Community Social Marketing

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2 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Randy Salzman

TDM Research and Consulting

salz@rocketmail.com

Community

Social Marketing

Transportation Behavior Program


Why Must Address Driving Behavior



Americans drive 2.9 trillion
miles/year in 411 billion car trips,
87 percent alone


Produce 45 percent of entire
world’s automotive CO
2


Transportation produces more
greenhouse than any other
economic sector


And uses 70 percent of our daily


19 million barrels of oil


Two
-
thirds of which is imported


While our nation gets fatter and
fatter and less and less healthy


And the world believes we will spill
“blood for oil”


USDOT,Texas

Transportation Institute,

Umass

Center for Transportation, Pew Charitable Trust





But Our Culture Supports Driving


Advertisers
seek the child market
because, once hooked, he or she rarely
changes
behavior


The ‘license’ is a right of passage


Car perceived of as ‘freedom’


The film hero always drives a ‘hot’ car


Media is supported by car advertising
dollars and product placement


Media editors, bloggers, writers,
designers, actors are all drivers


Politicians cater to driving voters


Few of us utilize any other means of
transportation



Yet, We Must Change




“There’s really no doubt we’re going to have to
change our habits. We’re going to have to design our
cities differently. We’re going to need greater
population densities and more public transportation.



“We could be in deep trouble as a social system.
How do we achieve fairness when the gridlock between
rich and poor already stops us from having an energy
policy.”

“We could see democracy entering its death throes.”


Charles Maxwell, the energy guru often called “the dean of energy analysts”

Global Warming, Peak Oil, Health,
Congestion, Foreign Policy, Parking,
Space and Land Use, Safety

Need individual transport behavioral change…

…in the short term

…on a massive scale

…with little institutional power

…in a culture prizing individuality

…with generally poor substitutions

…which often require decades to build

Paradoxes


Drivers underestimate time/cost of car. Overestimate
time/cost of alternatives


Building roadways to fight congestion induces more
traffic


Congestion caused by habitual, local driving. Complex,
multi
-
jurisdictional results


Voters react primarily to congestion. Politicians can’t
be seen to be ‘attacking’ driving voters


Alternative transportation ‘stated preference’
unreliable. Yet seek ‘stated prefer’ data for funding


Alternative Solution

“Soft” Transportation Demand
Management



“Hard”


make people pay to drive


“Soft”


incentivize & educate them w/
Why

&
How

to use alternatives


TravelSmart

worldwide successfully getting
drivers out of single occupancy vehicles


Bottom Line
: Soft TDM is best approach to altering
driving behavior in democracy



How Americans do TDM today


‘If you provide it, people will come’


Commute
-
oriented, “benefits day” handouts,
CDs, web pages


Must “drive to” media


Generally, promoted by employer’s low
-
level,
human resource personnel


With scant public backing, usually youngest
planner on regional planning district staff


Emphasis on time and dollar savings of using
alternative commute modes

TDM

Community Social Marketing


Employer Based


tied to existing American
TDM



1. Save on parking



2. Save on long
-
term health costs



3. Decrease congestion, save construction dollars



4. Doesn’t “threaten” potential voters


Underscored by Communication, Marketing,
Leadership and Consumer Behavior data


Utilize consistent, simple Message


Best: “Carrots, Sticks
AND

Tambourines”

Community Social Marketing

TDM

Discuss auto ‘externality’ issues w/staff at monthly
department/division meetings. Socially market driving issues in
short, five
-
minute segments (one issue/externality each meeting) led
by “know
-
nothing” upper management


1.
Illustrates organization leaders behind “right thing”


Upper management follows short basic script

2.
Allows “framing” discussion


Max 10 slides keeps upper management directing info flow

3.
Eliminates off
-
message questions


“Keep meeting short for department’s benefit”

4.
Allows monthly reiteration of same, simple “right thing” message


“The organization cares. Hope you do too”

5.
Reinforces “changers”


Assures them they made right decision




Social Marketing

Health Externality Discussion



Doctors prescribe walks today


Business: Every $ spent on fitness returns
$3.15 in health benefits


Fit: Average 3
-
5 less sick days


Some employers pay bonus for fitness
--

$7 to $14 per percentage/#pounds lost

Greatest potential

for organizational
health benefits accrue if sedentary adults
begin regular, moderate activity


Like walk to transit stop daily


Or daily active transportation



Community Dialogue Marketing

TDM

Monthly ask employees after social marketing/externality
discussion if want more info or consider another
transportation mode

Sign
each individual
up for dialogue marketing


Allows work with only employees most likely to address habit
while reminding mass of behavioral change need


Allows bypass/isolation of advocates for auto lobby


Builds towards individual and corporate “tipping point”


Similar to ‘
TravelSmart
’ but employer
-
solution focus


No one is coerced



Dialogue Marketing

TDM


Have knowledgeable advocate
individually market
that employee


with data and rewards for attempting other commute styles



Akin to Australia’s “
TravelSmart
” program

1.
So effective that 135,000 families targeted in 2008, as many as 12 personal
contacts each, total of 418,000 households since 2000

2.
Leadership support, from a distance

3.
All demographics


especially professionals


utilize alternative transportation

4.
In Brisbane, beginning $22.6 million project to market 324,000 households

With
social marketing
, nudges the mass as well as quickly
gathers “low hanging fruit”

Dialogue Marketing

In every Aussie city except Sydney

For decade, Perth’s “individualized dialogue” marketing promotes alternative transport



Have annual 13
-
percent reduction in car
-
miles driven




30 million less car trips with 88,000 tons less greenhouse gas annually


27
-
percent increase active/muscle
-
powered transport




7 million more hours of physical activity annually from 9
million
more walking trips & 4
million
more cycling
trips (up 58 percent)


Stronger neighborhoods


Transit
boardings

up 4.2 million annually


67:1 benefit
-
cost ratio


(auto projects 4:1)


Seeking diffusion, duration, carryover research in Brisbane’s
324,000 home project


no health or neighborhood


Perth opened new commuter rail in December 2007

90% approval ratings, 67,000 first
-
day riders

Hired 250 new
Bus Drivers
to service rail line


Dialogue Marketing

Western Australia

Today

Perth


a city of suburbs and freeways
--

expanding
TravelSmart

concept

to individually, dialogue market citizens

in

Energy, Water, Recycling

“People want to be part of the solution. They just
don’t know how.”

Br
ö
g
,
TravelSmart

founder, 2007

Long Term Results


Adelaide, 3
-
year GPS project. Drivers traveling average 12.4
FEWER

miles per day after TS marketing


TS credited with
re
-
vitalizing

transit in Western Australia,
Queensland and Victoria


Both Conservative and Liberal politicians
love

“tax dollars at
work” letters marketed to solely people who care


Brisbane
built

two, $6.5 million “end of road” cycle centers,
budgeted

$100 million in bike
-
ped

trails,
taking

downtown lanes
for Bus Rapid Transit


Several communities placed political
ban

on road building


Fed 2010
budget
: 55% to commuter rail
--

80% to highways US

Australia Expanding Rapidly

“Given the findings to date, the number of evaluations undertaken, and their


consistency, Australia is now in a position to move beyond
piloting
TravelSmart

to engage in
large
-
scale interventions
in all major metropolitan and large regional
centres
.


“There is little further need to undertake major evaluations of household projects,
as the Australian and international data is in broad agreement, and there is little
need to demonstrate the effectiveness of methods used.”




Report to the Department of Environment:

Evaluation of Australian
TravelSmart

Projects in the ACT, South Australia, Queensland,
Victoria and Western Australia: 2001

2005



Dialogue Marketing


TDM


Discover transportation/commute needs

Constantly tailor substitutions and adapt due to on
-
going “action”
research


Solve disincentives; Create incentives to mode change


Show options: Hike, bike, car
-
van pool, transit, telecommute



Bus schedule from nearest stop; Perhaps free pass



Bike shop discounts



Walk/bike maps



Actively connect employees working similar hours


Emphasize guaranteed ride home program


Emphasize “occasional
parke
” program


Emphasize flex car possibilities





Chance for C
-
ville


Administration seeking “Livable Communities” projects which
tie transportation to global warming, oil vulnerability and
neighborhood development


And Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG)
Program has $2.8 billion


Research dollars available, as well, from CDC, Department of
Rails and Public Transportation, Robert Wood Johnson
Foundation


FHWA now seeking unique concepts in its “Non
-
motorized
Transportation Pilot Program”


EPA now seeking “Climate Showcase Communities”


TIGRE funding


C
-
ville

Next Steps


Find employer willing to listen
-
believes in
sustainability


Seek specific funding: Seed money, blue moon


Formulize “social marketing” plan


Connect VDOT Research Council


Connect health research partner; UVA public
health


Human Behavior Concepts

Nudge


Thaler

&
Sunstein
, 2008



The Tipping Point

Gladwell
, 2000


Fostering Sustainable Behavior

Mackenzie
-
Mohr & Smith, 1999


Changing Minds


Gardner, 2004


Psychological Needs and the Facilitation of Integrative Processes

Ryan, 1995


Why We Do What We Do

Deci

&
Flaste
, 1996

Randy
Salzman

salz@rocketmail.com

Randy Salzman

TDM Research and Consulting

salz@rocketmail.com

Community

Social Marketing

Transportation Behavior Program


Dialogue Marketing


Possibilities


Martha Jefferson


Group biking/running club/fitness center


Van/car pool discounts at Giant


Own electric bike share program


Electric trolley from old to new location


Pedometers with monthly prizes


Van/car pool park free in best spaces



Social, Dialogue Marketing


Possibilities


Martha Jefferson

Not as well developed programs…


Cornell University: 1990, now has 52 percent of
employees arriving on alternative transportation


Richmond VDOT began “Cash Out” parking
after 2000 and has 1/3 of employees arriving on
alternative transportation


Washington metro area (and state) now limiting
parking for organizations building new
campuses

TDM


Martha Jefferson Plan

Need: Substitutions


Typical Transport Plan:
Demand MUST exist NOW


Projection: MJH move will
double traffic on Free Bridge


Huge political pressure for
new
Rivanna

highway bridge
once MJH moves


New Bus Service: Present
CTS operating cost
--

$357,000 per route annually



TDM


Martha Jefferson Plan

Need: Substitutions



Foot bridge already on
City master plan


Riverside Park/Woolen
Mills to State Farm


Part of
Rivanna

Trail
design


Not on County’s
Pantops

Plan


MJH moves: 2012


TDM


Martha Jefferson Program

Effects


Utilizes effective communications, marketing,

consumer behavior, behavioral change and

leadership research


Generates hard fact, not stated preference, data

(Guaranteed ride home sign up)


Convinces autonomous decision makers toward
sustainability and promotion of sustainability


Aids “carry
-
over” into other sustainability aspects on
job and “diffusion” to other employees


Reinforces “right” decision before, during, after fact


TDM


Martha Jefferson Program

Benefits


Cost Savings @ $23,000 a space


Improved employee health


Decrease future PR problem with action now


Receive positive press as “sustainable” and

“niche” marketing


Show hospital’s forward thinking


Illustrates “can be done” to American policy
makers


Boosts research reputation


C
-
ville

Next Steps


Find employer willing to listen
-
believes in
sustainability


Seek funding sources


Formulize “social marketing” plan


Connect VDOT Research Council


Connect health research partner in hospital


Focus
-
group for internal survey


Community
-
based Marketing

Change inevitable but most resist change

Self
-
Determination, Autonomous Decision Success


“Autonomous choice requires a decision that is
accompanied by the experience of endorsement and
willingness.”

Deci
, Why We Do What We Do


Seven Tools to Change Minds


Reason: Research: Resonance:

Representational Re
-
Descriptions
:
Resources and Rewards:

Real World Events:
Addressing Resistances

Gardner
, Changing Minds