Biodiversity and Biotechnology

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23 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 17 μέρες)

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Proceedings of the 7
th

IMT
-
GT UNINET and the 3
rd

International PSU
-
UNS Conferences on
Bioscience



1


Keynote Speaker


Biodiversity and Biotechnology


Milosevic Mirjana
1
, Nualsri

Charassri
2
, Dragin Sasa
1
, Stegic Mila
3

and Mikic Aca
4



1

Agriculture Faculty, Novi Sad, Serbia

2

Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Thailand

3

Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management, Belgrade, Serbia

4

Institute for Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia


*Corresponding author: e
-
mail:

m.milosevic@minpolj.gov.rs

phone: +381 11 3621 506


Abstract



Biodiversity can be defi
ned as a diversity of life on earth in all its levels, from genes to
ecosystems,
and the ecological and evolutionary processes that create it.
Biodiversity is precondition for food security of
the population and therefore it is placed on a special signific
ance.
Biodiversity and ecosystems need to be
protected since many plants and animals have already became extinct. FAO estimated that more than 75%
of crop species have been lost in the past 100 years.
Modern biotechnology offers new means of improving
r
ather than threatening biodiversity. If properly tested for both risks and benefits to humans and the
environment, transgenic crops are more likely to increase agricultural biodiversity and help to maintain native
biodiversity rather than to endanger it. S
uch application need to be judged by the criteria of improved
sustainability and compared to current as well as alternative farming practices.


Keywords:
Biodiversity, biotechnology, transgenic crop



Introduction


Biodiversity means the diversity of gene
tic material contained in traditional and new genotypes. The
aforementioned resources can be the basis for the creation of new varieties through conventional crossing
process or application of biotechnology. Plant genetic resources include

cultivated plan
ts

and wild relatives
and other wild plant species that can be used as a source of energy, pharmaceutical purposes a
nd

a source of
desirable genes.
Regardless of the

purpose
or
technology to use genetic material is a reservoir of genetic
adaptability that
can be shown as a buffer against potentially harmful external or economic changes. Erosion
of plant resources can have serious and long
-
term impact on food security of supply.


The concept of biodiversity


Biodiversity (biological diversity) is a complex c
oncept, which covers many aspects of biological
variation. The most common word biodiversity was used to describe all species of living organisms in a
particular area.
If considered f
rom the
planetary level,
biodiversity can be defined as "
the
life on eart
h."
.

Researchers involved in studies us
e

a broader definition of biodiversity, so that biodiversity includes not only
living organisms and their mutual interaction, but also their interactions with abiotic factors of the
environment in which they live. The
refore, biodiversity can be defined as
a
diversity of life on earth in all its
levels, from genes to ecosystems, and the ecological and evolut
ionary processes that create it
.



The importance of biodiversity

Diversity, where biodiversity is concerned, is f
or a man of inestimable value. Thanks to it
,

all kinds,
including
the

man
,

survived in spite of the changes that are emerging during the development of civilization
as opposed to a man often compared to the destructive nature. Biodiversity is an evolutiona
ry response to
Proceedings of the 7
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IMT
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International PSU
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environmental conditions constant volatility.
T
here is
a process of creating organic matter which is released
when oxygen and binds carbon dioxide, which contributes to balance the basic elements that make up air.
Circulation of minerals in
nature is achieved through living organisms, and also the cycle of water
circulation. Organic substances that create plant and animal species are essential for human nutrition. Thanks
to biodiversity
,

the evolution of living beings
is developed
and it cont
ribute
s

to the creation of new species.
Given

that living organisms are renewable resources, biodiversity is the only replacement for a number of
non
-
renewable energy sources which will be exhausted in the future

(Ćosović, 2008
a
)
.


The importance of biodiversity, among other things, is its productivity. The productivity of ecosystems and
biodiversity are significantly dependent on species of organisms that move through different part of
ecosystems (van Vuuren
et a
l
., 2008). Researchers hope that understanding the mechanisms that determine
diversity and ecosystem productivity will he
l
p ecologists and those who carry out conservation of genetic
resources to develop a strategy which will ensure that the canned area is

extremely productive and rich
biodiversity.


Productive
ecosystems are defined as ecosystems that maintain a large amount of living matter,
obtained from microorganisms, plants and animals. The researchers concluded that the measurement of the
mass of liv
ing organisms
is
represented by
a
"biomass" of ecosystems. Numerous studies over the last decade
have shown that ecosystem has a great wealth of biodiversity
in

species that are highly productive in a short
period of time, but until now the process that cr
eates a link between high levels of biodiversity and
productivity through a long period of time is not
fully
explained.


Biodiversity and evolutionary processes

No
thing in the world
remained as it
had been

created, except for life in all its shapes. There
was
changed the composition, shape
, color and temperature of the earth. c
ompletely was changed the composition
of the atmosphere. Continents were sep
arated and connected (Ćosović
, 2008
a
)
.

From Pan
g
ea, which was
the

first form of
a
continent, t
hr
ough
ou
t

millions of years the process
has been

ongoing, moving, and today
had conti
nents
distribution

shown in

all world maps.

The above changes are still occurring

in

a
historic,
ongoing, evolutionary process that inevitably leads to changes in biodiversity
.


Variations in diversity over millions of years in the Phanerozoic period can be taken as an example of
evolutionary change. The trend of change in biodiversity is clearly marke
d with a red line in Figure 1
.

Geological processes (tectonic disturbances, eros
ion), changes in sea level (sea tra
n
sgression and regression)
and changes in climate lead to long
-
term significant changes in structural and spatial characteristics of global
biodiversity. The processes of natural selection are often related to geological
processes and affect changes in
l
ocal and global flora and fauna
.

Proceedings of the 7
th

IMT
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GT UNINET and the 3
rd

International PSU
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UNS Conferences on
Bioscience



3






Figure 1
.

Changes in biodiversity in the Phanerozoic period

S
ource
:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phanerozoic

Because of these changes it is ne
cessary to

conserv
e the

biodiversity. De
spite the progress made in
this field, according to research o
f

v
an
Vuuren
et al.

(2006)
,

the l
osses of biodiv
ersity have increased 100 to
10,
000 times
as
compared to the fossil remains from the period of Cenozoic
.


Measure the value of biodiversity


Plant

species are disappearing faster than biologists can identify them and carry out their
documentation. Most of the
200
countries which signed

the c
onvention on biodiversity, agreed that it is
necessary to prevent losses in bio
d
iver
sity during the year of
20
10. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to
calculate and monitor

the

trends related to biodiversity. The experts from
the
prestigious universities suc
h as
the Birdl
ife International
, Cambridge
, United Kingdom,

Conservation International, Internation
al Union for
Conservation of Nature
-

IUCN and the Zoology Institute, London, presented the new method of calculation
of indices to measure trends in risk for specific groups of organisms

(Butchart
et al
.,
2004).


Butchart
et al

(2004) have focused their r
esearch on the trends of changes that lead to increased risk
of biodiversity, monitoring changes in individual plant species between
categories that are on the Red

l
ist.
Th
is

list was prepared by the
IUCN.

The criteria for
the inclusion
of a plant species
on the Red

l
ist was the
size of population, population trends, distribution of certain plant species and others.

The main objective of
the Red

l
ist is to identify individual plant species are at risk of disappearing. The second task

of

Red

l
ist is to
carry

data using multi
-
species analysis, with the task to determine and supervise the individual plant species
(IUCN, 20
09). The data were collected
from
the
researchers who are used to calculate the degree of
degradation of biodiversity. The reason for this an
alysis is to save endangered plant species
from

the
disappearance,
either by
conservation or
a
rapid action of man in nature in terms of reducing adverse impact.
The
IUCP
takes care of plants and other groups of organisms and regularly compiles a list of t
hose who are
vulnerable. The analysis of the total biodiversity is found to be of all living organisms on the planet, the most
endangered plants, more than other groups of organisms such as insects, mammals, fish and others which can
be verifie
d in Figure
2
, provid
ing

data from
IUCN (
2007
)
.




Proceedings of the 7
th

IMT
-
GT UNINET and the 3
rd

International PSU
-
UNS Conferences on
Bioscience



4


Modeling of changes in biodiversity


To adopt new approaches to nature and its methods of examination, there should be a deeper
understanding of gene pool changes. Research in this field led to the development of met
hods of predicting
changes of biodiversity, including modeling and simulation. It will help finding solutions for the
sustainability of plants to unpredictable changes in environment such as global warming. Now it is working
to create plants that better us
e water and nutrients, which are resistant to extreme temperatures, extreme pH
values, excessive salt concentrations, attacks of diseases and pests, and leading to new economic needs.




Figure 2.


Percentage of species from different groups that are clas
sified

as




critical




endangered and





vulnerable

S
ource
:
IUCN
(2009)


The model for evolutionary changes in biodiversity

Result

by
Venail
et al
.(2008) suggested

that evolution l
eads to
a
greater biological diversity, in
particular proving the functioning of ecosystems.
The e
rosion of biodiversity in the context of published
results specifically highlight the importance of evolutionary forces as building blocks of ecosystems, whic
h
opens a new way to interpret the relationship between the diversity of living organisms and functional
ecosystems.


To prove the above
-
mentioned
, an

experiment was performed in laboratory conditions. After creating
a reduced model ecosystem
, there were
u
sed several sources of carbon to mimic its different environment.
Venail
et al

(2008) have observed the evolutionary diversification of the bacterium
Pseudomonas
fluorescens
. The bacteria w
ere

inoculated into each reduced model of environment (micro
-
plates

with
different carbon source). So
it was
free to evolve
in
more than 400 generation
s
. The bacteria
P. fluorescens
strain SBW25 in the last ten years is used as a model
in
differ
e
nt empiric
al

studies of evolutionary processes,
maintenance and use of biodiv
ersity. This bacterium is named after the ability to produce pigment in the
medium to fluoresce in different conditions. In Figure
3

are shown Biologist GN2 microplates receiving
purple depending on availability bacteria
P. fluorescens

to use a source of c
arbon, and the intensity of color
depends on the amount of spent carbon from different sources.


Proceedings of the 7
th

IMT
-
GT UNINET and the 3
rd

International PSU
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UNS Conferences on
Bioscience



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Figure 3. Bacteri
a
Pseudomonas fluorescens


strain

SBW25

Sources:
Venail
et al

(2008)


Researchers have moved from one bacterium to another plate with know
n scattering (0%, 1%, 10%
and 100% scattering). Scattering is known as a component, a central factor in evolutionary diversification. In
most species, the bacteria ha
ve

changed the shape and appearance of new ecological type.

Generally speaking,
the work o
f researchers suggested

that evolution can lead to greater complexity
of ecosystems and result in its proven functionality. This process gives the best results when available
resources vary, and the corresponding biological system is connected.
The c
onditi
ons that do not fit the
current trend lead to equalization of ecosystems resulting from human activity. Viewed over the long term,
these results will be reflected in the reduction of the capacity of wildlife and reduce diversification in the
future. (Venai
l
et al
.,2007; Venail
et al

2008).


The economic importance of biodiversity

Biodiversity is more than a variety of flora and fauna. Biodiversity includes the total wealth of
environmental and genetic information as a repository of many biological organisms
, which are yet to be
explored. Experts estimate that the
re is

between 10 and 20 million species of animals, plants, microorganisms
that today, because of the negative impact of man, d
ie out
a thousand times faster. It is estimated that in
Germany, one thi
rd of species
are
threatened with extinction.


Today's world economy is a direct threat to the maintenance of global biodiversity because it treats
the "services" of nature as something that does not cost anything, does not take into account the damage tha
t
lead to the destruction or reduced effects in natural systems. Industrialization and other human activities
leading to pollution of water, land and air, reducing area under forests, which leads to climate change, and
thus the conditions for the living wo
rld. The result
is
the extinction of many plant and animal species, the
destruction of a number of ecological systems of the planet, which eventually leads to the enormous damage
to
the global economy and threaten the safety of all people on earth.


Cost o
f the
"services" that biodiversity of the country does for humans, the external environment and
the ecosystem is difficult to estimate
by its amount. In

1997
,

t
he ecological economist Costanza es
timated
that one
-
year value of services
of biodiversity for h
umanity is between 16
-
54 trillion (10
12
) dollars,
with an
average of 33 tril
lion
. World gross national product
-

GDP (aggregate amount of gross national product of all
countries in the world) per year is 18 trillion a year according to the excerpt from the

material titled

The
Economy of Ecosystems and Biodiversity


TEEB


(UNEP, 2
002
)
, transferred by

the German weekly
Spiegel, it is estimated that the annual damage caused by the loss of biodiversity for the world to be about 6%
of global GDP by 2050. The g
lobal annual investment in order to prevent the extinction of species and
preserve biodiversity

is

estimated at around 30 billion euros (46.5 billion). Every dollar invested in the
Proceedings of the 7
th

IMT
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GT UNINET and the 3
rd

International PSU
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UNS Conferences on
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protection of biodiversity, according to the analysis of experts, brought a

hundred dollars to get the preserved
natural systems (Töpfer, 2008).


It is estimated that the total value

of pollination in agriculture

carr
ied by

bee
s

is
up
to 2
-
8 billion
dollars per year, which is also the potential loss of extinction of bees. Therefo
re, the plague of bees caused by
the use of some pesticides and other factors
is
not only
harmful

for beekeepers, but for the whole community.

For
a
better understanding
of
the role of nature conservation and its relationship to the global
economy
there
sh
ould be noted that about 40% of
the
world trade
is
based on biological products or
processes.

Biological diversity makes it necessary for the life of the people and the overall economy has
developed so
much
that the global politics of biodiversity
is
an es
sential component of the global economy.
Globalized and ever
-
growing economy consumes irreparable natural resources at high speed.


Forms of biodiversity

For the purpose of survival of our planet and the balanced coexistence of man and nature, the world
sh
ould focus on two main objectives:

c
onservation and

s
ustainable use of biodiversity.

Preserving biodiversity is going through the process of conservation and restoration of ecosystems and
disturbed habitats, as well as the preservation and recovery of spec
ies. Sustainable use of components such
use of biological diversity that does not cause disruption of biodiversity, but the rational use of natural
resources and maintaining biodiversity potential of the one that matches the needs and aspirations of presen
t
and future generations.


There are three basic forms of biodiversity:

1) Genetic diversity or diversity within a one species
.


2) Biodiversity of species


3) Ecosystem biodiversity


Genetic diversity means the

variability of the species on e
arth, and g
enetic information on all types of
plants, animals, fungi and microorganisms wh
ere each

have created a specific genetic combination created by
evolution and cannot be repeated in other species. Genetic diversity means

a

diversity of

the

total number of
gen
es contained in plant and animal species and microorganisms.

Collecting and preservation of genetic
diversity in plants have lasted for nearly a century. Gene banks are living seed collections which serve as a
source of genes for improving agricultural pro
duction characteristics. Today, there are between 300,000 and
500,000 species of higher plants which have been identified, about 250,000 described

(Wilson and
Peter,
1988). About 30,000 species are edible, and some 7,000 are used in the system of agricultu
ral production or
are colle
cted as a source of food

(UNEP, 1995). Several thousands of plant species can be called a source of
safety for human consumption. Among the plant genetic resources set aside about 30 plant species "feed the
world." These are cal
led "important” plants, providing 95% of energy (calories) or protein in the diet.


The diversity of species include
s

the total number of organic species in all ecosystems on Earth, from
pre
-
beginning of life. According to some data, the Earth i
s i
nhabited

by between 5 and 80 million plant and
animal species, including known and described only about 1.5 million. There are a million small invertebrates
(mostly insects) that make 73% of the overall wildlife (Ekoforum, 2009).


The diversity of ecosystems inclu
de t
he total diversity of habitats (inanimate nature components) and
biocoenosis (
living compon
ents of nature
), as well as ecologic
al processes that connect them such as
circulation of substances, energy flow, troph
ic relations, succession, etc.

and on th
e basis of which the
realized the uniqueness and functionality of ecosystems as the basic unit of the biosphere. Diverse habitats
(wet, dry, with developed land, rocky, exposed to wind, at high al
titudes, the surface salt, etc.
) cause the
appearance of var
ious biocoenosis which are abundant life forms with specific life forms of living organisms
which can have specific functions in accordance with environmental conditions (
Ćosović, 2008
b
).


Proceedings of the 7
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IMT
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GT UNINET and the 3
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International PSU
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Biotechnology in the service of biodiversity


The methods of b
iotechnology can be applied to the study of virtually any biological phenomenon
and will in some cases have practical applications for maintaining biodiversity

(Braun and

Ammann,
2002).

In modern conditions of highly technological processes and scienti
fic achievements, a man
increasingly manipulate
s

genetic material of many plant species that are characterized by specific, very useful
features for human populations, such as the recovery from various diseases, and
thus
ensure the survival of
people all o
ver the world. One of the activities contribut
es

to these improvements and genetic engineering.
By it, t
he man manipulating the existing genetic material of plant species
with
known properties creat
es
new

genetic combinations
very precise
ly and with
specif
ic laboratory procedures.


By the r
ecombinant DNA method, hybrid DNA molecules formed
in vitro

enter the recipient's cells
which act as part of its genome. The main components
of the method is DNA with
vectors for cloning (DNA
molecules that have the capab
ility of copying, such as bacterial plasmids, for example). One of the more
bacteria
-
hand for this purpose is
Abrobacterium tumefaciens
, with the structures of
chromosomes shown in
Figure 4
.

Basic techniques include isolation, cutting and aggregation of DN
A molecules and
their
transformation (introduction of hybrid DNA molecules in the cell recipient) (Milošević

et al
.
, 1996).

The application of new technologies may be determined by genes involved in increasing levels of production
and quality of newly varieties with new genes
that regulate plant tolerance to biotic or abiotic factors, better
utilization of nutrients, wa
ter, the resistance to diseases,
insects and other

pathogens

(Fig
ure

4
). They help
researchers to better characterize and use the genetic diversity and genetic r
esources.




Figure 4
.


The process of obtaining Bt corn resistant to corn borer using
biotechnology
method

Source:
Xamplified (2010)

The practical purpose of genes is their us
e

to facilitate the selection of modified cells and their
identification. New

genes are involved in the genome and transmitted to the progeny. Products of genetic
modification are called Genetically Modified Organisms
-

GMOs,

while according to the
Cartagena Protocol
on Biological Diversity to

the Convention on Biodiversity

they
ar
e labeled as
Living Modified Organisms
-
LMO.


Gene sequencing
provides the testing complexity of the genome

and
comprehensive insight into the
genes for future research in plants, but the same can be done with plant species that are now not grown

today
,
b
ut in the past.
The g
ene sequencing opens up new prospects for the establishment of the origin of species
and may explain the differences between them. From the perspective of preserving genetic diversity is
particularly important to perform sequencing and

positioning of the old indigenous varieties.


FAO has launched an initiative to assess development of plants by a combination of molecular and
morphological methods. It has resulted in increasing the gene pool database. A key factor for the launch of a
ne
w initiative is the availability of the sample with appropriate species. It is important that molecular analysis
Proceedings of the 7
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IMT
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GT UNINET and the 3
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International PSU
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UNS Conferences on
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applied to the same or similar species is like the one used in morphological analysis, in order to make a
comparison
possible
(Adams, 1997).


T
he
re is a success in

growing potatoes and tomatoes due to the ability to control pathogen
Phytophthora infestans
, which causes downy mildew. For this reason, numerous studies
are
conducted at
different levels in order to achieve long
-
term disease control.
Understanding the mechanism of action of
pathogens and its development is one of the prerequisites for
a
long
-
term solution. In the wor
l
d
, there

was
made a number of genotypic and phenotypic tests, but they were unable to point to the limited introduction
of
new methods.
A s
ignificant progress in studying the genome
of
P. infestans

was achieved using co
-
dominant
biomolecular markers. Their use can
broaden the knowledge on
the population
of
P. infestans

and to
determine its biology, epidemiology, ecology, ge
netics and evolution

(Cooke and
Lees, 2006).


Common v
etch (
Vicia sativa
) is a classic example of complex, well
-
separated species
with

derived
forms

and
a different level of
phylogenetic divergence (Hanelt and

Mettin, 1989).
The
DNA tests on the
level of
their divergence is even more pronounced, as can be established using biotechnological methods such
as RAPD and AFLP in relation to the morphological differences (Potokina
et a
l., 2000). It was found that
there
were

intra
-
spe
c
ies differences between
the
m
embers of
the
group of
Vicia sativa
L.
senso stricto
,
that is,
common vetch

in a narrow sense
,
an
economically important forage plants, if compared to the diversity of its
close relatives, but a separate phylogenetic taxon group of
Vicia sativa
.
The p
hylog
enetic use of AFLP for the
separation of DNA "finger printing" examined 673 samples

of
V
.
sativa

of
the Vavilov Institute
in
Sa
i
n
t

Pe
tersburg (VIR)

and 450 samples from the
IPK
plant

genetic resources
unit in Gatesleben
. Th
is re
search
was
the
first
to
prov
e
an
intraspe
cific

diversity
of
Vicia sativa

stored
ex situ
.


Gene mapping


Improving the
plant
properties can be done t
h
rough

a

better understanding of their molecular basis
and the process by which they occur,
as well as
through the identification of gen
es

and the

characterization of
their
important agronomic traits. During the past fifteen years
, a
significant progress
has been made
in the
molecular mapping of plant genomes.


Gene mapping have been done on DNA markers for the large number of plant specie
s and one assist
in overcoming the various research tasks. Developed and practically used several main types of DNA
markers
-

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms
-
RFLP, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA
-
RAPD, Simple Sequence Repeats
-

SSR, Amplified Fr
agment Length Polymorphisms
-
AFLP, Single
Nucleotide Polymorphisms
-
SNP and Insertions / Deletions
-
In / Del. The next generation of maps will be
based on Si
n
gle Protein Seq
ue
nces
-

SPS.
The c
omplete mapping of the gene was performed in
Arabidopsis
thaliana

i
n
2000, the rice
was

finished
in
2009 and the corn on the mapping work is progressing well.
A
similar case is with the model legumes, such as
Medicago truncatula
,
L. japonicas

and soybean (
Glycine
max
).

Gene mapping helps in understanding the structure, f
unction and evolution of plant genomes. It can be
an important tool for
an
advancement in the field of breeding, because they can locate genes for qualitative
and quantitative properties, providing the basis for the cloning of genes, and ultimately to the
genetic
modification of plant


Potentially the most interesting new technologies for genetic analysis
in certain cases may be o
ligo
-
nu
cleotide
chips, capillary
electrophoresis

matrix and
desorption
laser ionization. In any case
, it
will be
interesting to o
bserve the impact of these new technologies for understanding the organization of plant
genomes.


Characterization of genetic resources using biotechnology methods


Samples that are stored in gene banks should be characterized by phenotypic and genotypic u
sing, as
a
standard, and appropriate new technologies. Phenotypic description must be standardized and monitored in
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an environment in which the plant grown. For the genotypic characterization today, in the prestigious gene
banks using gene mapping, such
as testing the individual nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) because it
determines the genetic distance of a sample from another, which is of great importance for the successful
operation of gene banks


The National Academy of Agricultural Science
-
N
AAS

in Korea

has developed a web

based on the
results of the use of SNP and QTL (
Quantitative
T
rait
L
oci
) markers for the study and dissemination of
information on rice. SNP database includes 7227 SNP markers that provide information about the location of
chromosomes
in genetic maps
.

The
QTL marker database provides information
on
175 QTL with 942
polymorphic markers in each of 12 rice chromosomes. User data at any time can follow the new structure of
chromosomes and the position and function of genes through comparis
on of data obtained using the SNP
markers and QTL

(
Kim, 2009 ).


In order to collect varieties
,

the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad
h
as carried out
a
characterization of seven populations of native beans
(
Phaseolus vulgaris

L.
)
from Step
anovica.
T
he method
of protein markers
was applied
with two enzymati
c systems and malic

enzy
me (Figure

5
a)
dehydrogenase

and malate (Figure

5
b) because

of

the variability at the level of protein well
-
documented in bean (
Koening
and

Gepts, 1989
).
T
he metho
d of 1D SDS
-
PAGE electrophoresis

was applied
. As
the
zy
mogram shows,
the
differences between genotypes were clearly visible and their inventory easily feasible (Nikolic
et al
. 2007).




Figure 5
.


Zy
mogram of bean genotypes from Stepanović: from left to r
ight
C
-
20,Aster,Ludogorje,
Jovandeka,
Prelom, Medijana, Greenish
-
yellow

a)

malic

enzim (MA), b)

malate dehydrogenase

(MDH)

Source:
Koening and Gepts (1989)




Description of the phenotypic characteristics should be standardized, and in doing so should take i
nto
account the environment from which the sample is taken


Conservation of DNA in gene banks using biotechnological methods

The real value of DNA gene banks as a resource for conservation has yet to evaluate and determine.
DNA banks are amending the exist
ing
ex situ

conservation method. Coordinated activities can help in the
development of DNA collection and ensure that the species include representatives with specific genetic
diversity at the time of collection. In order to
e
valu
at
e these collections as a

research tool
, the
conservation
tools increased

and the
DNA banks should have clear objectives in terms of scope of their collections.


The DNA gene banks
took rice
as a model plant because it has the smallest genome among cereals.
The precise
ness

of the
genome sequences of rice is very valuable in understanding the structure of the
genomes of other cereals. Before that, the various sources of the genome
are available, such as rice cDNA

Proceedings of the 7
th

IMT
-
GT UNINET and the 3
rd

International PSU
-
UNS Conferences on
Bioscience



10


clones of 32,000 base pairs long with full information about the seque
nces (structural information), 50,000
Tos17 mutant lines.

A similar situation is with
Medicago truncatula
, an annual, diploid, self
-
pollinating
pasture legume with a small
-
sized genome that serves as a model legume during the last decade.


Molecular testi
ng will in future become an important tool for research on the life of plants, such as
the functional genome analysis, compara
tive genome analysis and so on.
The precious DNA material must be
saf
ely kept for a longer period since it has
become necessary fo
r new discoveries in plant. This is the mission
of DNA banks. Researchers will efficiently use molecular genetic res
ources and identify accumulated

database
s

of genome of plants and animals (Antonio
et al
., 2003
).


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