(9 Ed., Prentice Hall)

volaryorangeΔιαχείριση

6 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

127 εμφανίσεις




Decision Support and Business
Intelligence Systems

(9
th

Ed., Prentice Hall)

Chapter 11:

Knowledge Management

Introduction
to Knowledge
Management


Knowledge

in
Knowledge Management System
is
,


information that is contextual, relevant, and actionable

Primarily,
Situation Knowledge

is contextual.
Usable
Knowledge


understanding, awareness, or familiarity acquired through
education or experience


anything that has been
contextually

learned, perceived,
discovered, inferred, or understood .


In a knowledge management system,

knowledge is
information in action

Information about action is
Instructional Information.


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
3

Introduction to
Knowledge
Management


Ayati: Knowledge is “perceived causes and
effects.”


understanding, awareness, or familiarity acquired through education or
experience


anything that has been learned, perceived, discovered, inferred, or
understood.


Knowledge is always “an approximation’ of REALITY.


Good (accurate) knowledge represents ‘REALITY’ more
accurately.


Useful Knowledge must be relevant,


Situation Knowledge is contextual.



In a
knowledge management
system,
actionable
knowledge is organized for share
-
ability”



Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
4

Introduction to

Knowledge Management


Knowledge management concepts and
definitions


Knowledge management



The active management of the expertise in an
organization. It involves collecting, categorizing,
and disseminating knowledge


Intellectual capital


The in
valuable knowledge of an organization’s
employees


Knowledge management



The active management of the expertise in an organization.


[
Ayati:
KM
involves collecting, categorizing, and disseminating
of,
primarily,

Situation knowledge.
KM can have a blend of
‘Situation’ knowledge
with
Applied,
and
Fundamental knowledge
or references to these
two knowledge categories.
]

Contained in Literature
:
Structured and Preserved
in Libraries in paper and/or electronic forms.

How to collect, organize and disseminate this category of
knowledge is the subject of
KM.


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
7

Opening Vignette:

MITRE’s View to the KM Process

ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES FOR
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Expert
Systems
Data
Mining
Search
Engine
Web
2
.
0
Databases
Portals
Internet
Collaboration
Web
technologies
Intranet
Extranet
Knowledge
representation
Measurements
Machine
Learning
Artificial
Intelligence
Create
Identify
Share
Act
Apply
Modify
CULTURE
PROCESS
PRACTICE
KM LIFE
-
CYCLE
Communication
INFLUENCING FACTORS
feedback

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
8

Opening Vignette:

“MITRE Knows What It Knows Through
Knowledge Management”


Company background


Problem description


Proposed solution


Results


Answer and discuss the case questions


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
9

Introduction to

Knowledge Management

Processed
Relevant and
Actionable
Relevant and actionable processed
-
data
Database
PHASE
5
DEPT
4
DEPT
3
DEPT
2
DEPT
1
PHASE
4
PHASE
3
PHASE
2
PHASE
1
DEPLOYMENT CHART
1
2
3
4
5
Data
Information
Knowledge
Wisdom
Ayati: Wisdom is understanding of the

multi
-
dimensionality

of the context


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
10

Introduction to

Knowledge Management


Characteristics of knowledge


Extraordinary leverage and increasing returns


Fragmentation, leakage and the need to refresh


Uncertain value


Uncertain value of sharing



Knowledge
-
based economy


The economic shift from natural resources to
intellectual assets


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
11

Introduction to

Knowledge Management


Explicit and tacit knowledge


Explicit (leaky) knowledge



Knowledge that deals with objective,
rational, and technical material (data,
policies, procedures, software, documents,
etc.)


Easily documented, transferred, taught
and learned


Examples…


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
12

Introduction to

Knowledge Management


Explicit and tacit knowledge


Tacit (embedded) knowledge


Knowledge that is usually in the domain of
subjective, cognitive, and experiential
learning


It is highly personal and hard to formalize


Hard to document, transfer, teach and learn


Involves a lot of human interpretation


Examples…

Wikipedia.Org
:

Knowledge management

(
KM
) comprises a range of strategies and practices used in an
organization to identify, create, represent, distribute, and enable adoption of
insights

and
experiences
.

Such insights and experiences comprise
knowledge
, either embodied in
individuals or embedded in organizations as
processes

or practices.

An established
discipline

since 1991 (see
Nonaka

1991
), KM includes courses taught in the
fields of
business administration
,
information systems
, management, and library and
information sciences

(
Alavi

&
Leidner

1999
). More recently, other fields have started
contributing to KM research; these include information and media,
computer science
,
public
health
, and
public policy
.

Many large companies and non
-
profit organizations have resources dedicated to internal KM
efforts, often as a part of their
business strategy
, information technology, or
human resource
management

departments (
Addicott
,
McGivern

&
Ferlie

2006
). Several consulting companies
also exist that provide strategy and advice regarding KM to these organizations.

Knowledge management efforts typically focus on organizational
objectives

such as improved
performance,
competitive advantage
, innovation, the sharing of lessons learned, integration
and
continuous improvement

of the organization
. KM efforts overlap with
organizational
learning
,

and may be distinguished from that by a greater focus on the management of
knowledge as a strategic asset and
a focus on encouraging the sharing of knowledge
. It is seen
as an enabler of
organisational

learning
[1]

and
a more concrete mechanism

than the previous
abstract research.


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
14

Introduction to

Knowledge Management


Knowledge management systems
(KMS)



A system that facilitates knowledge
management by ensuring knowledge
flow from the person(s) who know to
the person(s) who need to know
throughout the organization;
knowledge evolves and grows during
the process


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
15

Organizational

Learning and Transformation


Learning organization



An organization capable of learning from
its past experience, implying the
existence of an organizational memory
and a means to save, represent, and
share it through its personnel


Organizational memory



Repository of what the organization
“knows”


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
16

Organizational

Learning and Transformation


Organizational learning




Development of new knowledge and
insights that have the potential to
influence organization’s behavior


The process of capturing knowledge and
making it available enterprise
-
wide


Need to establish corporate memory


Modern IT helps…


People issues are the most important!


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
17

Organizational

Learning and Transformation


Organizational culture



The aggregate attitudes in an
organization concerning a certain issue
(e.g., technology, computers, DSS)


How do people learn the “culture”?


Is it explicit or implicit?


Can culture be changed? How?


Give some examples of corporate culture:
Microsoft, Google, Apple, HP, GM, …


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
18

Organizational

Learning and Transformation


Why people don’t like to share knowledge:


Lack of time to share knowledge and time to
identify colleagues in need of specific knowledge


Fear that sharing may jeopardize one’s job
security


Low awareness and realization of the value and
benefit of the knowledge others possess


Dominance in sharing explicit over tacit knowledge


Use of a strong hierarchy, position
-
based status,
and formal power


Insufficient capture, evaluation, feedback,
communication, and tolerance of past mistakes


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
19

Organizational

Learning and Transformation


Why people don’t like to share knowledge:


Differences in experience and education levels


Lack of contact time and interaction between
knowledge sources and recipients


Poor verbal/written communication and
interpersonal skills


Age, gender, cultural and ethical defenses


Lack of a social network


Ownership of intellectual property


Lack of trust in people because they may misuse
knowledge or take unjust credit for it


Perceived lack of accuracy/credibility of knowledge


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
20

Knowledge Management Activities



Knowledge management initiatives and
activities


Most knowledge management initiatives
have one of three aims:

1.
To make knowledge visible

2.
To develop a knowledge
-
intensive culture

3.
To build a knowledge infrastructure


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
21

Knowledge Management Activities



Knowledge creation
is the generation
of new insights, ideas, or routines


Four modes of knowledge creation:


Socialization


Externalization


Internalization


Combination



Analytics
-
based knowledge creation?


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
22

Knowledge Management Activities



Knowledge sharing


Knowledge sharing
is the willful
explication of one person’s ideas, insights,
experiences to another individual either
via an intermediary or directly


In many organizations, information and
knowledge are not considered
organizational resources to be shared but
individual competitive weapons
to be kept
private


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
23


Knowledge seeking


Knowledge seeking (knowledge sourcing)
is the search for and use of internal
organizational knowledge


Lack of time or lack of reward may
hinder the sharing of knowledge or
knowledge seeking

Knowledge Management Activities



Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
24

Approaches
to

Knowledge
Management


Process approach
to knowledge management
attempts to codify organizational knowledge
through formalized controls, processes and
technologies


Focuses on
explicit
knowledge and IT


Practice approach

focuses on building the
social environments or communities of
practice necessary to facilitate the sharing of
tacit understanding


Focuses on tacit knowledge and socialization


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
25

Approaches to

Knowledge Management


Hybrid approaches
to knowledge
management


The practice approach is used so that a
repository stores only explicit knowledge
that is relatively easy to document


Tacit knowledge initially stored in the
repository is contact information about
experts and their areas of expertise


Increasing the amount of tacit knowledge
over time eventually leads to the
attainment of a true process approach

Hybrid
at

80/20

to

50/50


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
26

Knowledge
Management
-


A Demand Led Business Activity


Supply
-
driven vs. demand
-
driven KM

Technology approach
Data
Knowledge
Information
Action
Results

Supply
-
driven
:
DIKAR

Demand
-
driven
:
RAKID
Business
-
value approach
summarize
contextulize
utilize
obtain

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
27

Approaches to

Knowledge Management


Best practices



In an organization, the best methods
for

solving problems. These are often
stored in the knowledge repository of a
knowledge management system


Knowledge repository

is t
he actual
storage location of

knowledge in a
knowledge management system. Similar in
nature to a database, but generally text
-
oriented



Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
28

Approaches to

Knowledge Management

K
NOWLEDGE

M
ANAGEMENT

P
LATFORM

(
KMP
)
Human Experts
KNOWLEDGE PORTAL

(
Web
-
based End User Interface
)

Intelligent Broker
KNOWLEDGE REPOSITORY

(
Knowledge
/
Information
/
Data Nuggets
)
Web Crawler
Data
/
Text Mining Tools

Manual
Entries
DIVERSE INFORMATION
/
DATA SOURCES
(
Weather
/
Medical Info
/
Finance
/
Agriculture
/
Industrial
)
Ad hoc
Search
K
NOWLEDGE

C
REATION
K
NOWLEDGE

U
TILIZATION
JUN
1
5
A
Comprehensive
View to
Knowledge
Repository


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
29

Approaches to

Knowledge Management


Developing a knowledge repository


Knowledge repositories are developed
using several different storage mechanisms
in combination


The most important aspects and difficult
issues are making the contribution of
knowledge relatively easy for the
contributor and determining a good
method for cataloging the knowledge


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
30

Information Technology
(
IT) in
Knowledge Management


The KMS cycle


KMS usually follow a six
-
step cycle:

1.
Create knowledge

2.
Capture knowledge

3.
Refine knowledge

4.
Store knowledge

5.
Manage knowledge

6.
Disseminate knowledge

©
SAP AG 2010. All rights reserved. / Page
31

Customer

Income

Age

Credit Rating

Etc.

Buying
Behavior

Customers
-


Historical Data

(query)

Mick Jones

$ 100000

48

Excellent



Yes

Elton Brown

$ 130000

22

Fair



No

Jack Turner

$ 118000

36

Excellent



Yes

Etc.











How will other
Customers
behave?

New Data

(query)


Willie Nelson

$ 165000

34

Fair



Carol Lee

$ 80000

63

Excellent



Etc.










Identify the factors driving customer behavior and
predict future behavior

?

?

?

Predictive: Decision Tree
*

*Ayati: This example shows the common features of Decision
Tree and Decision Table, w
hich is the underlying principle of
Inductive Expert
Systems

Ayati
:

Isn’t Storytelling an informal gathering of the
past experiences, which should lead to
Inductive Reasoning
?

Legal Case Collections and Research
is, in
fact, is
Inductive
Reasoning
to establish
Precedence

Beyond rule
-
based

legal
expert systems

: using frames and
case

...

https://circle.ubc.ca/handle/2429/42045

You +1'd this publicly.
Undo

by A Kowalski
-

1990

Case
-
based reasoning

is a methodology for building legal expert systems
...

law with relatively cheap commercially available
expert system shells

by using
the
...

http://www.cs.cofc.edu/~
manaris/ai
-
education
-
repository/
expert
-
systems
-
tools
.html


From Wikipedia:


Strategies

Knowledge may be accessed at three stages: before, during, or after KM
-
related activities. Different organizations have tried va
rious
knowledge capture
incentives
, including making content submission mandatory and incorporating rewards into
performance
measurement

plans. Considerable controversy exists over whether incentives work or not in this field and no consensus has emerged.

One strategy to KM involves actively managing knowledge (push strategy). In such an instance, individuals strive to explicitl
y e
ncode their
knowledge into a shared knowledge repository, such as a
database
, as well as retrieving knowledge they need that other individuals have
provided to the repository.
[13]

This is also commonly known as the Codification approach to KM.

Another strategy to KM involves individuals making knowledge requests of experts associated with a particular subject on an a
d h
oc basis
(pull strategy). In such an instance, expert individual(s) can provide their
insights

to the particular person or people needing this (
Snowden
2002
). This is also commonly known as the Personalization approach to KM.

Other knowledge management strategies and instruments for companies include:


rewards (as a means of motivating for knowledge sharing)


storytelling

(as a means of transferring tacit knowledge)


cross
-
project learning


after action reviews


knowledge mapping (a map of knowledge repositories within a company accessible by all)


communities of practice


expert directories (to enable knowledge seeker to reach to the experts)


best practice transfer


knowledge fairs


competence management (systematic evaluation and planning of competences of individual organization members)


proximity & architecture (the physical situation of employees can be either conducive or obstructive to knowledge sharing)


master
-
apprentice relationship


collaborative technologies (
groupware
, etc.)


knowledge repositories (databases,
bookmarking engines
, etc.)


measuring and reporting intellectual capital (a way of making explicit knowledge for companies)


knowledge brokers

(some organizational members take on responsibility for a specific "field" and act as first reference on whom to talk
about a specific subject)


social software

(wikis, social bookmarking, blogs, etc.)


Inter
-
project knowledge transfer

KM
-
Images From
http://
www.
google
.com/search?q=knowledge+management&hl=en&tbm=isch&tb
o=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=e8M1UajIGMaryQGw3oDwAQ&ved=0CGgQsAQ&biw=1080&
bih=810



Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
35

Capture
Knowledge
Refine
Knowledge
Store
Knowledge
Manage
Knowledge
Disseminate
Knowledge
Create
Knowledge
1
2
3
4
5
6
Information Technology
(
IT) in
Knowledge Management

The Cyclic Model
of Knowledge
Management


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
36

Information Technology (IT) in
Knowledge Management


Components of KMS


KMS are developed using three sets of
core
technologies
:

1.
Communication

2.
Collaboration

3.
Storage and
retrieval


Technologies that support KM


Artificial intelligence


Intelligent agents


Knowledge discovery in databases


Extensible Markup Language (XML)


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
37

Information Technology (IT) in
Knowledge Management


Artificial intelligence


AI methods used in KMS:


Assist in and enhance searching knowledge


Help for knowledge representation (e.g., ES)


Help establish knowledge profiles of individuals
and groups


Help determine the relative importance of
knowledge when it is contributed to and
accessed from the knowledge repository


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
38

Information Technology (IT) in
Knowledge Management


AI methods used in KMS:


Scan e
-
mail, documents, and databases to
perform knowledge discovery, determine
meaningful relationships and rules


Identify patterns in data (usually through neural
networks and other data mining techniques)


Forecast future results by using data/knowledge


Provide advice directly from knowledge by using
neural networks or expert systems


Provide a natural language or voice command

driven user interface for a KMS


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
39

Information Technology (IT) in
Knowledge Management


Intelligent agents


Intelligent agents
are software systems
that learn how users work and provide
assistance in their daily tasks


They are used to elicit and identify
knowledge


See ibm.com, gentia.com for examples


Combined with enterprise knowledge portal
to proactively disseminate knowledge


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
40

Information Technology (IT) in
Knowledge Management


Knowledge discovery in databases
(KDD)



A machine learning process that
performs rule induction, or a related
procedure to establish (or create)
knowledge from large databases


a.k.a. Data Mining (and/or Text Mining)


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
41

Information Technology (IT) in
Knowledge Management


Model marts



Small, generally departmental repositories of
knowledge created by employing knowledge
-
discovery techniques on past decision
instances. Similar to data marts


Model warehouses



Large, generally enterprise
-
wide repositories
of knowledge created by employing
knowledge
-
discovery techniques. Similar to
data warehouses


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
42

Information Technology (IT) in
Knowledge Management


Extensible Markup Language (XML)


XML enables standardized representations of
data structures so that data can be
processed appropriately by heterogeneous
information systems without case
-
by
-
case
programming or human intervention


Web 2.0


The evolution of the Web from statically
disseminating information to collaboratively
creating and sharing information


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
43

KM System
Implementation


Knowledge management products and
vendors


Knowware


Technology tools (software/hardware products)
that support knowledge management


Software development companies / vendors


Collaborative computing tools


Knowledge servers


Enterprise knowledge portals (EKP)


An electronic doorway into a knowledge management
system




Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
44

KM System
Implementation


Software development companies / vendors


Electronic document management (EDM)



A method for processing documents
electronically, including capture, storage,
retrieval, manipulation, and presentation



Content management systems (CMS)



An electronic document management system
that produces dynamic versions of documents,
and automatically maintains the current set for
use at the enterprise level


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
45

KM System
Implementation


Software development tools


Knowledge harvesting tools


Search engines


Knowledge management suites


Knowledge management consulting firms


Knowledge management

ASPs



Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
46

KMS Implementation


Integration of KMS with other business
information systems


With DSS/BI Systems


With AI


With databases and information systems


With CRM systems


With SCM systems


With corporate intranets and extranets


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
47

Roles of People in

Knowledge
Management


Chief knowledge officer (CKO)


The person in charge of a knowledge
management effort in an organization


Sets KM strategic priorities


Establishes a repository of best practices


Gains a commitment from senior executives


Teaches information seekers how to better elicit it


Creates a process for managing intellectual assets


Obtain customer satisfaction information


Globalizes knowledge management


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
48

Roles of People in

Knowledge
Management


Skills required of a

CKO include:


Interpersonal communication skills


Leadership skills


Business acumen


Strategic thinking


Collaboration skills


The ability to institute effective educational
programs


An understanding of IT and its role in advancing
knowledge management


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
49

Roles of People in

Knowledge
Management


The CEO, other chief officers, and managers


The CEO is responsible for championing a
knowledge management effort


The officers make available the resources needed
to get the job done


CFO ensures that the financial resources are available


COO ensures that people begin to embed knowledge
management practices into their daily work processes


CIO ensures IT resources are available


Managers also support the KM efforts by providing
access to sources of knowledge




Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
50

Roles of People in

Knowledge
Management


Community of practice

(CoP)


A group of people in an organization
with a common professional interest,
often self
-
organized for managing
knowledge in a knowledge management
system


See
Application Case 11.7 as an example of
how Xerox successfully improved practices
and cost savings through CoP



Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
51

Roles of People in

Knowledge
Management


KMS developers


The team members who actually develop
the system


Internal + External



KMS staff


Enterprise
-
wide KMS require a full
-
time
staff to catalog and manage the knowledge


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
52

Ensuring the Success of
Knowledge Management Efforts


Success stories of knowledge management


Implementing a good KM strategy can:


Reduce…


loss of intellectual capital


costs by decreasing the number of times
the company must repeatedly solve the
same problem


redundancy of knowledge
-
based activities


Increase…


productivity


employee satisfaction


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
53

Ensuring the Success of
Knowledge Management Efforts


MAKE: Most Admired Knowledge Enterprises


“Annually identifying the best practitioners of KM”


Criteria (performance dimensions):

1.
Creating a knowledge
-
driven corporate culture

2.
Developing knowledge workers through leadership

3.
Fostering innovation

4.
Maximizing enterprise intellectual capital

5.
Creating an environment for collaborative knowledge sharing

6.
Facilitating organizational learning

7.
Delivering value based on stakeholder knowledge

8.
Transforming enterprise knowledge into stakeholders’ value



Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
54

Ensuring the Success of
Knowledge Management Efforts


MAKE: Most Admired Knowledge Enterprises


“Annually identifying the best practitioners of KM”


2008 Winners:

1.
McKinsey & Company

2.
Google

3.
Royal Dutch Shell

4.
Toyota

5.
Wikipedia

6.
Honda

7.
Apple

8.
Fluor

9.
Microsoft

10.
PricewaterhouseCoopers

11.
Ernst & Young

12.
IBM

13.
Schlumberger

14.
Samsung Group

15.
BP

16.
Unilever

17.
Accenture

18.




Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
55

Ensuring the Success of
Knowledge Management Efforts


Useful applications of KMS


Finding experts electronically and using
expert location systems


Expert location systems

(know
-
who)


Interactive computerized systems that help
employees find and connect with colleagues
who have expertise required for specific
problems

whether they are across the county
or across the room

in order to solve specific,
critical business problems in seconds


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
56

Ensuring the Success of
Knowledge Management Efforts


Knowledge management valuation


Financial metrics for knowledge
management valuation


Focus knowledge management projects on
specific business problems that can be easily
quantified


When the problems are solved, the value and
benefits of the system become apparent


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
57

Ensuring the Success of
Knowledge Management Efforts


Knowledge management valuation


Nonfinancial metrics for knowledge
management valuation

new ways to view
capital when evaluating intangibles:


Customer goodwill


External relationship capital


Structural capital


Human capital


Social capital


Environmental capital


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
58

Ensuring the Success of
Knowledge Management Efforts


Causes of knowledge management failure


The
effort mainly relies on technology
and
does not address whether the proposed
system will meet the needs and objectives of
the organization and its individuals


Lack of emphasis on human aspects


Lack of commitment


Failure to provide reasonable incentive for
people to use the system…


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
59

Ensuring the Success of
Knowledge Management Efforts


Factors that lead to knowledge
management success


A link to a firm’s economic value, to
demonstrate financial viability and maintain
executive sponsorship


A technical and organizational
infrastructure on which to build


A standard, flexible knowledge structure to
match the way the organization performs
work and uses knowledge


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
60

Ensuring the Success of
Knowledge Management Efforts


Factors that lead to knowledge
management success


A knowledge
-
friendly culture that leads
directly to user support


A clear purpose and language, to
encourage users to buy into the system


A change in motivational practices, to
create a culture of sharing


Multiple channels for knowledge transfer


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
61

Ensuring the Success of
Knowledge Management Efforts


Factors that lead to knowledge
management success


A significant process orientation and
valuation to make a knowledge
management effort worthwhile


Nontrivial motivational methods to
encourage users to contribute and use
knowledge


Senior management support


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

11
-
62

Last words on KM


Knowledge is an intellectual asset


IT is “just” an important enabler


Proper management of knowledge is a
necessary ingredient for success



Key issues:


Organizational culture


Executive sponsorship


Measurement of success

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a
retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written
permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Publishing as Prentice Hall