Group 32: Living Things and the Processes of Life Biotechnology

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23 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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EXEMPLAR



GROUP

32:

LIVING

TH
INGS

AND

THE

PROCESSES

OF

LIFE



BIOTECHNOLOGY



I
MPROVING
S
CIENCE
E
DUCATION
5

14

1


Group 32: Living Things and the Processes of Life


Biotechnology


Contents

Overview

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................................
.....

2

Key questions

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................................
...........................

2

Key ideas behind the key questions

................................
................................
...........................

2

Relat ed scien
ce concepts already covered

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................................
.................

2

Future learning

................................
................................
................................
.........................

3

Attainment targets

................................
................................
................................
.....................

3

Teaching and Learning

................................
................................
................................
...............

3

Finding out pupils’ present understandi ng

................................
................................
...................

3

Pupils’ general misunderstandings

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................................
.............................

5

Strategies for teaching key ideas

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................................
...............................

6

Effecti ve use of ICT

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................................
................................
.................

11

Innovati ve homework

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................................
................................
..............

11

Key words

................................
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................................
..............................

15

How do we know that understandi ng has progressed?

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..............................

15

Checkli st for formative assessment

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................................
.........................

16

Materials/resources

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................................
................................
..................

17



EXEMPLAR



GROUP

32:

LIVING

TH
INGS

AND

THE

PROCESSES

OF

LIFE



BIOTECHNOLOGY



I
MPROVING
S
CIENCE
E
DUCATION
5

14

2


Overv
iew

Key questions

To develop understanding of the key scientific principles of the group of attainment targets.




What is biotechnology?



What characterises micro
-
organisms, and in which ways are they an important influence
on our lives?



What is fermentation

and how do micro
-
organisms use it?



What are the main biotechnological industries and their products?



How could biotechnology be used in the future?


Key ideas behind the key questions




Biotechnology is the branch of biology that studies the use of micro
-
o
rganisms to
perform specific industrial processes.



Medical biotechnology, which often does not involve the use of micro
-
organisms, is now
being included under the umbrella of biotechnology. Hence the following definition could
be applied in this context: ‘
The application of biological research techniques to the
development of products that improve human health, animal health, and agriculture’.



The process of respiration involves energy release in cells. In humans, this involves the
route taken by oxygen fro
m the lungs to respiring tissue. Breathing is part of this
process. As a result of respiration, there is a difference between inhaled and exhaled air
in terms of: oxygen content, carbon dioxide content, temperature and moisture. The
process of gas exchange

taken place in the small sacs of the lungs called alveoli.
Another important part of this process is the route taken by glucose from the small
intestine to respiring tissue. Glucose is obtained in the body as a result of digestion of
other foods.



Fermenta
tion is a process long associated with biotechnology. A number of organisms
use fermentation to create energy from feeding on sugars. Under anaerobic conditions
(the absence of oxygen), carbon dioxide and ethanol can be produced from the
fermentation of gl
ucose. Factors that can affect the process are temperature, pH, food
supply. Nowadays, large
-
scale industrial fermentation is controlled and monitored using
computerised systems.



Aside from fermentation, there are many other important biotechnological indu
stries.
Genetic engineering to produce GM (genetically modified) crops and cloning are
particularly relevant to Scotland. These areas may have major ramifications for
humankind in the future. Developments in GM crop/food and medical biotechnology are
ongoi
ng and that new applications for biotechnology are being discovered fairly rapidly.

Related science concepts already covered

It is important to build on pupils' prior learning.




Most pupils will have a basic knowledge of the anatomy of the respiratory (bre
athing
system). Pupils should have covered cell structure. Pupils will generally know that
animals breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide. It is worth considering pupils’
understanding as to where the carbon
-
dioxide comes from. Few pupils will ha
ve any
that there is a chemical energy in food.


EXEMPLAR



GROUP

32:

LIVING

TH
INGS

AND

THE

PROCESSES

OF

LIFE



BIOTECHNOLOGY



I
MPROVING
S
CIENCE
E
DUCATION
5

14

3




Can be linked to previous exposures concerning illness/disease and what can cause
such diseases. (Have caution as some peopl
e may have/had a physiological disorder not
caused by a microbe.) In future they are going to discover harmful/useful microbes.



Reproduction and fertilisation.

Future learning

The activities in this group relate to:



Group 21
: Our Environment



Group 26
: Energy Flow and Living Things



Group 33
: Cells



Stan
dard Grade Biology: The World of Plants; Animal Survival; The Body in Action,
Inheritance, Biotechnology



Int 1 Biology: Unit 2 Biotechnology Industries



Int 1 Chemistry: Unit 3 Chemistry and Life


Attainment targets


Attainment outcome


Living Things and

the Processes of Life

Group 32



Biotechnology

Strand

Describe the process of respiration.
LT
-
F2.2

The proce
sses of life

Give the main distinguishing features of micro
-
organisms.
LT
-
E1.1

Variety and characteristic
features

Describe the harmful and beneficial effects of micro
-
organisms.

LT
-
F1.1

Variety and characteristic
features

Explain the role of chromosomes and genes in inheritance.
LT
-
F1.3

Variety and characteristic
features

Outline the principles of modern biotechnology and explain its
significance now and for the future.
LT
-
F1.2

Variety and characteristi
c
features



Teaching and Learning

Finding out pupils’ present understanding

The following activities are an opportunity for formative assessment that provides evidence
and a basis to plan next steps in learning. Repeating these tasks at the end of the to
pic will
show how the pupils’ understanding has developed.


The exemplar shown below uses an investigative approach to the understanding of
biotechnology. Different groups of children, or indeed individuals, can use the same
equipment to find out about bio
technology.

Possible investigative approaches

Question pupils at start of unit as to:



why they look as they do and what controls this



what they have in common with:



one another



their parents



their brothers and sisters.


EXEMPLAR



GROUP

32:

LIVING

TH
INGS

AND

THE

PROCESSES

OF

LIFE



BIOTECHNOLOGY



I
MPROVING
S
CIENCE
E
DUCATION
5

14

4



Pose the question ‘What is “biotechn
ology”?’ and build up a flow diagram of pupils'
experiences.


Pupils could work in small groups to complete a True/False/Not Sure Card Sort to elicit their
present understanding of ‘Micro
-
organisms’. This is available as a PowerPoint presentation
on the CD
-
ROM and can be printed off six images to a page and cut up.


Using a variety of sources, pupils could make a short group
-
presentation on what the pupils’
view of biotechnology is. The research for this could include a library visit and home
research.


Us
ing a suitable fermenter, the fermentation of glucose by yeast could be investigated.
Using data
-
logging hardware and software and the appropriate sensors, it is possible to
change factors such as pH, temperature and food supply and data log the effect on
the
growth rate of yeast. The growth rate of yeast can be ‘measured’ using the volume of carbon
dioxide given off or conversely the volume of oxygen used up.


Information on GM crops and food is fairly easy to obtain through the internet and some
agencies
will provide free or low
-
cost booklets. Once the basic process has been studied
and its uses outlined the pupils could find out the possible costs and the benefits of growing
GM crops or producing GM foods. This could be done as a debate with some pupils
d
esignated ‘for’ and others ‘against’.


A similar exercise could also be carried out for issues arising in medical biotechnology, for
example cloning and/or gene therapy. If time constraints do not allow the issues to be dealt
with separately, debates on th
e two areas could be combined.


Pupils should be encouraged to watch out for biotechnology stories appearing in the media.
This could be used both as a tool to inform pupils of new developments and to reinforce the
idea that new developments are occurring
very quickly.

Learning outcomes relating to attainment targets

LT
-
F2.2 Describe the process of respiration



Living cells need energy.



Cells need oxygen to release energy from food during (aerobic) respiration.



Carbon dioxide, derived from food, is given off

by cells during (aerobic) respiration.



Heat energy is released during respiration.



Be able to write a word equation for aerobic respiration.


LT
-
E1.1 Give the main distinguishing features of micro
-
organisms



Micro
-
organisms are tiny living things that can
be seen only through a microscope.



Micro
-
organisms are everywhere: in the air, in soil, in water, on us, in us, in the food we
eat. Most micro
-
organisms are single
-
celled living things.



There are three main types of micro
-
organisms: bacteria, fungi and vir
uses (plus the
protoctista


all the others that do not fit into any of these three categories


for example
the microscopic algae and single
-
celled ‘animals’, etc.)



Viruses have no cells.


LT
-
F1.1 Describe the harmful and beneficial roles of micro
-
organis
ms



Micro
-
organisms can be beneficial, such as the role of:



micro
-
organisms in the breakdown of waste



yeast in the baking and brewing


EXEMPLAR



GROUP

32:

LIVING

TH
INGS

AND

THE

PROCESSES

OF

LIFE



BIOTECHNOLOGY



I
MPROVING
S
CIENCE
E
DUCATION
5

14

5




bacteria in cheese and yoghurt making.



Microbes can cause disease in plants and humans and other animals.



Personal responsi
bility for our own and others’ health.


LT
-
F1.3 Explain the role of chromosomes and genes in inheritance



Inherited characteristics are determined by genetic information inherited from one's
parents.



Genes are composed of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).



Genes
are important in development.



Chromosomes are composed of clusters of genes.



The human karyotype is the chromosomes possessed by a human individual.



Each body cell has two matching sets of chromosomes.



The process of gamete formation.



A complete set of chr
omosomes is achieved at fertilisation of the female and male
gametes.



Selective breeding.



The ethical issues in cloning.



The principles and significance of modern biotechnology now and in the future.



The principal precautions taken during laboratory work.



Useful material gained by the action of bacteria on waste.


LT
-
F1.2 Outline the principles of modern biotechnology and explain its significance now and
for the future



The importance of principal precautions taken during laboratory work with micro
-
organisms
.



The action of bacteria on waste materials.



Micro
-
organisms can reproduce very rapidly under suitable conditions.



The control of bacterial activity depends on its chromosomal material and that a change
results in a change in activity.



Adding chromosomal m
aterial will allow bacteria to make new substances.



Examples of biotechnological products in everyday use and potential future uses of
biotechnology.


Pupils’ general misunderstandings




Energy is released somewhere in the body (only), namely the stomach, b
lood, heart,
brain.



Animals/humans somehow ‘burn up’ food to release energy. It is important to address
this issue.



Respiration is breathing. In reality breathing is simply a mechanism by which organisms
move oxygen and carbon dioxide into and out of their

bodies.



‘Germs’ are different from bacteria/viruses. Explore the concept of a germ. Some
cartoons of ‘germs’ are available to generate some interesting discussion. Then discuss
if these organisms really exist!



All microbes are harmful. There is a need to
focus on the useful microbes as well as the
harmful.



Genes are physical structures rather than a unit of DNA.



There may ideas that all GM is harmful (due to coverage by the media) and as teachers
we have a responsibility to open doors to allow pupils to fo
rmulate a balanced
perspective of GM.



EXEMPLAR



GROUP

32:

LIVING

TH
INGS

AND

THE

PROCESSES

OF

LIFE



BIOTECHNOLOGY



I
MPROVING
S
CIENCE
E
DUCATION
5

14

6


Pupils may come up with additional ideas. Teachers should record these to aid the teaching
process for other classes/colleagues. It may also be interesting to record all the ideas on an
acetate sheet at the start of t
hese few lessons and then revisit them at the end to give pupils
the opportunity to see if their perceptions have moved on.


Strategies for teaching key ideas

NB Some of the additional resources as referred to within this exemplar, for example
PowerPoint p
resentations are available on this CD ROM.

LT
-
F2.2


Type of pupil activity

1.

Build up diagram with pupils as to why people need energy. Direct pupils away from
vague statements such as ‘to stay alive’. Show some PowerPoint images of: people
running, sleepin
g, fighting disease, making chemicals in body, for example enzymes,
hormones, etc., feeling/keeping warm, brain/functions of nervous system, etc. Ask pupils
which images require/do not require energy. Convey message that all living processes
need energy. S
ummarise activity with pupils constructing their own diagram to
summarise the reasons we need energy.


2.

Compare combustion of glucose (and/or other food substances) by being burnt in a
calorimeter and on a combustion spoon. This should demonstrate that more

energy is
released when food is burnt in an atmosphere of pure oxygen. It should also be
discussed that the calorimeter provides a more efficient means of transferring heat
energy to water compared to the combustion spoon method. The need for oxygen in th
e
release of energy should be emphasised here (opportunity for investigation


see
practical assessment section).
NB Avoid using nut products in case of allergic reaction


3.

Carry out gas analysis of germinating/dead peas using Alba data
-
logger with oxygen a
nd
carbon dioxide sensors. Leave for a week.


4.


(a)

Pupils could investigate the heat energy released from living and dead peas. The
practical could be a design exercise if pupils have sufficient knowledge of data
-
loggers.

(b)

Pupils could try to find out if all or
ganisms give out heat energy, using the differential
thermometer.


5.

An additional experiment could be carried out to place a clean (clean with TCP or
equivalent) oxygen sensor in the mouth and inhale and exhale. Use Alba and autograph
facility to monitor ox
ygen concentration of inhaled and exhaled air. Repeat with CO
2

sensor. This could be done with jars/containers with a sealed lid and hole drilled to take
the gas sensors. Ideally pupils should do this in pairs but it could be done as a
demonstration with a

data projector.


6.


(a)

Pupils should compare the combustion of glucose with the respiration of sugar and
complete a table of results.

(b)

Class discussion to compare respiration with combustion.


7.

Pupils tie all the information gained by experiments into a word equ
ation for respiration.


8.

Pupils should view a model of the circulatory system such as that supplied by Philip
Harris. Pupils should then be given a map/diagram of the human circulatory system and

EXEMPLAR



GROUP

32:

LIVING

TH
INGS

AND

THE

PROCESSES

OF

LIFE



BIOTECHNOLOGY



I
MPROVING
S
CIENCE
E
DUCATION
5

14

7


have explained to them how oxygen and glucose get from the ai
r into the blood and gut
into blood respectively. Pupils should then in groups work out the route taken by these
molecules to tissues in the body. A common task should be set and then discussed. A
variety of tasks should then be added to solve additional p
roblems and then asked to
report to the rest of the class


this could be done by students colouring in/labelling
acetate sheets that they could use to report back to the class.

Teacher activity

1.

Demonstrate PowerPoint presentation on different activities o
f energy needs. The
teacher should lead the class discussion. The teacher should ensure that the class
discussion shows that energy is required for:



movement



keeping warm



fighting disease



making chemicals that cells need, for example enzymes, hormones, etc
.


2.


(a)

The teacher will explain how to measure energy content of glucose using the
combustion spoon method. Pupils should carry out the process and collect data for
class collation.

(b)

Teacher demonstrates calorimeter. Compare two results. Teacher
-
led discussion

as
to why calorimeter is a better method of looking at energy content of foods. It is worth
emphasising the role of burning the food in pure oxygen (this can later be related to
the need for oxygen for efficient energy release in cells).

(c)

A practical asses
sment can be carried out to enable pupils to design an experiment
to compare the energy of different foods. This should be an open investigation where
pupils address issues such as devising questions or hypotheses, design, fair testing,
recording and evalu
ating.


3.

Teacher will manage the gas analysis of germinating peas/dead peas experiment. Pupils
should find that oxygen concentration in living peas falls and CO
2

levels rise. Explain this
in terms of respiration


peas are breaking down carbohydrate and pro
ducing carbon
dioxide as a by
-
product. Oxygen and carbon dioxide levels should remain fairly constant
in dead peas though small changes will be deducted after a couple of days as microbes
start to decay the dead peas and they will in doing so use the oxyge
n and produce
carbon
-
dioxide. It is important to set a good seal where the probes are held in the lids of
the jars. This may have to be a demonstration as the oxygen and carbon dioxide sensors
are expensive.


4.

Pupils should collect three vacuum flasks, data
-
logger, three temperature probes and the
three types of peas. This experiment should be left to run for a week and data
downloaded from the data
-
logger to the computer. Results can be displayed in
autograph facility and pasted into a written report. The e
xperiment could be carried out
as an investigation with a design aspect to it if the pupils are confident with using data
-
loggers. An investigation statement could be a concept cartoon as follows.


5.

Analysis of inhaled and exhaled air

Clean oxygen and carbo
n dioxide gas sensors (DJB Microtech Ltd) must be used. They
could be used as described as per the pupil activity sheet. This is most likely to be a
demonstration because of the cost of the probes. Two pupils should be selected and the
probes connected to
an Alba data
-
logger (ensure that you have the biology disk from
DJB Microtech). The pupils should hold the clean probes in their mouths (but not grip it
with their lips or teeth


simply hold it on open mouth) and inhale and exhale over the

EXEMPLAR



GROUP

32:

LIVING

TH
INGS

AND

THE

PROCESSES

OF

LIFE



BIOTECHNOLOGY



I
MPROVING
S
CIENCE
E
DUCATION
5

14

8


probe. The data

can be displayed on the autograph facility and should show oxygen
levels as being high in inhaled air and lower in exhaled air. The carbon dioxide levels
should be low in inhaled air and higher in exhaled air. The data is very impressive when
displayed on

a data projector as the investigation is proceeding. The composition of
atmospheric the air could be obtained


see for example the pie chart on Page 93 of
Starting Science Book 1
. Pupils could covert this information into a table. The teacher
could give

accurate values for the composition of exhaled air.


6.


(a)

Pupils could investigate the burning of food (for example glucose) and a fuel (for
example powdered coal) in an atmosphere of pure oxygen in a gas jar. Compare the
two results to find whether both:



rel
ease carbon dioxide



release water vapours



release heat energy



require oxygen.


(b)

How does respiration (breakdown of glucose inside cells) compare to combustion or
burning? Pupils should be given the opportunity to devise a table to summarise the
similarities

and differences between respiration and burning/combustion.


Respiration

Burning

Use oxygen

Use oxygen

Produce carbon dioxide

Produce carbon dioxide

Produce water vapour

Produce water vapour

Release energy slowly and over a
period of time

Energy relea
sed rapidly and all at
once/short period of time


It is the last point that is the most important point to stress to pupils.


It is worth stressing that if 1 kg of glucose was respired and 1 kg of glucose was
burnt, the energy release would be the same (n
amely number of kilojoules) but the
burning would release the energy in a very short space of time. Whereas by
respiration it would be released slowly and over a longer period of time (one to two
days) for an average person. If the average person required
10,000 kJ a day and
energy value of glucose is approx. 16 kJ/g then the average person requires 625 g of
glucose to fuel/provide the energy for life’s processes per day. This gives an average
of 26 g of glucose needed per hour. It could be worth having a j
ar containing this
quantity. A great deal of discussion could take place here regarding:



energy requirements per day



energy requirements per day for different jobs



energy values of Mars bars, etc.


7.

Teachers should lead a discussion whereby pupils construct

a word equation; this could
be by pupils working in groups or as individuals to devise a summary word equation for
all that they have learnt. Pupils should record a summary word equation for respiration.

Glucose + oxygen

carbon dioxide + water + energy


8.

Teachers should demonstrate the circulatory model and lead the discussion of the route
taken by oxygen to respiring tissue from the lungs and for glucose molecules from the
small intestine to respiring tissue.


EXEMPLAR



GROUP

32:

LIVING

TH
INGS

AND

THE

PROCESSES

OF

LIFE



BIOTECHNOLOGY



I
MPROVING
S
CIENCE
E
DUCATION
5

14

9



LT
-
E1.1


Type of pupil activity

1.

Pupils view
some yeast cells and pond water in a drop of water under the microscope.

2.

Pupils watch/participate in PowerPoint presentation on microbes. Alternatively they can
search the internet for information and record their findings.


3.

Growing bacteria is a very inte
resting thing for pupils to do. However, there are serious
health and safety issues (risk assessment essential). Some conditions that pupils could
investigate are:



control



dirty fingers



washed fingers



pocket dust



hair



soil



coin (wash coin afterwards to rem
ove any agar)



tap water



boiled water from a kettle



any others suitable, but no blood, breath or body fluids.

Teacher activity

1.

Introduce the concept of micro
-
organisms and why they are named as such. Briefly
introduce the range of microbes at the whiteboard

using pupils' prior knowledge. A
suitable concept cartoon is available to promote class discussion.

2.

Explain to pupils how to set up the microscope and view yeast cells suspended in water.

3.

Pupils view PowerPoint presentation. Pupils look for and discover t
he characteristic
features of fungi, bacteria and viruses. It is worthwhile including the protozoans (for
example amoeba).

4.

Supervise/organise practicals


growing bacteria/fungi.

LT
-
F1.1


Type of pupil activity

1.

Participate in pupil discussion on prior kno
wledge.

2.


(a)

Set up a ‘making yogurt’ experiment

(b)

Set up ‘What does fungus feed on?’

Pupils record their findings.

3.

PowerPoint presentations on:

(a)

Useful microbes. Pupils could then answer questions on pages 70

71 of
Starting
Science Book 2 for example
.

(b)

PowerPoin
t presentation on harmful microbes. Pupils could then complete questions
on page 73 of
Starting Science Book 2
.

4.

In groups pupils should come up with a list of food safety rules and report back to the
rest of the class.

Teacher activity

1.

Question pupils on p
revious experience to examine present perceptions of microbes and
their role in society.

2.

Manage the practicals ‘Making yogurt’ and ‘What do fungi feed on?’ as well as
associated questions.

3.

Deliver two PowerPoint presentations. Provoke discussion of
disease
s/symptoms/incidence, etc., as well as useful effects of microbes.


EXEMPLAR



GROUP

32:

LIVING

TH
INGS

AND

THE

PROCESSES

OF

LIFE



BIOTECHNOLOGY



I
MPROVING
S
CIENCE
E
DUCATION
5

14

10


4.

Manage/supervise/interact with pupils over their answers to questions from
Starting
Science
.

5.

Make a collection of newspaper headlines (past and present) to catalyse a discussion on
food saf
ety rules.

LT
-
F1.3


Type of pupil activity



Look at PowerPoint presentation on mutations


discuss with teacher.



Look at and discuss with teacher the nature of a chromosome and how it is made mainly
of DNA. Make DNA molecule for H/W using a cut
-
out.



Extrac
t some DNA from onion tissue or use the practical on Fruit DNA which can be
found on the SAPS website.



Pupils examine a diagram of a human karyotype, a cut
-
out of a karyotype and matching
pairs of chromosomes can be done for homework.



Examine PowerPoint p
resentation on selective breeding and make decisions either as
individuals or as groups as to why breeds/varieties were developed.



Have discussion with teacher as to the number of chromosomes in sperms and eggs and
the basic outline as to how and why these

numbers arise.



Predict genetic crosses.

Teacher activity



Give PowerPoint presentation on mutations and lead discussion on mutations.



Discuss and explain the nature of DNA and chromosomes.



Supervise the extraction of DNA.



Explain how many chromosomes are i
n the human karyotype and the nature of pairs of
chromosomes.



Explain how many chromosomes are in a body cell and in sperms/eggs.



Manage PowerPoint presentation on selective breeding.



Briefly explain the concept of pairs of chromosomes and pairs of genes a
nd how we then
inherit 1 gene from each pair from our parents. This gives rise to our ‘pairs’ of
chromosomes. How this is related to the inheritance of characteristics.



Explain how to carry out a genetics cross.

LT
-
F1.2


Type of pupil activity



Whole
-
class

discussion on what biotechnology is. Pupils complete cut
-
out of flow
diagram.



Set up a fermenter, for example yeast on sugar. Monitor temperature, oxygen, carbon
-
dioxide, pH against time. Distil products after a few days. Pupils collect saved data from
sh
ared drive to write report.



Pupils watch PowerPoint presentation on genetic engineering and take part in group
discussions/decision
-
making exercises raised in the PowerPoint presentation. Pupils
could then use the information from page 72 of
Starting Scien
ce Book 2

to complete a
written task and also use the genetic engineering cut
-
out.

Teacher activity



Head whole
-
class discussion on biotechnology.



Set up demonstration fermenter of yeast and sugar with a variety of sensors. Use pupil
participation.



Distil a
lcohol from culture after a few days.



Download data on to shared drive and supervise pupil download to write a report of
fermenter exercise.



Lead PowerPoint presentation and pupil participation on ‘Genetic Engineering’ with
emphasis on human insulin produc
tion and pupil/group discussion on

EXEMPLAR



GROUP

32:

LIVING

TH
INGS

AND

THE

PROCESSES

OF

LIFE



BIOTECHNOLOGY



I
MPROVING
S
CIENCE
E
DUCATION
5

14

11


questions/problems raised in the presentation.



Coordinate written exercise on Genetic Engineering from
Starting Science
.



Discuss perception of what a clone is. ‘Use of concept cartoon’ might be possible here
but with pupi
ls developing their own cartoon to illustrate what their perceptions of cloning
are.



Deliver an interactive discussion using PowerPoint presentation on ‘Cloning’. Pupils
should be given the opportunity to discuss the issues raised at the end of the PowerPo
int
presentation. Pupils carry out the completion of worksheet on cloning.



Lead exercise where pupils design a hypothetical experiment where they would clone
their favourite pet. This could be used as a formative assessment exercise before
completing works
heet on cloning.


Effective use of ICT


In situations where it is difficult to illustrate key concepts by appropriate activities ICT can
provide effective alternatives, for example animations/simulations/modelling or data capture.


Use of data
-
loggers in:



gas analysis of dead and living peas using Alba and DJB oxygen and carbon
-
dioxide gas
probes



gas analysis of inhaled and exhaled air peas using Alba and DJB oxygen and carbon
-
dioxide gas probes



investigating heat loss from living and dead pea seeds.


Use o
f internet and PowerPoint presentation



The use of the internet to source information on GM foods/crops and cloning/gene
therapy.


Innovative homework


1.

Carry out a survey on people’s understanding of the concept of respiration. The people
should not be pupi
ls in your school and should be aged 16 or more years of age. You
should try to ask at least 20 people (but 10 is the bare minimum). The questions you ask
are as follows.




What is meant by the term 'respiration’?



What do we need food for?



Why do we need en
ergy?



Where in the body is energy released from food?



What gas is needed to get energy out of food?



What gas is produced as a result of getting energy out of food?


Design a table to record your results for each question.


Now you can draw a series of bar
graphs and present your work to your teacher and the
whole
-
class discussion as a whole.


2.

Design and carry out a simple experiment at home under the supervision of a parent or
other responsible adult to find out the importance of yeast in making bread dough

rise.


EXEMPLAR



GROUP

32:

LIVING

TH
INGS

AND

THE

PROCESSES

OF

LIFE



BIOTECHNOLOGY



I
MPROVING
S
CIENCE
E
DUCATION
5

14

12


3.

Make DNA molecule.

4.

Match pairs of chromosomes from a human karyotype.

5.

Carry out some research into diseases that:

(a)

are of purely genetic origin, for example cystic fibrosis, haemophilia, etc.

(b)

are of a genetic origin combined with an environmental inf
luence, for example
coronary heart disease, diabetes.

Write a short report to explain how the disease is caused, what its symptoms are and
how it is controlled/treated/prevented.

6.

Pupils could investigate the pros and cons of genetic engineering or cloning.

7.

Design an organism to do something that no other organism does so well. What is the
organism? What genes would you put into it, how and why?

Opportunities for formative assessment


1.

Make a list of the reasons living organisms need energy.


True/false state
ments


for example:



‘Respiration is breathing.’



‘Respiration is an energy releasing reaction.’



‘Respiration takes place in cells.’



‘Respiration uses carbon dioxide and uses oxygen.’



‘Water is a by
-
product of respiration.’



‘Respiration only takes place in
animals.’



‘The more active an organism is, the greater the rate of respiration.’



‘Energy released in respiration is measured in kilowatts.’



‘Dead organisms still respire slightly.’



’20 per cent of the air is oxygen.’



‘Five per cent of the air is carbon
-
dio
xide.’



‘In respiration energy is released slowly and in a controlled manner compared to
combustion where the energy is released rapidly and in a short space of time.’


2.

Pupils could be given flash cards of the different types of microbe and asked in small
g
roups to identify:



the type of microbe



where it lives



examples



whether it is harmful or harmless.


3.

Brief report back on understanding


this could be a five
-
minute feedback session next
lesson. Questioning of pupils


this might allow for some pupils eithe
r to move on to
extension exercise, for example ‘Bacteria’, or to consolidate exercises, for example
question on page 65 of
Eureka Book 3
.


4.

Use of True/false questions, for example:



‘It is possible to see both bacteria and viruses using a light microscope.




‘Most bacteria are harmless.’




E. coli

is a virus.’



‘All bacteria are rod
-
shaped.’



‘Viruses live inside cells.’



‘Moulds belong to a group of organisms called fungi.’




Coccus

is a type of bacterium.’



‘Bacteria are small animals.’


EXEMPLAR



GROUP

32:

LIVING

TH
INGS

AND

THE

PROCESSES

OF

LIFE



BIOTECHNOLOGY



I
MPROVING
S
CIENCE
E
DUCATION
5

14

13




‘Bacteria that grow in cl
umps are called
staphylococcus
.’



‘Bacteria that grow in chains are called
diplococcus
.’



‘Fungi reproduce by producing seeds.’



‘Fungi are made of masses of single threads called
hyphae
.’



‘Viruses can be grown in Petri
-
dishes on a substance called nutrient a
gar.’



‘Bacteria are only found in certain places such as the soil, animal dung and on
decaying plants and animals.’



‘Ringworm is caused by a fungus.’


5.

In groups/pairs pose questions at start of lesson to check understanding from previous
lesson, for exampl
e list three types of microbe that cause disease. Name two
bacterial/fungal/viral infections. Name one use of the microbe lactobacillus. Name three
uses of yeast cells, etc. Show flash cards of different types of microbe, for example
‘Name this Microbe’ an
d give its importance, etc.


6.

Flash cards


group work to answer some key questions on the card, for example:




(a)






Name this structure?



What is the main substance that it is made of?



How many would you find in:



a human cheek cell?



a sperm cell?



an egg

cell?



What is a karyotype?


(b)



EXEMPLAR



GROUP

32:

LIVING

TH
INGS

AND

THE

PROCESSES

OF

LIFE



BIOTECHNOLOGY



I
MPROVING
S
CIENCE
E
DUCATION
5

14

14






What is this molecule called?



How did you get your copy of your DNA?



What is a gene?



What is a dominant gene?



What is a recessive gene?




Group activity


complete chromosome number on diagrams of body cells,
sperms, egg
s and fertilized egg cell. Ask questions to explain the changes in
number of chromosomes.



In groups pose genetic question. Pupils write genes in grid with group consensus
and explain why they did this.


7.

Some additional opportunities for formative assessmen
t




Question pupils rigorously at each stage of the topic.



Have group discussion of posed problems.



Rearrange conditions to show sequences of events when genetically engineering an
organism.



Pose challenges for individual or group collaboration, for example

‘How could you
engineer an Alsatian dog with spots?’



Cloning


in groups rearrange cards into the order that shows the sequence of
events when a sheep is cloned.


Practical assessment/investigative skills


Opportunities for carrying out tasks and recordin
g and reporting on tasks

Potential to examine pupils' investigative skills in open investigations:



comparing energy in different food materials



investigating energy loss in living and dead peas.


Both these tasks lend themselves to being investigated with
pupils taking control of the
direction of the investigation with regard to formulating hypotheses, controlling variables, etc.
It should be possible to record progress in any or all of three investigative strands, should
teachers wish to do so.


The remain
ing tasks lend themselves more to the carrying out and performing strand.



EXEMPLAR



GROUP

32:

LIVING

TH
INGS

AND

THE

PROCESSES

OF

LIFE



BIOTECHNOLOGY



I
MPROVING
S
CIENCE
E
DUCATION
5

14

15


Extension/push yourself



Exercise on ‘What are micro
-
organisms?’ on p. 192 of
Thinking Through Science
.



Pupils could attempt 16.2 (
Starting Science
, p. 74) if they complete the exerc
ises on
harmful microbes.



Reasoning exercise on p. 194 of
Thinking Through Science
: ‘Yeast


an amazing
Fungus’.



Exercise: ‘Some nasty diseases’ pp. 198

199 of
Thinking Through Science
.



Exercise: ‘Viruses’ p. 200 of
Thinking Through Science
.


Additional in
formation

Please carry out risk assessments for this group of activities. See
Be Safe
. If in doubt
SSERC can offer advice.


There is some very challenging material in this unit and many pupils will find the concepts
quite difficult. If the concepts prove t
oo difficult for some the teacher could allow some pupils
to complete additional reinforcement work on microbes. Most pupils find the work on
inheritance very interesting as they can relate to it.


Key words

The pupils begin to use the following words/phra
ses correctly within a scientific context.


Aerobic, biotechnology, chromosomes, genes, micro
-
organisms, inheritance, respiration,
fermentation, genetically modified, GM crops/foods, cloning, gene therapy.


How do we know that understanding has progressed?

The following strategies can be used to find out that learning has progressed.


Practical

Pupils can design and carry out a practical to study the effects of different factors on the
growth of yeast using data
-
logging apparatus to encourage the use of ICT
.

Pupils describing ideas



Pupils can describe how the fermentation of sugars by yeast can be affected by altering
certain factors. They should be able to relate this to computer
-
controlled control
mechanisms in industrial fermentation processes.



Pupils sho
uld be able to describe the basic idea behind genetically modified crops/food.



Pupils should be able to describe some usefulness of GM crops/foods.



Pupils should be able to describe the basic idea behind an area of medical
biotechnology, for example clonin
g or gene therapy.



Pupils should be able to describe why cloning and/or gene therapy is useful.

Pupil presenting ideas

Pupils can comment on the arguments ‘for’ and ‘against’ cloning/gene therapy and/or GM
crops/foods.


EXEMPLAR



GROUP

32:

LIVING

TH
INGS

AND

THE

PROCESSES

OF

LIFE



BIOTECHNOLOGY



I
MPROVING
S
CIENCE
E
DUCATION
5

14

16


Checking questions



How do some of the

advances in biotechnology benefit society?



What is fermentation?



What are the consequences of altering certain factors on the fermentation rate of yeast?



How is the small
-
scale practical relevant to industrial fermentation?



What does the term ‘genetically

modified’ mean in relation to crops/food?



What are some examples of GM crops/foods and why are they useful?



Give some examples of cloning/gene therapy?



How rapidly is biotechnology progressing?

Pupil explanation



How would you explain these new ideas to so
meone else? (brother, sister, friend)


Reflective questioning



What other examples of biotechnology exist?



How are these other areas important to us?



Is there anything that you have learned in this group (unit, topic, project) that you found
difficult?



Is t
here anything that you have learned in this group (unit, topic, project) that surprised
you?


Checklist for formative assessment


1.

Plan for an effective learning environment




Share learning intentions and success criteria with pupils.



Plan classroom activit
ies to give pupils the opportunity to discuss their thinking so
that feedback can help develop it.



Plan oral and written feedback so that it guides improvement in individual and group
learning.



Plan activities that promote or encourage collaboration so tha
t everyone is included
and challenged, and train pupils to listen to and respect one another’s ideas.



Plan tasks in a way that requires pupils to use certain skills or apply ideas.



Ensure that pupils are active participants in lessons.


2.

Gathering informati
on about pupils’ learning and encouraging pupils to review
their own work critically through self
-

and peer assessment:




Observing pupils


this includes listening to how they describe their work and their
reasoning.



Questioning, using open questions, phra
sed to invite pupils to explore their ideas and
reasoning.



Gather evidence as pupils demonstrate and communicate their thinking through a
range of classroom activities, for example drawings, artefacts, actions, role
-
play, and
concept mapping, as well as wr
iting.



Discussing key words and how they are being used.



Using summative assessment as a positive part of the learning process to plan
revision and direct learning



EXEMPLAR



GROUP

32:

LIVING

TH
INGS

AND

THE

PROCESSES

OF

LIFE



BIOTECHNOLOGY



I
MPROVING
S
CIENCE
E
DUCATION
5

14

17


Materials/resources

Some of the additional resources as referred to within this exemplar, f
or example
PowerPoint presentations are available on this CD ROM.


Useful websites




GM crops/foods


http://foodfuture.org.uk/



General info. and techniques involved in GM crops/foods and gene therapy:
www.spolem.c
o.uk/worksheets/docs/applications.doc



Basic technique of gene therapy


www.gene
-
cell.com/genetherapy/basics.html



Gene therapy


http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/units/genetherapy/



Cloning


www.globalchange.com/clonlink.htm

http://www.roslin.ac.uk/

www.newscientist.com/hottopics/cloning/


Fermenter starter kitDJB microtech


www.djb.co.uk/

Video:
Scientific Eye



series 8. Programme 1


Respiration