Grade 12 Biology (SBI4U) Unit Plan --- Molecular Genetics

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1

Grade 12 Biology (
SBI4U
)

Unit Plan
---

Molecular Genetics


Summary:

In this unit, students will continue to build on their knowledge on Genetics from Grade 11 Biology with more emphasis at the
molecular level,
examining how DNA is the genetic blueprint for

all li
ving organisms and how it can be modified to form new products used in medicine,
agriculture, and other industries.
Students will begin the unit by examining an issue over our own personal genetic information between an
individual and the insurance

company and write a position paper based on the views of one of the stakeholders involved. Students will
continue to
carry out discussions over some other potential social, ethical, and legal issues associated with genetic research and
biotechnology
thro
ughout this unit.

Other major concepts covered include DNA replication, protein synthesis, and cell components and
techniques used in genetic modification.
Students will conduct both wet labs and virtual/simulated labs to
help them further reinforce
unde
rstanding of those concepts and to provide them with opportunities to demonstrate their scientific investigation skills.

In addition to a
final unit test, students will also demonstrate learning of the overall expectations of this unit in a culminating ta
sk where they are asked to
evaluate and take a stand on the use of a genetically modified organism in our society.


Big Ideas:



DNA contains all the genetic information for any living organism.



Proteins control a wide variety of cellular processes.



Genetic
research and biotechnology have social, legal, and ethical implications


Overall Expectations:

A1. Demonstrate scientific investigation skills (related to both inquiry and research) in the four areas of skills (initiatin
g and planning,
performing and recor
ding, analyzing and interpreting, and communicating)

A2. Identify and describe careers related to the fields of science under study, and describe contributions of scientists, inc
luding Canadians, to
those fields.

D1. Analyse some of the social, ethical, an
d legal issues associated with genetic research and biotechnology.

D2. Investigate, through laboratory activities, the structures of cell components and their roles in processes that occur wit
hin the cell.

D3. Demonstrate an understanding of concepts relat
ed to molecular genetics, and how genetic modification is applied in industry and
agriculture.


Key Questions:

1
. How can understanding the concept of gene expression help us improve our quality of life?

2
. How do we make sound ethical decision regarding
g
enetic research and
biotechnology?




2

Topic

Day

Learning Goals

Teaching & Learning Strategies

Assessment &
Evalu
a
tion /

Learning Skills
Assessment

(LS)

Curriculum
Expectations

STSE

1



review what
is the
function DNA

(hereditary genetic
material

from grade
11 biology
)



introduce the term
“biotechnology”



acquire a broad
overview of the
applications of
biotechnology


Introduce unit with a couple of

short video clip
s

discussing
some of the implications of genetic modifications.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/genom
e/program.html

(show clip #1, 15)


Students complete anticipation guide

to get them thinking
about concepts and issues they will encounter in this unit
.

(
Appendix
A
)


Working in

groups of
2 or
3, students will read and discuss
one case study article

on a b
iotechnology issue

presented in
either websites listed below
. They will then

share their
finding
s

with the class next day.

http://www.actionbioscience.org/genomic/

http://www.actionbioscience.org/biotech/







diagnostic

(
anticipation guide)

D1.1


2



di
scussion on some of
the potential social,
ethical, and legal
implications of
biotechnology



introduce
STSE Case
Study

assignment

Students summarize key findings from their article with class
and discuss some of the social, ethical, and legal issues
implied
in their topic.

(45 min)



Introduce and outline expectations for
STSE Case Study

assignment.

(20 min)



formative

(Discussion)


LS: collaboration


S
ummative

(I/T, C, A)

D1.1







3



analyze some key
aspects of Canadian
regulations pertaining
to genetic
testing and
ownership of genetic
information



continue discussion
on
STSE Case Study

Brief c
lass discussions on
Canadian regulations on
Health,
Environmental, Agricultural, and Industrial Biotechnology.
Refer to following website:

http://www.bioregulations
.gc.ca/english/BioRegLinks.asp?x=1

Specifically highlight information on ownership of genetic
information, which would assist students in formulating their
views for their STSE Case Study. (30 min)


STSE Case Study
:
Students will b
egin with the role
-
play





formative
(completion of chart
,
checklist
)


D1.2


3

activity in groups of 4.

LS: collaboration

DNA Structure
&

DNA
replication

4



review what students
know about DNA
structure



understanding of DNA
structure and function



describe scientific
contributions
by key
scientists that led to
our current
understanding of DNA
structure and function



Concept map: think
-
pair
-
share

(
A
ppendix B)


Outline key concepts with b
oard notes or Powerpoint.



Jig saw activity:
Divide class into 7 groups, each group is
assigned
a scientist that students need to identify his/her
contribution to our current understanding of DNA.

Once students have completed their research, d
ivide class
into groups so that each group has an ‘expert’ on each of the
scientists that they were asked to
investigate. Students share
findings with each other and complete worksheet.

(
Appendix
C
)


Homework:
Preparation for DNA Extraction Lab

for tomorrow
.

(
Appendix
D
)


diagnostic

(Think
-
pair
-
share)






formative
(jig s
aw)

LS: responsibility

D3.7

5



laborato
ry skills

Conduct
DNA extraction lab

in groups of 2 or 3.
(
Appendix D
)



Alternatively, if materials are limited,
virtual lab

is possible
:

http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/labs/extraction/


formative
(observation)

LS: organization

collaboration


summ
ative

(
lab
discussion

questions
--

I/T, C)



due 1 week

A1.5

A1.8

D2.3

6



review the
importance of DNA
replication in mitosis
and meiosis



understanding of DNA
replication process
and repair
mechanisms that
correct mistakes

First provide an overview of the
DNA replication
process by
showing this
animation
: http://highered.mcgraw
-
hill.com/sites/0072507470/sitemap.html (Chapter 3)


Teach concepts with board notes or Powerpoint.


Additional resources:

http://www.wiley.com/legacy/college/boyer/0470003790/

anima
tions/replication/replication.htm

http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/biocoach/













D2.1

D3.1


4

Student complete flow chart summarizing key steps in DNA
replication.
(
Appendix
E
)


Exit Card: “One thing you learn today that was interesting.
One thing you are s
till unclear about.”


formative

(flow
chart)


f
ormative (exit card)

7



review DNA
replication



introduce
Culminating Task



further discussion on
some of the potential
social, ethical, and
legal implications of
biotechnology

Veritech til
e activity
: review DNA replication concepts
(
Appendix
F
)


Introduce and outline expectations for
Culminating Task
.


Show video on a company from PEI working on creating a
genetically modified salmon that would reach its full size in
one quarter of normal t
ime.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/harvest/etc/video.html


Small group discussion on factors that would affect your
decision on whether GM crops should be grown.

formative

(Veritech
tile)


summative (KU, T/I,
A, C)


due in 2
weeks



LS: collaboration
,

initiativ
e

D1.1

Protein
Synthesis

8



compare the
structures and
functions of RNA and
DNA



introduce overview of
protein synthesis
process and the
genetic code


Complete
Venn diagram comparing structure and function

of
RNA and DNA.
(
Appendix
G
)


P
rovide an overview
of the protein synthesis process by
showing this animation: http://highered.mcgraw
-
hill.com/sites/00
72507470/sitemap.html (Chapter 3
)


Explain genetic code

with overhead chart.

formative

(Venn
diagram)


D3.2

9



describe the cell
components and steps
invo
lved in
transcription

and
translation


Teach concepts with board notes or Powerpoint.


Additional resource:

For teachers or students as review

http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/biocoach/

f
ormative
(questioning)

D2.1

D3.3

10



review concept of
protein synthesis



investigate the cell
components involved
in the process of
Have students complete the following two simulation
activities:

1)
Gizmo: “RNA and Protein Synthesis”

http://www.wiley.com/l
egacy/college/boyer/0470003790/

animations/translation/translation.htm

formative

(Gizmo
quiz)

LS: independent
work
,
responsibility

D2.4



5

protein synthesis
using a computer
simulation exercise


2) Transcribe and translate a gene
http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/dna/transcribe/



1
1



analyze a simul
ated
DNA sequence to
determine its genetic
code

Complete p
rotein synthesis simulation activity
.

(
Appendix H)


Look for student roadblocks or misconceptions.

formative

(concept
check)

LS: organization,

self regulation


D2.2


1
2



compare how genetic
expre
ssion is
controlled in
prokaryotes and
eukaryotes



explain and provide
examples of how
mutagens can cause
changes in the genetic
sequence

Teach concepts with board notes or Powerpoint.



Read article and answer questions.

(
Appendix I)

formative

(question
co
mpletion)

D3.3

D3.4

1
3



Culminating Task
research time in
library

Quiz: protein synthesis

(
Appendix
J
)

20
-
question multiple choice quiz
(optional:
using Clickers
)


Give students time to
work on
Culminating Task

in library.

Monitor student’s progress on t
ask and provide feedback.


formative (quiz)


LS: responsibility,

organization


Genetic
Modification
&
Biotechnology

1
4



describe the functions
of some of the cell
components used in
biotechnology

Teach concepts with board notes or Powerpoint.


Bacterial tr
ansformation

virtual lab
:

http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/labbench/

lab6/concepts1.html


Cloning: restriction enzyme/plasmid map activity
---
students
should complete exercise 1 in class and exercise 2 for
homework.


(
Appendix K
)




D3.6


6

1
5



d
escribe examples of
how genetic
modification is
applied in industry
and agriculture

DNA sequencing:
Discuss the implications of the
Human
Genome Project

http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/

home.shtml


Divide class into 4 groups, each explor
e how b
iotechnology
has applied in
food, in medicine, in industry, and in the
environm
ent, and then share findings with class.

http://www.iptv.org/exploremore/ge/uses/index.cfm







LS:
collaboration

D3.5

1
6



explore biotechnology
techniques and their
ap
plications in society

Complete
simulation DNA Fingerprinting activity
.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sheppard/analyze.html

or

Field trip

to
the
Ontario Science Centre

http://www.ontariosciencecentre.ca/

2 school programs relevant to this unit:

-
Program: “Wa
y to Glow! Bacterial Transformation”
---
transform
E.coli

bacteria with genes from a bioluminescent
jellyfish

-
Program: “DNA Fingerprinting”
---
amplify own DNA using PCR
and analyze it using gel electrophoresis


f
ormative





1
7

unit review

Review key conce
pts from unit and anticipation guide

Address student difficulties.


Ask students to each make up 5 questions from this unit.
Exchange questions with a partner and try to answer them.





1
8

Unit Test

Unit Test


s
ummative

(
KU, T/I,
A, C)



Planning Notes
:

Timeline for case study


1 week (start on lesson #2)

Timeline for culminating


3 weeks (start on lesson #
7)


Wet lab: DNA extraction (1 period), see
appendix D

Dry lab: Plasmid restriction enzyme (1 period)

Field trip option: Ontario Science Centre

(1/
2
-
1

day field trip)


7


Accommodations for Special Needs and ELL
:



Strategies to help ELL students be successful:

Use lots of diagrams with labeling

Vocabulary li
st
s

Extra time during tests and quizzes

Alternative textbook reference

More scaffolding for case study and culminating activity or extended time

Special Needs students’ accommodation should be addressed according to th
eir

IEP


Annotated Resources

Cracking
the Code of Life

(from
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/genome/program.html

)

Contains 16 different video clips that ranges from the basic knowledge to societal
application (DNA codes, Human Geno
me Project, Variations, Mutations, STSE connections
to genetic engineering and business). Each video is less than 10 min long.


Gizmos

(from
http://www.explorelearning.com/
)

Activity:
Building DNA

Students c
onstruct

a DNA molecule, examine its double
-
helix structure, and then go through the DNA replication process. Learn how each component fits
into a DNA molecule, and see how a unique, self
-
replicating code can be created.

Activity:
RNA and Protein Synthesis

Students g
o through the process of synthesizing proteins through RNA transcription and translation. Learn about the many steps involved

in protein
synthesis including: unzipping of DNA, formation of mRNA, attaching of mRNA to the ribosome, and linking of
amino acids to form a protein.


Harvest of Fear: Exploring the Growing Fight over Genetically Modified Food

(from
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/harvest/
)

This site from NOVA offers many perspectives on whether GM
crops should be grown. Teachers will be able to select from 12 valid arguments that they
can put on the board as the starting point for discussion. Website also offers two flash plug
-
ins for “selective breeding” and “transgenic manipulation”.


Anatomy an
d Physiology Student Edition Resource from McGraw Hill

(from
http://highered.mcgraw
-
hill.com/sites/0072507470/sitemap.html

)

Chapter 2 contains animation of protein synthesis and

quizzes

Chapter 3 contains animation of DNA replication, Transcription and quizzes


Explore more Genetic Engineering

(from
http://www.iptv.org/exploremore/ge/default.cfm

)

http://www.iptv.org/
exploremore/ge/Teacher_Resources/Teacher_Resources.cfm

This is a large bank of t
eacher resources
for teaching genetic engineering. Resources include lesson plans, Web links, teaching strategies, worksheets.


Appendices

A

Anticipation guide

B

DNA concept map

C

Historical view of DNA Structure

D

DNA extraction lab

E

DNA replication flowchart

F

Veritech tile activity

G

Venn diagram DNA vs RNA

H

Protein synthesis simulation

I

Article o
n mutagen

J

Quiz protein synthesis

K

Restriction enzyme/plasmid activity

L

Case study

M

Culminating activity