ENTC 352/452 Resistor

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ENTC 352/452

Resistor

Dec 2011 Rev 1.0

Department of Engineering Technology and Industrial Distribution

Texas A&M University, 3367 TAMU

College Station, TX 77843
-
3367



© 2011 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

Limited Reproduction Rights at Texas A&M
University/ETID


This document may be reproduced by Texas A&M University under the Software Product Support
Agreement solely for internal use by the university’s students whose responsibilities include
Teradyne equipment. Any copy of this document, or portions thereof, must contain copyright and
propriety rights notice as stated on the original.



Copyright 2010 Texas A&M University, Inc.

Printed in the U.S.A.


Department of Engineering Technology and Industrial Distribution


Thompson 010C


3367 TAMU


College Station TX 77843
-
3367


Material contained in this document is subject to change without prior notice. TAMU assumes no
responsibility for the completeness or accuracy of this document. Use or reproduction of this
document is restricted.


Restricted Rights


Use, duplication, or disclosure by the Government is subject to restrictions as set forth in
paragraph (c) (1) (ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software clauses at 252.227
-
7013.


Acknowledgements


FLEX, microFLEX, and UltraFLEX training documents contain references to Windows NT,
Windows 2000, Windows XP, Microsoft Visual Basic, Teradyne Inc IG
-
XL, VBT, and hardware.

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

2

Required for Resistor Lab

DCVI
-
30 Instrument

Utility Bits

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

3

Advice from a Test Engineer


Basic Electronics from the ATE Viewpoint


Each of us has some education in basic electronics. We understand the relationships of
voltage, current, and power and we have some basic knowledge about connections, grounding
and measurement. When we move from the bench
-
top or prototyping environment to the
Automated Test Equipment (ATE) environment, the fundamentals still apply. However, the
practical aspects of the application change. Ground now becomes either the point of reference,
or the point of attachment of earth ground. All current paths are now round trip from a source
and back to that source. In other words, the environment affects the application of theory.

What is a Circuit?


A circuit is the full path from a signal source and back to that source. Because Automated Test
Equipment signal sources may have several different power supplies and may be at frequencies
that are not easily biased to a remote ground, recognition and understanding of the full ground
path is important.


Yes, I did say a “remote ground.” In the case of most measurements the reference ground is a
selected DUT pin. This pin is attached directly to the ATE ground return, but to be correct the
various sources and measurement systems must be referenced to this point in the ground
system. For DC purposes, this is accomplished by something known as a
guarded Kelvin
connection
. In a guarded Kelvin connection current forcing takes place over one conductor and
a parallel conductor
senses

the voltage at the Device Under Test (DUT). ”


With permission from Les Howell, the author, from his manuscript



The Real Tester is the Applications Engineer”

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

4

DC30 Per
-
Pin Resources


Per
-
Pin Power Resource (DC30)


20 Channel V/Is and 20 Meters


Broad
-
based DC for Power and Portable Apps


Device Power Supply


Functional DC source and measurement


Automotive, Printer Peripherals


Kelvin instrument (HF, HS, LF, LS) LF = ground, LS = DGS


4 quadrant instrument


Ground referenced

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

5

DCVI Modes of Operation


Force Voltage


Force Current


High Impedance (HiZ)


Allows the VI to switch to high output impedance and follow the DUT voltage


See Notes on DCVI High Impedence Mode


Force High Regulation Voltage


High Regulation mode is used on a DUT power pin that requires that the
voltage level be maintained during current transients.


Voltage regulation is improved by reducing the output impedance of the V/I
channel while maintaining stability of the control loop.

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

6

Notes on DCVI High Impedance Mode


To protect the DUT from possible voltage spikes, you must observe
certain restrictions when programming a DCVI in high impedance mode or
after a DCVI is in high impedance mode.


IG
-
XL issues a run
-
time error if you attempt to do any of the following:


Connect high force while the DCVI is in high impedance mode. This restriction
is new for the DC30 and DC75, but the DC90 has always enforced this
restriction.


Program high impedance mode while the high force is connected. This
restriction is new for the DC30 and DC75, but the DC90 has always enforced
this restriction.


Define a PSet where the DCVI is programmed to high impedance.

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

7

DAC

DCVI

Driver

Force

Sense

Load

DAC

DCVI

Driver

Force

Sense

Load

DCVI Gated Off

DCVI Hi
-
Z

DAC

Force

Sense

Load

DCVI FI or FV

DCVI

Driver

DCVI Connections


Note: DC30 Hi
-
Z mode
Compliance is set to 30

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

8

DC Instrument Range Summary

DC Instruments

Quantity

Description

DC30 Low Power

20 channels

±
30 V, @
±
100 mA




per board

±
10 V, @
±
200 mA


Each DCVI has ranges for both metering and forcing voltage and current.

Ranges are provided to increase measurement accuracy. Ranges can be

set manually, or IG
-
XL can choose the best range using autoranging.


Voltage Forcing

Current Forcing


0.5 V


20uA


1 V


200uA


2 V


2mA


5 V


20mA


10 V


200mA


20 V






30 V

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

9

Bandwidth


Programmable bandwidth control is provided in four ranges:






This provides faster bandwidth settings when load conditions are such that the
control loop remains over
-
damped (that is, no overshoot) at the higher
bandwidth.


Recommended bandwidth setting depends on the programmed current range
the load resistance, inductance, and capacitance.

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

10

DC30 Power and Compliance: Single Channel


Four quadrant (source or sink current
at positive or negative voltage)


Ground
-
referenced (channel does not
float)


Compliance ranges:


30

V (30

V/100

mA)


10

V (10

V/200

mA)


Figure shows a DCVI’s simultaneous
voltage and current capabilities for
both compliance ranges.


Positive and negative compliance are
always programmed to the same
value. Programming one of the
compliance ranges automatically
mirrors the other compliance range to
the same value.

-
30V

-
10V 10V 30V

200mA

100mA



-
100mA

-
200mA

10V Compliance


I

30V Compliance

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

11

Merging Channels Connections


Channels that can be merged are pre
-
assigned to groups of two (channel 1 and 2, 3
and 4, …)


Merged channels are defined in the channel map


Merged channels cannot be unmerged during the job


Merged channels must be wired together on the DIB


Only the force line of the second channel connects out to the DIB

DC30

#1

DC30

#2

DUT

GND

VCC

F

S

F

S

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

12

DC30 Power and Compliance: Merged Channels


Merge Channels: Reconfigure the V/I to current
-
merge two channels to provide up
to 400 mA of output current


Compliance ranges are designed to be 4
-
quadrant, meaning that the instrument can
source or sink current at either positive or negative voltage.

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

13

DCVI Hardware

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

14

DC30 Instrument Board

Each DC30 has
its own Pattern
Generator for
pattern control
of instruments

Two 16
-
bit
differential meters
per board

20 V/Is with one
meter per channel

2 DCTime
instruments
per board

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

15

DC30 Block Diagram

DC30 Board

Diff VM 1

Diff VM 2

DCTime 1

DCTime 2

Voltmeter/Ammeter

V/I Source

Voltmeter/Ammeter

V/I Source

Voltmeter/Ammeter

V/I Source

Voltmeter/Ammeter

V/I Source

Voltmeter/Ammeter

V/I Source

Voltmeter/Ammeter

V/I Source

Voltmeter/Ammeter

V/I Source

Voltmeter/Ammeter

V/I Source

Voltmeter/Ammeter

V/I Source

Voltmeter/Ammeter

V/I Source

Voltmeter/Ammeter

V/I Source

Voltmeter/Ammeter

V/I Source

Voltmeter/Ammeter

V/I Source

Voltmeter/Ammeter

V/I Source

Voltmeter/Ammeter

V/I Source

Voltmeter/Ammeter

V/I Source

Voltmeter/Ammeter

V/I Source

Voltmeter/Ammeter

V/I Source

Voltmeter/Ammeter

V/I Source

Voltmeter/Ammeter

V/I Source

10

10

DC30

Channels

DC30

Channels

DIB

PatGen

DIB Access

High Performance Path

DIB Access

High Performance Path

10 VI channels are
directly supported by 1
DCTime Instrument
and 1 Diff Meter

2 VI channels share a
DIB Access line

The Pattern Generator
can initiate a source or
capture

The DiffMeter and
DCTime connect to the
sense lines of the
channels. The DCTime
can also connect
directly to the DUT
through a High
Bandwidth line

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

16

DC30 Multi Channels

V

I

PSet

Mem

2.5K

Src

Mem

4:1

Voltmeter/Ammeter

512 Samples

Cap Mem

DGS

DC30 Channel

S

F

Hi

Lo

Source

V

I

PSet

Mem

2.5K

Src

Mem

4:1

Voltmeter/Ammeter

512 Samples

Cap Mem

DGS

DC30 Channel

S

F

Hi

Lo

Source

DUT

DIB

DUT

DUT

DUT

VI channels can be
programmed for parallel
source and capture

With 4 DGS (Device
Ground Sense) lines,
1 DC30 can support 4
sites

2 VI channels can be
merged to supply
double the current to
device pins. Note:
only the sense line of
the primary channel
would be connected
out to the DUT

to Diff Meter

to DCTime

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

17

DIB Pinout Reference


Each device pin can connect to: a dedicated V/I and voltmeter


one of two shared differential voltmeters


one of two shared differential time instruments


two of four internal digital triggers(through the Time Measure Front End)


Each DIB Access pin can connect to:


two device pins


the outputs of the time measure front
-
ends for digital edge
-
finds

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

18

DCVI Instrument

Programming in VBT

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

19

DCVI Syntax Graphic

. Disconnect

.SourceNextSample

.ClearCaptureMemory

.Capture

.Connect

. Gate=

.VoltageRange

.Alarm=

.
CurrentRange

.Meter

.Current

.Voltage

.NominalBandwidth

.ExternalModulationInput=

.ComplianceRange

.PowerSupplyMode=

.ConditionBit=

.
Mode=

.Reset

.AsynchronousTrigger

.ApplyMixedSignalTiming

.PSets

TheHdw.DCVI.Pins

.Source

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

20

Declare result holder (DC30Measure)

Pass result holder
to Test limits

Strobe the VI meter, write measurement
to result holder (will default as to type)

Set up the DC30 to make a current measurement

If running offline, create data

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

21

DCVI Instrument

Debugging

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

22

DCVI Debug Display

When the meter is measuring
current, the meter connects to
the force line across a
precision resistor

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

23

DCVI Debug Display

When the meter is measuring
voltage, the meter connects
to the sense line

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

24

DCVI Debug View

0

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

25

DCVI Debug View

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

26

DCVI Debug View

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

27

SELF STUDY

DCVI Differential Meter

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

28

DCDiffMeter


Makes small voltage measurements on a large common
-
mode signal.


Has three lower
-
voltage ranges with improved specifications over the
channel DCVI's meters.


Can be asynchronously triggered


Available on the DC30 and DC75:

Feature

DC30

DCDiffMeter

2

DGS

4

Max. differential voltage

±
5

V

Max. common mode input
voltage

±
30

V

Voltage ranges

5

V, 2.5

V, 1

V, 0.5

V, 250

mV, 100

mV, 50

mV

Capture memory depth

512 samples

Meter ADC capture rates

10

us to 1270

us, in 10

us increments

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

29

DCDiffMeter Block Diagram


DCDiffMeter measures differential voltage by connecting the high side to a
DUT pin and the low sides to a separate DUT pin or DGS.









The DCDiffMeter connects to the DUT pins using a channel sense line.
The channel sense line that is used depends on what DCDiffMeter is
being used and on other DUT connections. See IG
-
XL Help for details on
how DCDiffMeters share sense lines.

Capture
Memory

ADC

Filter

Voltage
Range

High sense select

Low sense select

4 DGS

to DUT Pin

to DUT Pin

Asynchronous
Trigger Lines

Low side connects
to DUT pin or to one
of four DGS lines

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

30

DCDiffMeter Programming

Set the low side pin

Connect the pins

Strobe the meter

VBT Code

No need to add these to Pin
Map sheet, since Vin and
Vout are already declared

Note: Resource sharing
(:M) will be explained later

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

31

DCDiffMeter Debug Display

Voltage range set to 0.5 V

Voltage
measurements
up to 5 V
differential

High side
connected to
sense1 (a2)

Low side
connected to
sense2 (a6)

Programmable Bandwidth

500 Hz or 10 kHz

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

32

SELF STUDY

Utility Bits

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

33

Utility Bits Overview


Utility bits provide low
-
speed logic signals, which can drive relay coils, and
with low
-
speed readback of the logic state on each pin.



Each circuit is similar to a simple digital channel with a driver, comparator,
and digital control to change the state of the driver and read the state of
the comparator.



The driver controls the state of the relays on the DIB.



Each UDB signal is connected to a comparator on the support board.
DACs on the support board create a threshold voltage for the comparator.
The state of the comparator for each UDB can be observed on the utility
bit debug display.

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

34

Utility Bits Overview (continued)


Programming state=1 (ON)
-


Drive low, turning on the DIB relay.


Programming state=0 (OFF)
-


Drive high, turning off the DIB relay.


Each bit can sink up to 150 mA.


Utility Bit
in tester

Pogo DIB channel

eg,
K01 (24.util4)

+3.3V

+15V


1K

10K

Read Back

Threshold level (1.5v)

Status:
Pass/Fail

4.9v

Tester
Side

DIB Side


Output
Voltage

DIB
Power

DIB
Relay

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

35

Pin Map/Channel Map

Utility Bits Assignments


8.util0


8.util31

20.util32


20.util63

45.util0


45.util31

33.util32


33.util63

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

36

Utility Bits Debug Display


A check mark beside the utility bit represents the bit has been turned ON.


If the box is empty, it is an indication that the utility bit has been turned
OFF.


By default, all utility bits are in the OFF state after test program validation.

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

37

Utility Bits Debug Display


Selecting the “Comparator State” button will reveal the following display.


“H”

beside the utility bit indicates that the voltage readback on this utility
bit is more than the set threshold level.


“L”

beside the utility bit indicates that the voltage readback on this utility
bit is less than the set threshold level.


The default threshold level is 1.5 V.

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

38

Utility Bits Programming

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

39

Resistor Lab 1

Developed and sponsored by


Adapted and Updated at Texas A&M University

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

40

WARNING:

Make sure you read the Hot Switching

module

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

41

ENTC 352

Lab 1: Resistor

Lab guide is written to be compatible with Teradyne IG
-
XL 5.10.50 P3, Microsoft Office

2003 SP3, and
An Introduction to Mixed
-
Signal IC Test and Measurement

© 2001

The FLEX/microFLEX tester will be configured for the lab. It is your responsibility

to ensure the correct loadboard bearing the correct rider card is in place on the test head.


Device under Test (DUT)

: 2 Resistors


Objectives

Your measurement must be accurate, correct, and
completed within lab time limits
on
the

on the FLEX/microFLEX automated test equipment (ATE) tester and/or simulator. Develop,
debug, and validate a VBT
-
based program using the FLEX/microFLEX automated test
equipment (ATE) to


Measure

real impedance on the DUT using the DCVI
-
30 instrument.


Control

relays on the FLEX/microFLEX tester by programming the Utility Data Bits (UDB) to
switch the resisters
as needed
.


Test Names and Datalog Test Names


Opcode


Parameter

TName

Test


MeasR1



Use
-
Limit


MeasR1


res1

Use
-
Limit


MeasR1


res2

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

42

Figure 1: Resistor & Capacitor Hardware Diagram

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

43

Exercise Instructions

Reference Material


Read Section 3.5
Impedance Measurements

in Burns
-
Roberts book


Read Section 5.2.2
General
-
Purpose Voltage/Current Sources

in Burns
-
Roberts
book.


Learn what a Kelvin connection is and its purpose.


Learn what a DGS is and its importance. (also on page 516
-
517)


Read FLEX Instruments: DC30


Test Program Development


Begin by loading the 352 test program template (Lab 1


Resistor (Student))

Open Existing Test Program


Add

RES1


&

RES2


pins to
Pinmap
. Type
Analog
.


Insert a
dual

site ChannelMap, add

RES1


&

RES2


pins. Set type to DCVI.


Set site0 and site1 tester channels in
ChanMapDual

to the DC30 force
-
sense pair
wired on the 352 lab daughter card.


Validate the program and save as

Lab1
-
GroupNames
.xls

. You will get two errors
because the Test Instance and Flow Table are empty.

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

44

Exercise Instructions


Go to the flow table
and right click under
parameter and
choose insert test


Click New in the
Insert Test Window
-
>Click New in the
Create New Test
Instance Window.


In the New VBT Test
window enter the test
name. For VBT
Module from the
dropdown select
<New

>. In the
New VBT Module
Window enter a
module name
preceded by

VBT_


Don

t forget the
underscore!


Click Ok
-
>Ok, select
your test click ok.
Notice that the test
has been entered
under parameter

© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

45

Exercise Instructions


Under Opcode, be sure that

Test


has been selected from the dropdown


Press Enter to go to the row under

Test

. Under Opcode, choose

Use
-
Limit


from
the dropdown


Fill in the LoLim and HiLim per the datasheet, assume 10% tolerance for the limits.
Under Bin number and sort number leave pass empty and enter 10 under fail. This
says to put the part that fails this test into bin 10. In the Results column select

fail


from the dropdown.


Below

Use
-
Limit

, select set
-
device and under the Bin Number and Sort Number
enter 1 for pass. In result select Pass


Right click on your test name and edit
-
> excel macro. This will bring up the VBT
editor. This is where you write the code for the test.


Save the test program from the Excel interface.


Write Code


In the VBA editor, select
Debug

Compile VBAProject
. Fix any errors and then
save.


© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

46

Exercise Instructions

Test Code Development


In your code, you should force a voltage to the resistor, and measure the current
required to create this voltage. You should also measure the voltage being forced because
we cannot assume that what we type actually gets to the part. You now have voltage and
current, solve Ohm’s law for R.


Run and Debug

Your program must be running on the simulator before running on the tester.

Make sure the program datalogs correctly, and demonstrate this to the TA.


Postlab Expectations

You should:

Understand a Kelvin connection and its purpose

Understand DGS

Understand forcing on the DCVI, including the difference between rails and ranges.

Understand autorange

Understand the DCVI meter

Be able to use the DCVI display in the TDE
proficiently

Understand the concept of the ‘Gate’

Question the accuracy of your results, and how they could be made more accurate


© 2013 E A Onderko



ENTC 352 Introduction to Mixed Signal Test and Measurement

47

Your Lab 1 Report


Follow the lab report format as mentioned in the grading policy. Three things will be
graded: professionalism, accuracy, and
understanding
. Also include the following:


Show all results in a tabular format (expected vs. measured, difference, %
difference, etc)


Include data logs for all test results


For each test, draw the test setup clearly and
explain current and voltage limits


Explain the reason for choosing the test limits used.


For the resistor test, draw the ideal versus actual V
-
I graphs, including the data
collected by your program and explain any differences.


How accurate are your resistor measurements? Do you believe your results? What
could be done to improve accuracy?


What is a Kelvin connection and what is its purpose?