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20 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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The monitoring of the behavior, activities, or
other changing information, usually for the
purpose of influencing, managing, directing,
or protecting.

Most usually involves observation of
individuals or groups by government

Positive? Negative?

Surveillance is useful to governments and law
enforcement to maintain social control,
recognize and monitor threats, and
prevent/investigate criminal activity.

Civil rights groups are concerned that mass
surveillance will result in limited or non
existent political and/or personal freedoms.

Types of Surveillance

Computer surveillance


Surveillance cameras

Social network analysis

Biometric surveillance

Aerial surveillance

Corporate surveillance

Types of Surveillance

Human operatives

Satellite imagery

Identification and credentials

RFID and geolocation devices

RFID tagging

Global positioning system

Mobile phones

Surveillance devices

Postal services

Computer Surveillance

Vast majority of computer surveillance
involves monitoring of data and traffic on the

time monitoring by Federal law
enforcement agencies.

“Trigger” words or phrases

Visiting certain types of web sites

Communicating with suspicious individuals or

FBI software

Magic Lantern
be used to gain unauthorized access to data;
can be installed physically or remotely

vanEck phreaking

reads electromagnetic
emanations remotely from computing devices
to extract data


stores and indexes large numbers of
emails of American citizens and foreigners


Widespread official and unofficial wiretapping

AT&T and Verizon are paid by the FBI to keep
records easily searchable and accessible

text software creates machine
readable text from intercepted audio

Technology available to US, UK governments to
remotely activate microphones in cell phones

“Multilateration” of cell phone towers used to
collect location data from cell phone use

Surveillance Cameras

Video cameras
used to observe an area

Connected to a recording device or IP network

Automated software
organizes digital video
footage into a searchable database

Homeland Security grants
in US enable cities
to install cameras and to connect them to
central monitoring center

“Golden Shield Project”

US companies install
cameras, facial recognition software in China
to track individuals. Goal is to have a picture
of every person in China in central database.

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
(DARPA) funding research to link cameras to a
central monitoring station in a city


facial recognition software used at
Super Bowl 2001

Traffic cameras in DC used for day
monitoring by DC police



Closed Circuit TeleVision (CCTV)
cameras track people’s movements across city

Social Network Analysis

Maps of social networks based on data from
Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, traffic analysis
information from phone call records

These maps are “data mined” to extract
personal interests, friendships, affiliations,
beliefs, thoughts, activities.

DARPA, National Security Agency (NSA),
Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
invest in social network analysis.

AT&T’s programming language “

through databases of phone call and Internet
traffic records.

Employers report using social networking sites
to collect personal data on prospective or
current employees.

Biometric Surveillance

Biometric surveillance measures and analyzes
human physical and/or behavioral
characteristics for authentication,
identification, or screening purposes.

Fingerprints, DNA, facial patterns, voice
recognition, iris scanning, etc.

Some technology can identify a person up to
500 ft. by facial features.

Affective computing

computers recognize a
person’s emotional state based on analysis of
facial expressions, speed of talking, tone and
pitch of voice, posture, etc.

DNA fingerprinting

analyzes major markers
in DNA to produce a match

FBI spending $1 billion to build database for
people in US. Computers are in underground
facility as large as two football fields.

Facial thermographs

identify fear, stress

Aerial Surveillance

Aerial surveillance gathers visual imagery or
video from an airborne vehicle.

Unmanned aerial vehicle
spy plane, micro
aerial vehicles
looking infrared devices.

DHS testing UAVs to patrol US skies

UK building up fleet of UAVs for its police

MAVs can carry Tasers for crowd control or as

DARPA programs automate much of the aerial
surveillance process.

piloting UAVs decide who is “suspicious,”
monitor them, coordinate with other UAVs,
notify human operators in centralized
monitoring station

AI drones increase area that can be
continuously monitored, reducing number of
human operators

Data Mining and Profiling

Data mining

application of statistical
techniques to discover relationships within

Assemble data to create a profile, i.e., a
picture of patterns and behavior

Economic and social transactions create data

Web traffic and online purchases also used for

Data analysis used by programs such as
ADVISE and TALON to determine whether the
person is a military, criminal, or political threat


Analysis, Dissemination,
Visualization, Insight, Semantic Enhancement
R&D program authorized by DHS.


Threat and Local Observation Notice,
activated after 9/11 by Dept. of Defense;
contains info on antiwar groups

US is planning 43 “fusion centers”, a national
network of surveillance centers in over 30

Fusion centers
will collect, analyze data from
drivers’ licensing centers, hospital records,
criminal records, school records, credit
bureaus, banks, etc.

Info will be placed in a centralized database
that can be accessed by all centers as well as
federal law enforcement and intelligence

Corporate Surveillance

Monitoring of a person or group’s behavior by
a corporation

Data usually used for marketing purposes

Can be shared with government agencies

Google stores identifying information for each
web search, scans
content of
service to tailor advertising

Many US companies monitor e
mail traffic or
workers and/or Internet connections

Companies use software to block non
related websites such as offensive sites, game
sites, social networking sites, entertainment
sites, shopping sites, and sports sites

Some companies track keystrokes and time
spent at keyboards


FBI, DHS, corporations have
sharing partnership

Human Operatives

Organizations that have enemies who wish to
gather information about the groups’
members or activities face the issue of


intelligence gathered by humans
rather than by electronic monitoring and data

Satellite Imagery

Local, state, and domestic Federal agencies
can access imagery from military intelligence
satellites and aircraft sensors

These devices can penetrate cloud cover,
detect chemical traces, and identify objects in
buildings and underground bunkers

time video better than still images from
Google Earth

Identification and Credentials

A card containing an identification number

Some countries have national ID numbers

IDs can be verified by passports, drivers’
licenses, library cards, banking or credit cards

readable data can create an
electronic trail

RFID and Geolocation Devices

a. RFID Tagging

Use of very small electronic devices applied or
incorporated into a product, animal, or person
for identification and tracking using radio

Some companies tag employees, who are
monitored while on job


(Applied Digital Solutions), injected
under skin, stores personal information in
“Global VeriChip Subscriber Registry”

b. Global Positioning System

In US, police have planted hidden GPS tracking
devices in people’s vehicles to monitor their

Some cities require parolees to wear GPS
devices to track their movements when they
get out of prison

c. Mobile Phones

Commonly used to collect geolocation data


calculates the differences in
time for a signal to travel from the cell phone
to each of several cell towers near the owner
of the phone

d. Surveillance Devices

are hidden electronic devices used to
capture, record, and/or transmit data to a
receiving party such as a law enforcement


US domestic intelligence
program bugged homes, office, vehicles of
political activists, subversives, criminals

e. Postal Services

Significance of surveillance of postal system
decreasing in favor of Internet and telephone

Interception of mail is still option for law

Controversy over Surveillance


These tools protect society from terrorists and

People must become accustomed to having no

“If you aren’t doing anything wrong, then you
don’t have anything to worry about.”


“As long as we do what we’re told, we have
nothing to fear.”

Political activists do not want the government
to know their names

Mass surveillance may make future opposition

Most people do have things to hide, e.g., job
hunter may not want present employer to
know this

Opposition: Totalitarianism

Fear that society is moving toward a state of
mass surveillance

“Laying the bricks one at a time for a police

Blurring of lines between public and private

Surveillance techniques are not equal, e.g.,
facial recognition requires no cooperation


Psychological/Social Effects

Creates in people a feeling of always being
watched, so they become self

The State can control the populace without
having to resort to physical force

Opposition: Privacy

Civil rights groups include Electronic Privacy
Information Center, Electronic Frontier
Foundation, American Civil Liberties Union

Lawsuits include Hepting v. AT&T, EPIC v.
Department of Justice

The Church Committee investigated domestic
intelligence programs such as COINTELPRO


Inverse Surveillance, Sousveillance


avoiding surveillance or
making surveillance difficult

Inverse surveillance

reversal of surveillance
on other individuals or groups, e.g., citizens
photographing police


inverse surveillance, involving
the recording by private individuals, rather
than government or corporate entities