A system for managing rigor

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6 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 1 μήνα)

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A system for managing rigor

Remember rigor is the first letter in rigor mortis


Prepare people for The Test


Teach students how to manage knowledge


Nothing is static



Human knowledge doubles every
three, five, seven

years
, pretty quick


We may not be able to know it all but we can learn to
manage what we know


Is there a market for knowledge management?

What are we trying to do?


“Rigor is the goal of helping students develop the
capacity to understand content that is complex,
ambiguous, provocative, and personally or
emotionally challenging
.”



Teaching What Matters Most: Standards and Strategies
for Raising Student Achievement

by Richard W. Strong,
Harvey F. Silver and Matthew J.
Perini ASCD 2001


So what is it?


Think critically and be able to solve problems


Be able to ask the right kinds of questions


Be able to think with agility and bring adaptable skills
to the market


Willing to try new approaches


Be able to communicate


Be able to access and analyze information


Think creatively











“Rigor Redefined” Educational
Leadership October 2008




I
nstructional
delivery methods like project based instruction
which use an inquiry model


Create
models
in which students represent
their findings,
and explore ways their discoveries can make a positive
difference in the world.


C
lassrooms
that find ways to be connected to the world,
whether or not they use the latest
technologies
.


T
alking
about classrooms where students are taught the
strategies they need to attack challenging text, detect bias,
gather relevant information, and decide how to put what
they’ve learned to work in a useful way.



Rigor involves…

Rigor is not…

fifty
math problems for homework when fewer will achieve
mastery.

more
worksheets for the student who finished the assignment
early.

using
a seventh grade text book with your high performing sixth
grade students.

covering
more material in a shorter period of time.

cold
or impersonal.

just
for a select group of students
.




Debbie Schults

”An American Teacher”

Give me a non
-
example


Go more deeply into content


Explore the complex nature of the content


Consciously include thinking skills


Project based


Connect to both the world of the student and the
teacher


Teach strategies more than answers



Give me the short form


You can’t teach our kids like that, our kids are
different


My principal won’t let me teach like that, she says…


It’s a lot of trouble to prepare, I need some time,
maybe I could get a grant and get paid to do some
summer work, maybe…



What keeps us from doing this?


In c
-
scope it fits in all of the “e’s”


Engage
-
challenge


Explain
-
thoughtful


Explore
-
directing


Elaborate
-
more detail


Evaluate
-
rigorous


In non
-
c
-
scope it can be part of regular instruction

Where does this fit in?


IF we really want to prepare students to be successful
after high school we need to be as flexible and
analytic as we expect students to be.


We cannot rely on a static presentation method or set
of materials to allow us to prepare students for the
future.


Teaching is a process of constant adjustment, change,
and modification.

What does all this mean?


First, read and know the standards for your content
area.


Second, have a system that requires you to think and
to create activities that requires students to think


Understand that there is no single way to increase
rigor. It requires you to be constantly changing,
learning, modifying, adjusting and overcoming
obstacles.

Tell me specifically how to do it


Improvise
-
key to survival. What can I substitute,
change, make different to make this better?


Adapt
-
What is working in business, the arts, industry,
what can I find that makes something else successful
and how can I modify it for education?


Overcome
-
Small steps, small mistakes, be successful
in a small way.

Improvise, Adapt and Overcome


Suggest a system to allow for consistent curricular
differentiation to create a rigorous curriculum



Provide a model for implementation.



Provide an opportunity to practice the model during
the session.

Goal for the day

Basis for Understanding

Thinking
-
Knowing
-

Procedures

Cognitive Processes

The Knowledge
Dimensions





1.


Remem
-
ber



2.
Under
-
stand



3.

Apply



4.

Analyze



5.

Evaluate



6.

Create

Factual













Conceptual













Procedural













Metacognitive












H
orizontal level is Bloom’s 2000


Old Bloom with some modifications



Use of verbs instead of nouns because the process is an
on
-
going one instead of something that can be
accomplished


Switch of evaluating and creating because creating is a
higher level than determining significance based on
criteria

Rationale for the model


There is constant interaction between the knowledge
dimension and the cognitive domain.


By recognizing the connections instructors can make
conscious decisions concerning curriculum
modifications.


Each level of the cognitive domain (Bloom) is constantly
interacting with the different dimensions of knowledge.



Rationale for model


Knowledge dimensions divided into four parts.


Factual Knowledge
-

The basic elements that students
must know to be acquainted with a discipline or solve
problems in it.



Terminology



Knowledge of specific details and elements necessary
to be successful with the unit/study/project or learning.




Knowledge Dimensions


Conceptual Knowledge
-

The
interrelationships
among
the basic elements within a
larger structure
that
enable them to function together
.




Knowledge
of classifications and categories




Knowledge
of principles and


generalizations




Knowledge
of theories, models, and


structures

Knowledge Dimensions


Procedural Knowledge
-

How to do something;
methods of
inquiry, and criteria for using skills,
algorithms, techniques
, and methods.



Knowledge
of subject
-
specific skills and


algorithms



Knowledge
of subject
-
specific
techniques and

methods


Knowledge
of criteria for determining when


to
use appropriate procedures


Knowledge Dimensions


Metacognitive
-
knowledge and awareness of one’s
own thinking processes

Knowledge Dimensions


Problem solving
and
critical thinking
probably would
be characterized as procedural in nature and, because
they extend across several levels of Bloom’s are not
quite as neatly assigned a section as other items.


Dimensions of Knowledge

Cognitive Processes

The Knowledge
Dimensions





1.


Remem
-
ber



2.
Under
-
stand



3.

Apply



4.

Analyze



5.

Evaluate



6.

Create

Factual













Conceptual
















Procedural






________


Advanced

Thinking


_______

Metacognitive









Rationale for model

Problem Solving



Identification of the problem


Determination of known details


Determination of unknowns


Selection of plan of action


Implementation of plan


Determination of success



Critical Thinking



Observation


Statement of observation


Development of appropriate
questions
concerning

the
observation


Gathers and assesses data


Develops conclusions and
solutions and tests them


Communicates findings


Applying the system in
curriculum

Specific Steps for the process


To begin with you must understand what you want the student
to know and be able to do when you complete instruction.



The selection of the prompt is based on what best defines what
the student should know and understand as a consequence of
studying a particular topic and subject matter
area and must be
addressed in instruction.



In addition to the prompts attention must be paid to the
procedures students need to follow to be successful with the
instruction.


How does it work?


The prompts are based on the student acting as an expert in the
field. What does the expert do that the student can practice?


Each of the prompts answers the question: What is important
for the student to know about this topic, subject area or
discipline?


Ranked from simplest to most complex.


Difficult to incorporate all of the terms in the same lesson

probably better to look for three or four that fit the content
most effectively.


Basis: What do you want the student to know when you
complete instruction?

Why these elements?

Keys to managing content



There are six content
imperatives


Origins
-
The source of an idea
or

event



Contribution
-
The significance of or
the result of an idea or event


Convergence
-
The coming together or
meeting point of events or ideas


Parallel
-
Ideas or events that are
similar and can be compared



Paradox
-
The contradictory elements
in an event or idea


There are eleven elements
of depth and complexity


Language/tools of the discipline


Details


Patterns


Trends


Rules


Ethics


Multiple Perspectives


Change over time


Big ideas, concepts, themes


Across disciplines


Unanswered questions



Origins
-
The source of an idea or

event

-

what was this the source
of? what began this?


Contribution
-
The significance of or the result of an idea or
event
-

the effect or consequence of something


Convergence
-
The coming together or meeting point of events or
ideas
-
how was this the catalyst for what followed? How did all of
this come together?


Parallel
-
Ideas or events that are similar and can be
compared
-
how is this like something else, how does it relate?



Paradox
-
The contradictory elements in an event or
idea
-
what is
contradictory about this?



Content imperatives


The content imperatives
create a lens
to examine content
in a broad context.


Provides a broad focus that changes as the different
prompts are used.


Intended to focus student on elements of depth and
complexity


We are going to discuss the French and Indian War as the
origin

of global conflict and examine the trend of conducting
warfare in a variety of sites.


Many factors
converge
d to create the situation that led to the
French and Indian Wars. (economics, political, philosophy)



Content Imperatives


The use of a focus statement involving a content
imperative, theme, concept or big idea requires both
teacher and learner to move from the detail level of
knowledge to a conceptual level.


The teacher’s instruction has to be tailored to addressing
this organizing idea.


If I am looking at “origins” in Biology, my instruction is
going to have to be shaped to address how the students
will interact with the content to understand “origins”

Why would I even want to consider
doing this?


Select one of the content imperatives. Write a short focus
statement concerning something you will be teaching the
first six weeks.


Don’t say “I can’t do this”. Stretch a little.


Select someone sitting near you. Read them the
statement, listen to theirs.


Select a second content imperative, repeat the above.


Did you notice a different approach to the content material?


Be prepared to describe the difference.


Think, think, think

Depth and Complexity defined


Language/tools of the discipline
-
terms, nomenclature used by
the discipline


Details

features, attributes,
element specific information
elaboration


Patterns
-
designs, models,
recurring elements cycle, order


Rules
-
standards, organizational
patterns, structure


Trends
-

changes over time,
genial tendency, drifts, forces
causing change



Ethics
-
value laden ideas, opinions,
bias, prejudice


Multiple Perspectives
-
differing
points of view, opinions based on
varied roles, attitudes


Change over time
-
change during
different time periods


Big ideas, concepts, themes
-
centralizing elements


Across disciplines
-
connections,
relationship, within, between and
among disciplines


Unanswered questions
-
unknowns in
the study or discipline



Prompts for depth explores different dimensions
within

a
discipline.


Complexity examines connections
across, between and
among

disciplines.


The decision that determines what you want the student
to know and do determines the prompt you select


Discuss some of the specialized terms of the fur trade at the
time of the French and Indian War. E.g. couriers de bois,
trading company, mercantilism.


What do depth and complexity do?


The use of the elements directs the instruction
toward a bigger idea and away from a lot of details.


Details remain in place, they are viewed differently
than before.


The rigor of the curriculum can be maintained and
directed by the use of these elements.

What does this do?


Select two of the elements of depth and complexity
which can be used with the content imperative you all
ready wrote.


Write two activity statements using the elements.
You may use either “Details” or “Language/tools of
the discipline” but not both. Select one of the other
elements to support your activity.

Practice

Depth and Complexity defined


Language/tools of the discipline
-
terms, nomenclature used by
the discipline


Details

features, attributes,
element specific information
elaboration


Patterns
-
designs, models,
recurring elements cycle, order


Rules
-
standards, organizational
patterns, structure


Trends
-

changes over time,
genial tendency, drifts, forces
causing change



Ethics
-
value laden ideas, opinions,
bias, prejudice


Multiple Perspectives
-
differing
points of view, opinions based on
varied roles, attitudes


Change over time
-
change during
different time periods


Big ideas, concepts, themes
-
centralizing elements


Across disciplines
-
connections,
relationship, within, between and
among disciplines


Unanswered questions
-
unknowns in
the study or discipline


Limited Thinking Skills


Determine the relevance


Define cause and effect


Prove with evidence


Judge with criteria


Relate
-
associate, link


Note the ambiguity
-
express more than one
meaning


Differentiate fact from
opinion/fiction


Define


Sequence


Categorize


Summarize


Determine the relevance

decide what is important
or given priority


Define cause and effect
-
Define the reasons why
something happens and the consequences of that
action or event


Prove with evidence
-
Provide data to support a
position or decision

Thinking Skills


Judge with criteria
-
Make a decision and support it
with reasons why the decision was made
.



Relate
-
Associate or link information and state the
rationale for the connection.



Note the
ambiguity
-

Describe what is missing, un clear
or incongruous.



Thinking skills


Differentiate fact from fiction/opinion
-
Discern what is
real from what is make
-
believe or not based on fact.



Define
-
Provide specific statements or fact to describe
an idea, concept, statement.



Sequence
-
Determine the order of presentation of
information.


Thinking skills


Categorize
-
Define the placement or group to which
something belongs.



Summarize
-
Re
-
state information in its most succinct
form.


NOTE: THESE ARE NOT ALL THE THINKING SKILLS
BUT THEY REPRESENT A COMMON STARTING POINT


Thinking skill


Select two thinking skills to support each of you
depth and complexity activities. Write a short activity
statement using the two thinking skills you have
selected.


Present what you have written to your partner.

Do we
haavve

to do this? Yes, this is
school

Content Imperatives


Depth

and Complexity

Thinking Skills

Origins

Contribution

Convergence

Parallel

Paradox


Language/tools of the
discipline

Details

Patterns

Trends

Rules

Ethics

Multiple Perspectives

Change over time

Big ideas, concepts,
themes

Across disciplines

Unanswered questions



Determine the
relevance

Define cause and effect

Prove with evidence

Judge with criteria

Relate

Note the ambiguity

Differentiate fact from
opinion/fiction

Define

Sequence

Categorize

Summarize



Putting it all together


Instruction has to reflect a rigorous planning
operation.


There probably isn’t a magical curriculum that will
allow you to read a particular paragraph and have
that result in a more rigorous curriculum.


The key to rigor in the classroom is what you decide
to do as you present content to diverse learners.


If we want to see rigor in the
classroom…


1. Critical Thinking and Problem Solving


To compete in the new global economy, companies need their
workers to think about how to continuously improve their
products, processes, or services. Over and over, executives
told me that the heart of critical thinking and problem solving
is
the ability to ask the right questions.


What is the problem?


What do I know now?


What do I need to know to solve the problem?


Where can I get the information?


Is the information I am getting sound?










“Rigor Redefined” Educational
Leadership October
2008 | Volume
66

|
Number
2





2. Collaboration and Leadership
“Kids just out of
school have an amazing lack of preparedness in
general leadership skills and collaborative skills, They
lack the ability to influence.”


Can you produce a product that addresses a need


3. Agility and Adaptability “
has to think, be flexible,
change, and use a variety of tools to solve new
problems.


Can you transition smoothly?






What in the world?


4. Initiative and Entrepreneurialism
You'll never be
blamed for failing to reach a stretch goal, but you will
be blamed for not trying. One of the problems of a
large company is risk aversion. Our challenge is how
to create an entrepreneurial culture in a larger
organization.”


Can you focus creativity and innovation?


5. Effective Oral and Written Communication


“We are routinely surprised at the difficulty some young
people have in communicating: verbal skills, written skills,
presentation skills. They have difficulty being clear and
concise; it's hard for them to create focus, energy, and
passion around the points they want to make.


Can you tell people about it?


6. Accessing and Analyzing Information


The half
-
life of knowledge in the humanities is 10 years, and in
math and science, it's only two or three years.


Can you get information and is it any good?



7. Curiosity and Imagination


Daniel Pink, the author of
A Whole New Mind
, observes
that with increasing abundance, people want unique
products and services: “For businesses it's no longer
enough to create a product that's reasonably priced and
adequately functional. It must also be beautiful, unique,
and meaningful.”


Can you tell me what it’s going to be like in fifteen
minutes?


What in the world…?