Slide 1 - Deakin University - School of Architecture and Buildings

viraginityfumblingΛογισμικό & κατασκευή λογ/κού

2 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

521 εμφανίσεις

References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Front page

Project Details

Materials and
Components

Structural systems

Construction
Process

Envelope Systems

Design proposal

Case Studies

Regulations

References and
Acknowledgements


References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Project Details



This project requires teams of 5 architects and construction managers to undertake the design and
documentation of a warehouse and office complex. Teams will be formed in the week 1 tutorial and
maintained throughout the semester.
These teams MUST be composed of a combination of
architects and double degree/ construction management students.

Team compositions will be
confirmed in the week 2 tutorial session
-
from then on, you will work together.



This project requires teams to undertake a significant amount of research into issues related to the
design and construction of industrial and commercial buildings. This project requires teams to prepare a
digital report (PowerPoint or webpage) demonstrating research into the following issues:



Critical review of structural systems appropriate for warehouse and office spaces. This review should be
framed in terms of comparisons between systems positive in relation to each other. Advice should be
sought from architects and builders, as well as from websites and books to inform this critical review. The
end result of this should be a recommendation of appropriate structural systems for the project



Critical review of construction processes for commercial and industrial buildings of this scale, to be
undertaken primarily through visits to job sites under construction. This critical review should provide an
understanding of how constructability influences the selection of appropriate construction systems for the
warehouse and office building. This should involve site visits by every team member



Review of envelope systems appropriate for both warehouse and office spaces. What are the critical
issues that influence the selection of envelope systems for both warehouses and office buildings? The
end result of this should be a recommendation of appropriate envelope systems for the project



Production of a chart for rules of thumb for indicative structural sections and sizes for elements of
warehouse and office buildings. This is to determined through the measure
-
up of existing (built)
structures and review of texts and should include information on span, spacing, member size and factors
influencing loading upon structure



Development of schematic design layout of building proposal. This layout should include building
planning (including stairs, toilets, office layouts, pallet layout etc), This should include freehand plans and
sections (1:100 min) based on the information gathered during the research.


References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Steel



General Information

Structural system

Envelope Systems

Construction Process




Rules of Thumb



Fire Rating



Conclusion

Concrete



General Information

Structural system

Envelope Systems

Construction Process




Drainage systems



Rules of Thumb



Fire Rating



Conclusion

Timber



General Information

Structural system

Envelope Systems

Construction Process



Rules of Thumb



Fire Rating



Conclusion


Glass / Plastic



General Information

Structural system

Envelope Systems

Construction Process





Rules of Thumb



Fire Rating



Conclusion

Masonry



General Information

Structural system

Envelope Systems

Construction Process




Rules of Thumb



Fire Rating



Conclusion

Other




Retaining wall Drainage systems



Rules of Thumb



Fire Rating suspended ceiling



Construction Process



Conclusion



Carpet



Plaster Board



Plywood

Comparisons

Materials and Components

References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Structural Systems

Steel




One way rigid frame / one way braced




Two way rigid framework




Two way braced framework




Bracing




Mast Architecture




Concrete



Footings



Roof Structure



Wall Structure


Timber




Masonry




Glass and Plastic




Other



Retaining Walls

1

2

3




References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Steel


Timber


Concrete




Footings




Tilt up




Pre Cast


Glass and Plastic




Glass Bricks




Crystallised glass

1

2




Plastic sheeting Rooflight Fibreglass





Planar (structural Glazing)




Glass Balustrades

1

2




Spider Tension Truss System




Spider Glass Fin System




Overhead Glazing


Masonry


General




Trusses




Space Trusses




Portal Frames




Structural sequence Portal Frames

Construction Process

References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Envelope Systems

Interior





Concrete



Flooring



Wall Cladding



Ceiling

Timber





Exterior


Steel




Concrete



Wall Cladding



Roof Cladding

Timber




Glass and Plastic



Polytetrafluoroethylene glass fiber coated fabric



Glass Blocks




Plastic sheeting Rooflight Fibreglass



Crystallised glass



Planar (structural glazing)



Spider Tension Truss System



Spider Glass Fin System balustrade



Overhead Glazing



Balustrade system




Masonry







References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Steel

High strength and stiffness compared to other common
construction materials such as reinforced concrete,
timber, brickwork.

Steel has great structural value due to its high strength in
tension

Steel is often chosen over other materials for structural
systems due to it’s high strength in comparison to
member sizes.

Steel is commonly used in conjunction with concrete in
footing systems, wall systems such as tilt up
construction as well as in structural members such as
concrete columns or beams.

Steel is used independently in framing systems for roof and
wall structures, bracing, flooring systems such as
mezzanine floors and as structural members such as
supportive columns.

Concrete

Concrete it is extremely strong under compression but
weak under tension. It is for this reason that
concrete is reinforced with steel, a material
which can under go high tensile forces with less
permanent deformation

Concrete is often chosen over other materials for
structural systems due to it’s excellent thermal
and acoustic properties as well as it’s high fire
rating value

Common uses for reinforced concrete are in footing
systems, panel wall systems as well as in
structural members.

Timber

Parallel to the grain timber has a relatively equal
compressive and tensile strength

Timber’s properties are generally not uniform, this is
predominantly because of the variation in
moisture content of the timber and the air, which
can cause expansion and shrinkage of the
timber.

Timber is often chosen over other materials because it
only requires a capenter to construct timber
systems with no specialist tools which makes it a
more economical alternative than steel or
concrete. Timber is also commonly chosen for
it’s aesthetically pleasing appearance

Glass

Glass can come in many different forms depending on
the application, it can be toughened, glazed,
crystalised, tinted etc. to suit the application.

The transparency of glass allows natural light but blocks
out the wind. It can be either coloured, patterned
or not be seen at all.

Glass is predominantly used as glazing in either block
or sheet form.

Masonry

Brick and stone masonry, like concrete, is strong under
compression but weak under tension.

Due to the low time efficiency of masonry construction it
usually chosen for use as cladding only and does
not undergo any structural loads. It is also
chosen for it’s high fire rating and good thermal
and acoustic properties.

Common uses for masonry are in wall cladding
systems, fences and landscaping walls.

References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Design proposal

Scale 1:500

Schematics Warehouse plan

Showroom floor plan

Sectional plan office building

Site plan / Warehouse plan

References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Showroom floor plan

References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Warehouse plan

References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Pro’s


High strength and stiffness compared to other common
construction materials such as reinforced concrete,
timber, brickwork.


Steel has great structural value due to its high strength
in tension (480MPa), and under compression (340MPa)
and shear loads


Suitable for situations of bending, compression and
tension.


Relatively easy to connect (welding or bolting)


Common grades known as mild steel, but higher grades
are available for certain situations


steel has a high strength to weight ratio with


good toughness and hardness qualities.


Stainless steel and high tensile

steel have higher
structural strength as well, they are harder and tougher.


Steel


General information

Con’s


Heavy and expensive compared to other
materials and thus should be used
efficiently


Care needs to be taken in the finishing
with corrosion or rusting common in the
presence of moisture and air in
combination.

Steel is also a generic term for many steel alloys that are in use
within the construction industry with a wide range of steel quality
available.


Structural steel > 96% iron, + varying proportions of


Carbon


Phosphorus


Manganese


Silicon


Sulphur


Nickel


Chromium


Copper


(Ref 56)

(Ref 42)

References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Steel


Structural Systems

Framing system and layout considerations will be influenced by:


Nature and level of loads to be resisted


requirements and restrictions on useable space within the framework


constraints imposed by architectural requirements


These considerations can have a variety of solutions that are typically
provided for by steel framed construction in a portal frame system (A
continuous rigid frame with a restrained joint between the column and
beam
Hamsters website
). This entails three basic framing systems
(two way rigid, one way rigid/one way flexible or two way braced
frameworks) in conjunction with two basic connection types (flexible or
rigid) within

One way rigid frame / one way braced

Two way rigid framework

Two way braced framework

Bracing

Mast structure


Examples of structural steel would include



Hot rolled



a universal beam is a good example of hot rolled structural steel. A hot billet of steel
of forced through a series of rollers to form the pre determined shapes such as the I, C and L (also
called angles). The I beam is predominantly replaced with the universal beam due to its square edges
allowing easier jointing and welding.


Cold Rolled Sections



C and Z sections are predominantly used in lesser structural elements
such as girts and purlins providing light weight easily lifted supports for roofing or wall cladding and
associated fixings. Sheet steel formed while cold are often treated with galvanizing or zincalume to
increase product life against corrosion and oxidation.


Rolled steel plates



often used in conjunction with Universal beams to construct base plates
or intricate joints.


High tensile steel



is an alloy which is typically used in pre stressed and post tensioned
members where large elongation forces are resisted.


Steel pipe and tubes

are also used as structural elements in light weight construction. Roof
members and structural supporting tubular members are common in contemporary steel house
framing applications, cabled and masted structures.


Steel Rods



are used as a structural element for lightweight masted structures as tension
transferring elements as well as to resist racking forces as bracing commonly in portal frames and
other buildings requiring resistance against large wind loads.


Combinations of rods

provide

a steel mesh wuited to concrete reinforcing that provides
tensional strength.


(Ref 40)

(Ref 42)

(Ref 57)

References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

One way rigid frame/one way braced


One way rigid frames are used quite extensively due to their ability to resist bending
loads in one direction with the inferior bending angle being able to be braced.


In general, this system requires the construction of a rigid system along the flexible plane
to resist racking forces.


This could be constructed using a number of systems including
cables, steel rods, wind
girders, a rigid diaphragm

(reinforced concrete floor or walls could constitute this) with
proper connections, a concrete core, or boxed/tubular steel sections making up rods
could provide a suitable structural solution for bracing.


Advantages


Cheaper joints used in braced plane


Can utilize I columns


usually rolled.


Utilises simple flexible joints in the braced plane.


Can use plastic design methods and continuous beam design in plane of rigid
connections


saving materials


Disadvantages


Restricts the layout as there are the requirements for bracing along one plane.


Utilises rigid connections in one plane.

Typical applications of one way rigid frameworks

Low rise industrial frames (portal frames)

Rectangular frames (especially where bracing can be accommodated within the perimeter)

Industrial structures

Architectural structures (bracing elements are often used as part of the architectural feature).

Steel


One way rigid frame / One way braced

(Ref 57)


References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Basic Framing Systems


Two way rigid framework

Two way rigid frameworks comprise two planes of rigid frames intersecting at right
angles using common columns at their intersection. Such frameworks resist lateral
forces in both planes by frame action without the need for any separate stabilizing
elements. All beam to column connections must be of a rigid type with the columns
may need to be of equal stiffness in both directions, with boxed or tubular columns
being suitable options.


Typical applications for two way rigid frames are:


Multi storey frames


Low rise

rectangular frames where layout requirements restrict the use of bracing
elements


Heavy industrial structures

where planning needs restrict the us of bracing
elements


Architectural structures

that can be modeled as two way rigid frames.


Advantages


Complete freedom in planning as there are no internal columns or requirements for
bracing along the sides that would interrupt openings.


Floor beams for multiple story buildings can be reduced due to the increased strength
as a result of the fixed ends.


Uses less materials


Plastic design methods can be utilised.


Rigid portal frames are more economical of the steel framed systems for the 15 to 45
meter range when compared to trussed construction for the same span.
p 24


Disadvantages


Necessitates more costly connections and columns to withstand greater forces
without the assistance of bracing.


Increased column section mass may reduce any savings in member size due to rigid
ends resulting in larger bending moments.


Columns should ideally have near equal stiffness in both directions which might entail
fabricated box columns.


Large column movements

Note: if economical construction is the driving force behind the structure, then a
balance must be met between the savings in materials versus the extra cost of rigid
construction.


Steel


Two way rigid frame

(Ref 41)

(Ref 57)


References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Two way braced framework

Two way braced frameworks rely on stabilizing bracing resisting
racking forces in all directions.
The framework itself can be
constructed using simple pin connections in combination with a rigid
floor system to resist distortion of the framework. This system


Advantages


Simple connections are possible and are the least costly type
(which can offset the costs of heavy beam construction)


The stabilizing elements can be arranged in a number of ways
including braced panels, cores and orthogonally arranged shear
walls which could be utilised in as walls around service blocks or
external walls.


External bracing could be used as an architectural feature.


Usually use I columns


Disadvantages


Restricts the layout as there is the requirement for bracing all
planes.


Little interaction between elements


Heavier beam sizes

Steel


Two way braced framework

(Ref 57)


(Ref 60)

References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Bracing elements


Stabilising elements whose function is to provide a means of
stabilizing the framework in either one or two planes may be divided
into the following categories:


Triangulated steel bracing panels
using the X, K or diamond
pattern of diagonal members.


Vertical Vierendeel cantilevers in steel.


Triangulated steel core.


Reinforced concrete or masonry shear walls.


Reinforced concrete or masonry cores or shear tubes


Brick infill panels and walls


Light metal cladding used on the stressed skin principle.


Steel


Bracing Elements

(Ref 57)


STEEL CABLE AND ROD


Steel Cable and steel rods are an increasingly common fixing
method for modern design utilising suspended systems and
glazing.

Able to be purchased from wholesalers in diameters up to 26mm,
cables are less rigid than rods but comparatively stronger as
there are no threads that add weakness to the system

For comparison, a grade 316 cable of 22mm diameter has a
breaking load of 285 Kn versus rod at 22.2 mm, has a
breaking strength of 169 Kn.


(Ref 59)

References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

An alternative building typology is the mast structure or tensile structure.



Mast architecture
consists of a tensile structure based on tall masts suspending smaller structural
elements in suspension cables or rods as secondary support elements. Rigid decking and flooring or
flexible roofing are able to be suspended off the mast in a number of formats and configurations
depending on the design parameters using fundamental loading principles in more complex
arrangements.




In general terms, mast architecture is considered costly and inefficient for the majority of applications.
Harris and Li suggest that “in terms of scale, the larger the unobstructed space needed, the more likely is
a masted structure to be an economic and effective solution” page 139. Unobstructed spaces as large as
87 x 104 meters have been described as the remarkably economic and others considered the most
economic with the most efficient use of material. But the same authors note that actually calculating the
price of mast structures is difficult and time consuming which might account for the construction industry’s
lack of enthusiasm for these structural styles in Australia. There is also difficulty in calculating the
economic contribution of a visually striking building and its appropriateness. Actual weight of steel used in
a mast structure is less than in regular structures per square meter of floor area, which is difficult to gauge
the usefulness of this information.

Steel


Mast Architecture

Next

(Ref 39)

(Ref 58)

References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Mast structures Advantages


Represent a significant alternative to traditional steel framed construction


They represent progress in conceptual analysis and theoretical and practical understandings of
how tensile structures behave.


They demonstrate the successful use of new materials and components, their fixing and
weatherproofing.


They show how creative architect engineer collaboration can result in innovative structures which
benefit both professions.


They have introduced a new architectural genre with its own vocabulary and range of structural
expression.

Th
e alternative arrangements of masts, tension stays and grouping of functional ‘cells’ can meet a wide variety of demands and
can

be
interpreted using many different materials and forms.

The reduction or complete absence of internal masts or columns over large areas increase their internal layout flexibility.

The regularity of the structural systems enables them to be easily extended, often with little disruption to the original fab
ric
.

The main structural foundations can be concentrated on areas of sound foundations and reduced where soil is less accepting.

Externalising the structure reduces the visual scale of the building adding interest to the façade (an alternative to an anon
ymo
us big
shed).

Building volume can be reduced allowing fewer materials to be used, less visual impact and reduced heating expense.

The structural efficiency of good design could lead to less structural materials and less costs as a result when compared to
tra
ditional
methods.

Reductions in component sizes can reduce transport costs and overall savings to design.


The disadvantages


There are likely to be higher costs due to difficulties in analysis, calculation and
checking, and in detailing.


Difficult to predict issues in construction and design due to generalized lack of
previous examples.


In most examples there will be increased thermal movement with implications to
the detailing of the structure and the envelope.


The loading of the structure will require more than usual consideration


Increased costs in corrosion proofing of steel work.


High performance roofing systems will usually need to be provided and
maintained.


Steel


Mast Architecture

(Ref 37)

(Ref 37)

(Ref 58)

References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Steel


Envelope Systems



External

non structural steel would constitute cladding and sheet materials.


Most steel sheet products are non structural in that they form a cladding envelope in the
form of a roof or walls. Although there is some racking force resistance benefits, these light
weight steel sheets are well suited to cladding arrangements.


Jointing methods.


Riveting


early steel construction utilised riveting predominantly which was slow,
cumbersome, noisy and by today’s standards very dangerous. Riveting utilses hot rivets
being forced through pre drilled holes and forming a head on the stem to keep the rivet in
place.


Bolting



Still used for many situations to fix elements together on site, steel bolts and nuts
are used to connect trusses, beams, floor plates, bracing.


Welding



Welding essentially involves heating the metals to great temperature in a
controlled manner so the metal will flow together and form one piece of metal.
Developments in welding equipment sees much work done on site. Jointing beams and
fixing shear connectors on decked concrete slabs is a good example of welding increasing
productivity through this development in welding technology. (Ref 42)


Steels’ tensile and compressive strength in fire situations where larger temperatures are encountered should also
be considered during the design process. Application of post construction fire retardants can be utilised to reduce
the impact of heating such elements by increasing the fire resistance rating of the elements (Ref 42)



Steel


Fire Rating

Steel column fire protection

References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Simple judicial design of a steel structure can determine the potential economy of the structure. Through consultations with
fab
ricators and
builders, a clear picture of the best methods should be determined.

The ability to design for the maximum amount of work to be completed off site is typically beneficial.

Rolled universal sections are typically the cheapest for use in beams and columns. Composite columns could be used in high ri
se
to good effect
with square hollow sections giving good appearance.

Base plates should be minimal in fabrication requirements and utilise larger plates in stead.

Heavier gauge columns can save in stead of stiffners.


Sizing.

Sizing in beams depends on span, spacing and loading. If the beam carries more point loads, suggestions are even more difficu
lt.

In general for
uniformly distributed loads the sizes are


Imposed load


Spacing

Span

Size composite

Size non composite

5



3

6

254x102xUB25

305x127xUB42

5



3

7.5

305x102xUB33

356x171xUB51

5



3

9

356x171xUB45

457x152xub60

5



3

12

457x191xUB67

610x229xUB101

5



3

18

754x266xUB147

762x267xUB103

(NB supporting beams will be 100 to 150 mm deeper than these above)


Column size is not something easily reduced and columns should be no less than 250 mm wide for ease of detailing

Trusses with centres of 3 to 6 meters carrying uniformly distributed is economic and reliable between one 12
th

to one 15
th

of the span.


Steel


Rules of Thumb

(Ref 13)

References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies




Steel


Conclusion

Intended
Office

recommendations for design



Steel corrugated sheets for office roofing.


Aluminium window framing


Roof framing system


Intended
Warehouse

recommendations for design



Stainless Steel cable for tent structural support


Hollow Steel Section for central column.


Stainless steel fixings for exterior fixing requirements


Steel columns for mezzanine support


Steel roller doors for truck entry and exit


References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Concrete
-

General Information


Concrete technology was first developed
by the Romans more than 2000 years ago
using a mixture of fine volcanic ash with
hydrated lime cement, broken brick and
stone.



Modern Concrete is an artificial stone
produced in a plastic condition by mixing
together aggregates (sand and crushed
rock) and Portland cement and water in
controlled proportions. The characteristics
of concrete depend largely on the qualities
and proportions of these ingredients.



Due to the nature of the chemical bonds
which form concrete it is extremely strong
under compression but weak under tension.
It is for this reason that concrete is
reinforced with steel, a material which can
under go high tensile forces with less
permanent deformation


(Ref 42)

(Ref 43)

References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Concrete


Structural Systems

Next

Footings



Strip footings

Overview


A strip of reinforced concrete is poured into a trench dug in the
foundations to support continuous walls.

Pros


Can be used independently or in a combination to support a range of
suspended flooring systems common on sites with steep slopes


Allows access to services after construction.


Cons


Can be used on flat sites but is a more expensive alternative to raft
slabs on flat sites.



Pad footing




Pad footings

Overview


A pad of reinforced concrete is poured into the foundations to support
distribute point loads from piers supporting the structure.

Pros


Can be used independently or in a combination to support a range of
suspended flooring systems common on sites with steep slopes


Allows access to services after construction.


Cons


Can be used on flat sites but is a more expensive alternative to raft
slabs on flat sites.

(Ref 44)

References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies


Pier and Beam


Overview


On highly reactive sites and areas of collapsing or uncontrolled fill, piers or piles
may be used to support the above structure. Piers are excavated and then
poured with steel reinforcement before the system above is attached.

Pros


Effective solution for building on uncontrolled fill

Cons


Labour and time intensive


Requires detailed design specifications by an engineer.




Raft slab

Overview


A continuous slab of concrete is poured on the foundations with reinforcement to
evenly distribute loads over a large shallow area.

Pros


Easy to construct on flat sites


Minimum number of steps for access


Provides a good working platform


Low maintenance


Low long term movement


Robust and difficult to manage


Good thermal properties


Cons


Not suited to large sloping sites


Floor plan alterations difficult in the future (plumbing and other services)


Costly to repair


Can not detect structural integrity of slab


Concrete


Structural Systems

Previous

(Ref 44)

References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Concrete


Structural Systems

Next

Roof

Structure


Shell and barrel roof

Overview


A steel reinforced concrete barrel roof is cast on site after walls are
erected. Formwork must be erected and extensive calculations
must be made by a structural engineer.

Pros


easily constructed if it permits use of standardised forms


can achieve long spans without column support internally


cast on site so no transportation costs


Cons


Labour and time intensive


Extensive formwork required

Wall Structure


Tilt up

Overview


A concrete floor slab used as the principal casting bed and wall
panels are cast on site capable of bearing the load of the roof
construction. These panels are usually cast full height, with no
horizontal joints, on the floor slab and are then tilted to their
vertical position when cured.

Pros


No transport costs


Easier lifting


Wide range of applied finishes available


Good acoustic properties


Time efficient


Can be used in either a load bearing or non
-
load bearing
capacity


Cons


Limits usability of floor


Causes imperfections in floor finish due to the effects of bond
breakers


Must allow for crane access



References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Concrete


Structural Systems

Previous

Pre cast

Overview



Reinforced concrete panels are cast off site capable of
bearing the load of the roof construction.


Like tilt up these panels are usually cast full height with
no horizontal joints and are most effective when used
in repetition. These panels are then transported to the
site and lifted to their vertical position using cranes.


Pros


Greater degree of accuracy achieved than through tilt
up method


Can be designed to serve almost any building capacity


Can be used in either a load bearing or non
-
load
bearing capacity


Good acoustic properties


Wide range of applied finishes available


Cons


Transportation costs


Must allow for crane access


Pre Stressed

Overview


Steel reinforcement is stressed prior to pouring of concrete
the pre
-
stressing process aims to place a tensile stress into
the tension steel prior to the load being applied


The system can be used both in situ and pre
-
cast work, a
common example of this system are T
-
beams.

Pros


Eliminates cracking due to shrinkage while drying


Deflection a member normally incurs under loading can be
greatly eliminated and the waterproofing and load bearing
qualities of the concrete improved


Cons


The same heights and spans can be achieved more
effectively through used of steel members which are smaller
in size



References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Concrete


Envelope Systems



Internal

Next



Polished concrete

Overview


Concrete surface of slab on ground or suspended slab left
exposed as the final floor finish. Liquid polishes, latex coatings,
chemical sealers, grinding and colouring agents can be applied to
achieve a variety of finishes.

Pros


Variety of colours, textures and finishes are available.Easily
maintained, only regular cleaning required

Cons


Requires recoating at regular intervals depending on use of the
floor.


Structural integrity dependant on quality of concrete mix and
workmanship.


Flooring

Bondek


Overview


Steel structural formwork and reinforcement system for composite
slabs and beams.


Used in combination with reinforced concreted to create a
suspended slab.

Pros


Achieves thin, high strength slabs with minimal labour and time.


Is suitable for mezzanine floors


Acts as formwork and replaces bottom reinforcement.

Cons


Limited unsupported spaning capacitiesOnly available in standard
lengths.


(Ref 45)

References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Concrete


Envelope Systems



Internal

Previous

Wall Cladding



Fibro cement sheeting

Overview


Single
-
faced cellulose fibre reinforced cement building boards are
available for use in exterior and interior cladding uses these are
generally composed of Portland cement, ground sand, cellulose
fibre and water.

Pros


Fire resistant


Termite resistant


When installed correctly is resistant to rot and warping


Resistant to permanent water damage


Cons


No allowance for acoustic insulation


Available in a limited range of lengths


Ceilings



Fibre reinforced cement


Overview


Single
-
faced cellulose fibre reinforced cement building boards are
available for fixing between rafters on ceilings these are generally
composed of Portland cement, ground sand, cellulose fibre and
water.


Pros


Fire resistant


Termite resistant


When installed correctly is resistant to rot and warping


Resistant to permanent water damage

Cons


No allowance for acoustic insulation


Available in a limited range of lengths


References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Concrete


Envelope Systems



External

Next

Wall cladding


Tilt up

Overview


A concrete floor slab used as the principal casting bed and wall
panels are cast on site capable of bearing the load of the roof
construction. These panels are usually cast full height, with no
horizontal joints, on the floor slab and are then tilted to their
vertical position when cured.

Pros


No transport costs


Easier lifting


Wide range of applied finishes available


Good acoustic properties


Time efficient


Can be used in either a load bearing or non
-
load bearing
capacity

Cons


Limits usability of floor


Causes imperfections in floor finish due to the effects of bond
breakers


Must allow for crane access



Pre cast


Overview


Reinforced concrete panels are cast off site capable of bearing
the load of the roof construction.Like tilt up these panels are
usually cast full height with no horizontal joints and are most
effective when used in repetition. These panels are then
transported to the site and lifted to their vertical position using
cranes.

Pros


Greater degree of accuracy achieved than through tilt up
method


Can be designed to serve almost any building capacity


Can be used in either a load bearing or non
-
load bearing
capacity


Good acoustic properties


Wide range of applied finishes available


Cons


Transportation costs


Must allow for crane access

(Ref 52)

References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies



Concrete


Envelope Systems



External

Previous


Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Blocks


Overview


Standard sized blocks made from chemically produced and steam
cured lightweight concrete and are laid up using special
adhesives.

Pros


Easily handled, accurate to shape and size, and can be cut and
shaped with normal hand tools


High fire resistance


Excellent thermal and acoustic insulating properties


Cons


Easily damaged due to their softnes


Through cement rendering they can be made reasonably resistant
to normal abuses


Concrete tiles


Overview


Concrete roofing tiles based on the Marseilles pattern without
reinforcing.


Pros


In locations such as ocean frontages they are not affected by salt
spray.


Easily replaced as faults will most likely occur in one or two tiles at a
time


Cons


Generally heavier than terracotta products


Labour and time intensive to install


Only suitable for certain roof pitches ie unsuitable for flat or steep roof
surfaces.


References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Concrete


Drainage Systems


Steel Reinforced Concrete Pipes

Overview


steel reinforced concrete pipes made from coarse
and fine aggregates, cement and hard drawn
deformed steel reinforcement
, joined using either
a flush joint or rubber joint.

Pros


Rubber Ring Joints provide concrete pipes with a
high degree of flexibility to accommodate ground
settlement or deflections.


Pipeline systems can allow for curved alignment
without loosing water tight jointing.


Can be tailor designed to meet the most drainage
requirements.


Can withstand high pressures whilst still maintaining
structural integrity


Available in a wide range of sizes in either standard
or custom lengths.

Cons


Certain pipelines may require council approval

(Ref 55)

References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Concrete


Rules of Thumb

Reinforced Concrete Slabs

In
-
situ slabs are generally not less than 125 to 150mm thick. If the
thickness is less it is difficult to get two layers of reinforcement in


Sensible spans for light weight and normal concrete on metal deck
or permanent formwork are 2.4 to 3.6m.


One way spanning simply supported reinforced slabs. Sensible
slab depths and spans are:


150mm 3.0m


250mm 6.0m


300mm 7.2m


Above a 7.2m span it is economical to use a ribbed slab.


Ribbed slab depths (ribs at about 600mm centres) and spans are:


500mm 10.0m


700mm 14.0m


It is not usual to go much beyond 14m without using a beam and
slab system.


Two way spanning and continuious slabs can be a bit thinner.


Sensible slab depths and spans are:


125mm 3.0m


225mm 6.0m


275mm 7.2m


Large span two
-
way slabs are not usually used.


Flat slabs are always continuous but need to be a bit thicker than
two way slabs


Sensible slab spans and depths are:


150mm 3.0m


250mm 6.0m


300mm 7.2m


Above a 7.2m span it is usually economic to use a waffle slab.
Rib centres are usually in the range of 900 to 1500mm centres.


Sensible waffle slab depths are:


500mm 10.0m


700mm 14.0m


It is not usual to go much beyond 14m.

Reinforced Concrete Walls


Walls should normally be at least 200mm thick. If the wall is
thinner it is very difficult to get a vibrating poker down between two
layers of reinforcement


Walls need tp be thicker than 200mm when the storey height is
greater than normal.


Retaining walls need to e 250 to 300mm minimum and of a
thickness appropriate to their vertical span.


Freestanding cantilever walls need to be more massive to resist
overturning.


Reinforced Concrete Beams


For edge beams to slabs when the beam does not carry point
loads from other beams or columns above. Sensible beam depths
and spans are:


500mm 6.0m


600mm 7.2m


700mm 8.0m


Above this span allow “span divided by 10” for
sizing of all beams.


Reinforced Concrete Columns


Allow 0.15 per cent of the floor area supported for sway
-
braced
columns assuming the column length is not greater than 12 times
the width. Columns should not be less than 250mm wide.

(Ref 13)

References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Concrete


Fire Rating

Concrete column fire protection

(Ref 20)

References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies



Concrete


Conclusion

Intended Office recommendations for design



Tilt up walls for office space (south, east and west)


Raft slab footings

Intended Warehouse recommendations for design



Retaining wall/ footing system


Raft slab footing


Concrete is a very versatile building material in that it can be cast in a wide variety of shapes and sizes to suit many buil
din
g
applications.



Although concrete is weak under tensile stress when used in combination with steel in the form of reinforcement it is a stron
g b
uilding
material.



As concrete has a high resistance to the corrosive effects of water and minerals (with the use of admixtures) it can be used
in
a wide
variety of building applications.



Concrete also has extremely good thermal and noise insulation properties, it is for this reason that it is often used in a lo
ad
bearing or
non load bearing capacity in wall systems.



Although concrete is often seen as cold and unpleasant to the eye it is commonly used as it is cost and time effective and c
an
easily
be treated with a variety of colours and textures to make it more aesthetically pleasing.

References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Timber


General Information


Timber is a very popular material, as it is organic, renewable and generally assembled with
simple tools.


Parallel to the grain timber has a relatively equal compressive and tensile strength


One downside to the use of timber is that its properties are generally not uniform, this is
predominantly because of the variation in moisture content of the timber and the air, which
can cause expansion and shrinkage of the timber.


It is on the other hand fire resistant when used in large sections.
(Ref 21)


Another downside of timber is the fact that without the correct detailing and regular
maintenance it will have a long or successful structural life.


Laminated timber has less defects and irregularities than normal timber, and the effects of
their defects are reduced. This is because the grain of the thin slices of timber run
perpendicular to the one next to them (i.e. the grain no longer lines up), and therefore the
defects would no longer line up.


Some of the common defects are knots, shakes and gum veins


Manufactured timber products used in construction


Plywood


Laminated timber


Laminated veneer lumber



References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Timber


Structural Systems


Portal Frames



Timber is
good for portal frames because timber has a good
strength
-
to
-
weight ratio
.


Laminated timber can span 10
-
30m
, and can therefore be very useful in portal frame
construction.


Portal frames

with curved knees are used as 3 pinned portals with spans up to 50m
,

with
minimum roof pitch of 15 degrees




Timber portal frames
can be added to

easily

in the future


For timber portal frames
plywood

or steel

gusset
s are

nailed at
the
moment joints (knee
and apex)
, for added strength, and act as a reaction to the moment force at that particular
point






When creating a gusset it is more efficient to use a piece of plywood with a more
pronounced strength in one direction.



Glued laminated timber is especially suited to portal frame production as there is a
freedom of location of moment joints as well as the placement of secondary member
attachments.


Typical Portal Frame (Ref 24)

Curved Knee (Ref 24)

Plywood

Gusset

(Ref 24)

Steel Gusset

(Ref 24)

Plywood Gusset (Ref 24)

References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Structural Systems

Footings



Timber is not commonly used as part of
the footings on commercial construction


Construction


Timber on the whole is
easy to handle
,
and doesn’t require special tools unlike
steel and concrete etc.


When timber is used as the structural
system for warehouses the majority of the
construction process is carried out on
site.


Generally
only a carpenter is needed

when using timber in construction.



Trusses


Laminated timber is suitable for large
spans and/or heavy loaded trusses.
(Ref 21)


Plywood Webbed Beams


Plywood webbed box beams are good for
large span structures
as they have good

lateral stability
, along with increased
buckling resistance. This occurs because
the laminating process increases the
strength of the timber member.
(Ref 22)


Roofing


Plywood can also be used as a substrate
for roofing.


Flooring


Timber is commonly used as floor
structure in residential and some
commercial construction. Used as floor
joists, bearers and as flooring.






References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Timber


Envelope Systems



Internal


When timber is used as rafters you can decide to expose them, in turn giving the building or room
a very different
aesthetic quality
.


Timber can also be used as
decorative internal lining
, therefore making interior surfaces that are
also

aesthetically pleasing
.


Plywood
can be

used as

a decorative internal lining
.


When using
plywood

as

flooring large areas
can

be covered quickly
, making the process of laying
much simpler.


It is also very common to use as flooring, particularly in commercial premises such as offices.

References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Timber


Envelope Systems



External


The most commonly used form of external cladding when referring to timber is
timber boards

(i.e.
weather boards). It is for this reason that they

come in a
variety

of profiles
.








When used externally timber
can be left in
its
natural state
, as there are some naturally durable
species,

or finished with a preservative,

either

clear, stain
ed

or opaque (
i.
e. Paint)
.


It is for the reasons above that means that the external use of timber
becomes integral part of

the
design
.


When used
for external purposes especially there is a lot of maintenance required, as well as
good detailing at joints, and adequate fixings
.


If timber is used as external cladding you also get the added advantage of extra
stability
,

which is
an

asset in high quality work
.


While most timber products are suitable for external use laminated veneer lumber is

not
recommended for use in

areas where

permanent exposure to
the
weather

is required.


(Ref 35)

(Ref 35)

(Ref 35)

References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Plywood


when dealing with fixings


















(Ref 36)

Timber


Rules of Thumb



When dealing with timber in general the major concern, and therefore crucial rules of thumb
is to do with the detailing of the joints, the finishes, and the quality of the fixings

References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Timber


Fire Rating

Fire rating


M
ain members (if solid timber) can be designed to support their design loads in even the
severest of fires
, as the surface of solid and laminated timber chars and then resists further
burning


According to the Boral Timber technical manual (July 98) visible timber based materials or
components such as decorative wall or ceiling paneling and flooring which are accepted for
use in building classed 2
-
9 should have a spread of flame index not more than 9, or a smoke
development index not more than eight where the spread of flame index is more than 5.



Timber Floors and Roofs


If half hour fire rating with load bearing capacity,
integrity and insulation is required the internal
lining needs to be 6mm thick, and you have 19mm
tongue
-
and
-
groove flooring with a minimum 38mm
joists at 600mm centres


If 1 hour fire rating with load bearing capacity,
integrity and insulation is required, and you have
concealed timber joists or exposed timber joists
you will need 9mm thick internal lining, with
insulation with a density of 60kg/m
³ or greater and
that is 40mm thick, along with timber floor boards
that are 19mm thick.


If 2 hours of fire rating with load bearing capacity,
integrity and insulation is required, you will need 2
x 12mm thick internal lining, with insulation that
has a density of 60kg/m
³ or greater and that is
50mm thick, along with timber floor boards that are
19mm thick.



Internal Partitions


Timber Studs


If half hour fire rating, integrity and insulation are
required the internal lining on each side needs to be
6mm thick, with insulation that is 60mm thick and has a
density of 23kg/m
³, and therefore the nominal thickness
of 75mm


If an hours fire rating, integrity and insulation is
required the nominal thickness of partition should be
81mm, the internal lining on each side needs to be 9mm
thick, with insulation that is 80mm thick and has a
density of 23kg/m
³.


If 1.5 hours fire rating, integrity and insulation is
required the nominal thickness of partition should be
81mm, the internal lining on each side needs to be 9mm
thick, with insulation that is 50mm thick and has a
density of 100kg/m
³ or more.


If 2 hours fire rating, integrity and insulation is required
the nominal thickness of partition should be 87mm, the
internal lining on each side needs to be 12mm thick, with
insulation that is 60mm thick and has a density of
100kg/m
³ or more.



Ref 20 (E 420.10 and E 460.10)

Timber column fire protection

References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Timber


Conclusion


Timber on the whole is versatile, in that one of its many features is the fact that a timber structure
can be easily added to after completion.


Timber also has the ability to absorb high impact loads for short periods of time without causing
any adverse effects.


Timber can also be manufactured into long lengths and large section sizes.


It is also economical because generally only a carpenter is required, with no need for specialized
tool
s
.


It is also because of its natural pleasing appearance that timber is so commonly used, with
relation to flooring and other internal linings, and why in some cases it is a preference over steel.


Intended Office recommendations for design



Exposed beam mezzanine hardwood floor


Hardwood stairs

Intended Warehouse recommendations for design



Aluminium faced plywood cladding

References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies


Polytetrafluoroethylene glass fibre coated
fabric

General

Description

:
Fabrics woven from continuous filament glass
yarns and coated with PTFE to give a stiff, flexible, fairly smooth
surfaced material that is chemically inert with excellent release
properties
.
(Ref 1)
Envelope system



Glass Blocks

General Description:
small transparent glass bricks that can provide
fire protection, thermal properties, light transmission and sound
insulation
.
Envelope system




Crystallised glass

General Description:

It is made by the highly sophisticated and
specialized technique of crystallization of glass. The crystallization
process produces needle
-
shaped crystals called B
-
wollastonite
(CaOSi02) and gives the glass a soft colour which results in the
marble
-
like texture of Neoparies
.
(Ref 2)

Envelope system



Plastic sheeting Rooflight Fibreglass


General Description:
Rooflite Fibreglass

is a quality translucent fibre
reinforced polyester sheet
.
(Ref 4)
Envelope system






Glass and Plastic


General Information


Glass Balustrades

General Description:
Bent, curved or straight glass
sheets supported by posts or free standing
.

Envelope systems



Spider Tension Truss system

Glass sheeting suspended by cables

Envelope system


Overhead Glazing
Glass sheeting suspended by
cables overhead



Envelope system


Balastrade system


Envelope system

Glass manufacture

Constituents of glass


Sand


Soda ash


Limestone


Dolomite


Alumina


Heat to 1500 C, float over tn bath, annealed to 500 C

Planar (structural glazing)

General Description:
Fully Fixed Pilkington Armourfloat®
toughened safety glass panels can be supported by
fully
-
fixed support structures using the Pilkington
Planar® system. These can take the form of space
frames, structural metalwork, masonry, or any other
suitable structure
.
(Ref 5)


Envelope system

References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Glass and Plastic


Structural Systems


Glass is not structural, for glass to be structural it requires other materials
see the
construction processes

(Ref 8)

References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Glass and Plastic


Envelope Systems




External
(according to Ref 1)


Pro’s


used for permanent constructions


material has very high tensile resistance


Material is UV resistant,


non
-
combustible and


boasts a high reflective capability


membrane is washed clean every time it rains and therefore
normally does not require additional cleaning


100% PVDF on the surface, it provides effective protection
against atmospheric pollution, soiling and climatic
aggressions


Solar Transmission 7%


Solar Reflectance 12%


Fire Performance


Non
-
combustibility of Substrate Pass (ASTM E
-
136)


Intermittent Flame Class A (ASTM E
-
108)


Spread of Flame Class A (ASTM E
-
108)


External Fire Exposure Roof Test Class AA (BS 476
-
Part 3)


Fire Propagation Class 0 (BS 476
-
Part 6)


Spread of Flame Class 1 (BS 476
-
Part 7)


Chemical Resistance


Electrical Properties


Physical Properties


Thermal Properties

Polytetrafluoroethylene glass fiber coated fabric

Is fabric that is stiff, flexible, and has a fairly smooth surface that is chemically inert with excellent
release properties.


Con’s

-

Toxic


Chemicals in the making of the material which may cause death or
acute or chronic damage to health when inhaled, ingested or
absorbed via the skin.

-

Irritant


Non
-
corrosive chemicals in the making of the material which,
through immediate, prolonged or repeated contact with the
skin or mucous membrane may cause inflammation

References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Chemical Resistance


Acids
-

concentrated

Good

Acids
-

dilute

Good

Alcohols

Good

Alkalis

Good

Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Good

Greases and Oils

Good

Halogens

Fair

Ketones

Good

Electrical Properties


Surface Resistivity ( Ohm/sq )

>10
13

Volume Resistivity ( Ohmcm )

>10
15

Physical Properties


Density ( g cm
-
3

)

2.08

Thermal Properties


Lower Working Temperature ( C )

-
190 to
-
60

Upper Working Temperature ( C )

260

(Ref 1)


References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Glass and Plastic


Envelope Systems




External

Pro’s


Thermal protection

(see chart)


Sound insulation


Fire protection

(see chart)


Glass Blocks can
protect against fire and smoke
,
achieving Fire Resistance Levels from
-
/60/
-

to
-
/90/90 in
extreme cases


Can be used as floors or walls


Need little maintenance


offer
great versatility where fire protection is required
,
but where natural light and/or transparency are desirable.


Glass block walls offer a high degree of light transmission,
up to 79% of vertically incident light.


-

colourless block DT 190 x 190 x 80 generally gives light
transmission of approximately 80%


Glass block walls
can reduce the heating of rooms

caused by direct sunlight in summer and warm rooms in
winter by allowing heating from the sun while it is at a low
angle


Glass Block walls offer a
high level of security
, with steel
reinforced joints acting as a security grill. Bullet resistant
blocks are also available


-

Thermal Insulation and Energy transmission

is equal to
that achieved by standard double glazing

Glass Blocks (Ref 3)

General Description:
small transparent glass bricks that can provide fire
protection, thermal properties, light transmission and sound insulation.


Con’s


Non load bearing
-

should not take anything but their own
weight


reinforcement is required


must be fixed on two opposite sides, so that the horizontal
forces from the wall are safely distributed


Suitable expansion and sliding joints must be provided to
ensure that wall movements, as well as compressive forces,
are absorbed. Sliding joints must be provided at the
perimeter, while expansion joints must be filled with a durable
and weatherproof elastic material. The latter must be a
minimum of 10 mm thick


Vertical and horizontal reinforcement shall be spaced at a
maximum of 600 mm
centres

-
glass can be scratched

-
Panel Dimensions

should be limited depending on the
method of installation

References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

(Ref 3)

References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Glass and Plastic


Envelope Systems




External

Pro’s


marble like texture


is brighter, smoother and more uniform in texture than
marble


superior to marble and granite in strength and resistance to
weathering


formation into curved surfaces because it can be softened
and bent when heat is applied


is used for exterior and interior walls of buildings, floors, and
for counter tops and table tops


Neopariés is superior to marble and granite in resistance to
acid and alkali


a zero
-
percent water absorption rate


This makes this material about 30% lighter in weight than
natural stone materials



(Ref 2)

Crystallised glass

General Description:

Neopariés is a versatile building material having a
marble
-
like texture and greater strength and resistance to weathering
than granite. It is used for exterior and interior walls of buildings, floors,
and for counter tops and table tops. Neopariés can also be formed into
columns and curved corners, as it requires only a simple process to
make a curved panel. It is most cost effective.
(Ref 2)



Con’s


Non load bearing


Needs structural support

References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Glass and Plastic


Envelope Systems




External

Pro’s


Used where maximum light with minimum heat is required


heat reduction of up to 70%.


where improved smoke properties are required


for easy and rapid installation


Rooflite Polycarbonate can withstand a temperature range
of
-
30
°
C to +120
°
C without losing any of its physical
properties.


by a co
-
extruded UV layer


capacity of shielding up to 99% of the sun's rays


See fig 1 and fig 2 for specifications

Plastic sheeting Rooflight Fibreglass



General Description:
Rooflite Fibreglass

is a quality translucent fibre
reinforced polyester sheet.
(Ref 4)

Con’s


light transmission of 38%

The following indices have been achieved:

for AS 1530 Part 3



Ignitability Index: 15


Heat evolved Index: 10



Spread of flame Index: 9


Smoke Developed Index: 7


Physical Properties


Barcol Hardness 45



Flexural Strength 90MPA



Flexural Modulus 7GPA



Compressive Strength 139MPA



Shear Strength 90MPA



Impact Strength 531CJ/M2



Thermal expansion 1.9x10
5
CM/
°
C



Specific Gravity 1.45GMS/CC



Water Absorption (24hrs) 0.24



Service Temperature

Recommended:
-
20
°
C to 75
°
C

Light & Solar Transmission

R
o
o
f
l
i
t
e

F
i
b
r
e
g
l
a
s
s


COLOUR

LIGHT TRANSMISSION

HEAT TRANSMISSION

Clear

85%

89%

Opal


55%

65%


Based on 2400gsm.

Total Solar Transmission is the % of incident solar radiation transmitted by an object
which includes the direct solar transmission plus the part of solar absorption re
-
radiated
inwards.


Fig 1

Fig 2

(Ref 4)


(Ref 4)


(Ref 4)


References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Pro’s


can provide a complete glass envelope for a building
structure without the use of conventional frames or
mullions..


It is engineered to permit glazing in any plane, enabling
flush glazing to sweep up walls, slopes and over roofs on
one continuous surface vertically or horizontally, or


they can act in suspension manufactured in Australia to
conform with Australian Standard 2208 "Safety Glazing
Materials for use in Buildings


vertical fins which may be either cantilevered downwards
from the top support, cantilevered up and down from
intermediate floors, or continuous for the full height of the
assembly


Aesthetic function can be achieved


Has been used throughout the world, including areas which
are prone to earthquakes, typhoons and hurricanes



Vertical fins can be placed in different ways for a desired
affect


differential movement is allowed for between the glass
façade and the fins

Glass and Plastic


Envelope Systems




External

Planar (structural glazing)

General Description:
Fully Fixed Pilkington Armourfloat® toughened safety
glass panels can be supported by fully
-
fixed support structures using the
Pilkington Planar® system. These can take the form of space frames,
structural metalwork, masonry, or any other suitable structure. (Ref 5)




Con’s


Heat transmission


Lack of insulation

References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Glass and Plastic


Envelope Systems




Glass Balustrades

Pro’s


Armourview® Balustrades



Pilkington ArmourView® Balustrading is ideal wherever a barrier
protecting a difference in level must also maximize views and daylight:


Stairways and landings.


Commercial and retail premises, including atrium & light wells.


Housing decks (viewing decks).


High
-
rise apartments.


Mezzanines, and changes in floor levels
.


Observation decks.


Theatre boxes and cinema balconies.


Windbreaks.


Free
-
standing
-

eliminates the need for any form of frame structure
allowing unrestricted views


Low
-
maintenance


Structurally tested


Easy installation


Heat Soak Treatment

Glass Balustrades

General Description:
Bent, curved or straight glass sheets supported by
posts or free standing.

Con’s


Maximum height
-

1200


Glass length minimum 1000mm.


Max length
-

2500


Design does not account for Panic loads that may be required, refer
AS1170.1.


Construction dust, leachate from concrete and rusting from steel can
contribute to the formation of mild chemicals which may stain or otherwise
damage the glass.


Avoid causing extreme temperature changes as this may lead to thermal
fracture of the glass, i.e. do not splash hot water on cold glass or freezing
water on hot glass.



(according to Ref 5)

References

Acknowledgments

Construction

Process

Envelope

Systems

Materials +

Components

Structural

Systems

Case

Studies

Glass and Plastic


Envelope Systems




Spider Tension Truss System
according to (Ref 9)

Pro’s


Completely flush external appearance, uninterrupted by
frames.


Suspended point fixed glass with high tension stainless steel
vertical rod trusses as wind bracing.


Trusses are tensioned between the concete floor slab and roof


4m x 3m Tested with 5kPa wind pressure


flexibility allows the austvision Spider Austfix Tension Rod
Truss System designed as vertical and or horizontal truss
support


removes heavy wall structures and replaces it with a
lightweight tension truss system


can withstand specified earthquake and typhoon conditions


Available for monolithic and double glazing installation unit.


Available using tempered laminated without outside face
having holes.


Design freedom for mechanical fixtures to be small and neat to
suit aesthetic objectives


can be up to 6m high suspended glass wall structurally
supported by a 19mm thick x 380mm wide glass fin


For Frameless glass
-

overhead glazing including slope glazing
and canopy the glass panel is point supported at and near its
corners when under loading the glass panel to flex and bend,
twist and shear at the fixing points


Spider glass wall a system that allows the glass to move
independently from the structure avoiding any twisting or
bending of the glass


Can have glazing from the floor to the ceiling


All glass fully tempered and heat soaked, assuring safety and
reliability


Con’s

-

Special requirements and specifications compliance as to the
glass itself

-

Its support

-

fittings

-

tightness of the façade system

-

installation and maintenance

-

builders (everyone involved) must work in very close cooperation
from the very start of the project

CALCULATED MAX