learning to support delivery of
new curricula in Malawi


Edinburgh, St Andrews, UWS


UoE



Royal College of Surgeons in Edinburgh


online Masters


UoE



Eastern Europe collaboration


innovative pharmacology
teaching


UK/International


IVIMEDS, IVIDENT


eLfH


eVIP



St Georges


Medbiquitous



standards and specifications


Prescribe


e
-
Learning for Clinical Pharmacology and Prescribing
BPS &
eLfH


JISC/HEA


Open Education Resources


Open Content


Term coined by Wiley 1998


(usually)
digital content


Openly available
(discoverable);
openly accessible
(downloadable)


Editable for
reuse


Effective content has pedagogic structure and design (learning
activities) to facilitate learning


most doesn’t


MIT Open Courseware Initiative
2001


content designed to support
classroom activities


OpenLearn



OU 2005


structured content with self
-
assessment
questions and feedback.
LabSpace

enables materials to be edited


Wikiversity


largely online textbook with content open to peer
-
rating
and review


Who resources OER initiatives, what is the financial payback?

What is the value of educational IP, who owns the IPR?


[Implications for clinical data/patient
-
identifiable images in medicine]

What is the role of the learning technologist?



Challenges and Opportunities


How do we mainstream e
-
learning?


How do we promote greater staff engagement with
e
-
learning and greater skills/development?


Are there ways to promote more effective
collaboration


regional, national, international?


How do we harness Web 2.0 to deliver more creative
content development by teachers and students?


What will the next generation VLE look like?


Should content be made freely available


open
content?


What is the role of the learning technologist?

Acknowledgements

Simon Bates

Sian Bayne

Hamish MacLeod

Nora Mogey

Jeff Haywood

Steve Hillier


Megan Quentin
-
Baxter

David Byrne

David Davies

Jim Rennie

The Lord Dowding Fund

JISC

Scottish Government IDF

NHS Education Scotland

Rachel Ellaway

Michael Begg

Stewart Cromar

Lynne Robertson

Jackie Aim

Helen Cameron

Susan Rhind

Pat Warren


Thank you for listening

David Dewhurst


d.dewhurst@ed.ac.uk