Genetic Engineering Test Answer Section - NHCS-Science

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Science
Essen
tial Standards Unit Development


Unit Topic



DNA technology




Theory of evolution


Essential Standards Goals and
Objectives

Bio.3.3 Understand the application of DNA technology.

Bio.3.3.1 Interpret how DNA is used for comparison and
identification of organisms.

Bio.3.3.2 Summarize how transgenic organisms are engineered to benefit society.

Bio.3.3.3 Evaluate some of the ethical issues surrounding the use of DNA technology (including
cloning, genetically modified organisms, stem cell r
esearch, and Human Genome Project).

Bio.3.4 Explain the theory of evolution by natural selection as a mechanism for how
species change over time.

Bio.3.4.1 Explain how fossil, biochemical, and anatomical evidence support the theory of
evolution.

Bio.3.4.2
Explain how natural selection influences the changes in a species over time.

Bio.3.4.3 Explain how various disease agents (bacteria, viruses, chemicals) can influence
natural selection.

Concepts Being Studied

Gel electrophoresis

Transgenic organisms

Cloni
ng

Human Genome Project

Stem cell research



Theory vs Law (review)

Evidence for evolution

Divergent and convergent evolution

Disruptive, stabilizing and direction selection

Natural
and artificial
selection

adaptation

Speciation

Charles Darwin

Mutations
(review)


Essential Questions

How can DNA be used for identification?

What are transgenic organisms?

How does genetic engineering benefit
society?

What ethical issues arise with the
development of DNA technology?

Which scientists contributed to DNA
technology?





How do various disease agents influence
natural selection?

What evidence is there for evolution?

How does natural selection influence changes
in species?

What patterns do we see with evolution?

Which scientists contributed to the theory of
evolution?

Essential Information


Steps for DNA fingerprinting

Contributions of scientists

Steps for cloning

Steps for creating transgenic organisms

How genetic engineering is used today





Definition of a theory

Fossils show timeline

Similarity between
vertebrate embryos

Cumulative changes

Contributions of scientists





Essay Questions

Contrast the techniques used in genetic
engineering and in selective breeding to
produce organisms with desired traits.





How is the idea of common descent
supported by examples of homologous
structures?











Project Ideas

DNA fingerprinting/Human Genome
report






Evolution children’s book





Technology

It Takes a Lickin’ virtual lab


Transgenic organism video clip

(Prentice
Hall CD)


Powerpoint

presentation





Powerpoint presentation

Labs, Experiments, Activities,
etc.




It Takes a Lickin’ virtual lab


Natural selection card lab

Resources

Powerpoint presentation

PH Biology textbook





Powerpoint presentation

PH Biology textbook





Assessment


See below





See below









Genetic Engineering/
DNA Fingerprinting/Human Genome Report


Research one of the following people:


Kenneth Waters (released from prison)

Dr. Francis Collins (Human Genome Project)

Dr. Craig Venter (Human Genome Project)

Dr. Alec Jeffreys (DNA fingerprinting)

Ian Wilmut (Dolly project)

Anastasia Nikolaevna

(D
uchess)


Write a comprehensive report on your chosen person.
Include general biographical information. Also include h
ow

they
influenced or how they were influenced by DNA

fingerprinting
, genetic engineering

or the Human Genome Project
.


This should be a

one
-
page TYPED paper on that person. Margins set at one inch on all sides, font is Times New
Roman or Arial at 12 pts and

spacing is 1 or 1.5. Include
: biographical information (include
education), any partners
(or people that were directly involved) they may have had, how genetic engineering/the human genome project
applies to his/her story or work, and any controversy that

may have surrounded their story/work.


You must include a typed cover page.


You must use at least three sources. You may not use Wikipedia as a source. All sources must be cited on a Sources
Cited page.


This paper is to be researched and written on you
r own time outside of class. I am happy to write you library passes
in order for you to use the internet there if you so need.


This is your own individual work. Copying someone else’s work will result in a zero for the paper. This includes taking
informa
tion directly from the internet! You must read and paraphrase your sources!


Grading Rubric:


First checkpoint (biographical information and two sources)
10pts


Second checkpoint (all three sources, a key points met)
10pts


On time (
-
20 points per day
late


third day late is a zero)
0pts


Title page
5pts


Sources Cited page
5 pts


Correct format (font, margins, etc)
5 pts


Length
10

pts


Biography
10pts


Relevance/application to genetic engineering
, etc.

25pts


Comprehensive research
10pts


Grammar/spelling
10
pts



Evolution Children’s Book Project:



Write a children’s book of at least 15 pages.


Examine evolution by natural selection. Include the theory’s development, the
fossil, biochemical and embryological evidence for evolution, and modern day
applications of evolution.


This book should be illustrated in color and be neatly written.




0

1

2

3

4

Length

Less than 7
pages

8
-
11 pages

12
-

14 pages

15
-
16 pages

Greater than
16 pages

Neatness and
color

No color,
writing is
illegible

No color,
writing is
sloppy

Some color,
writing is
legible

Book is
colored
appropriately,
handwriting
is neat

Backgrounds
and
illustrations
colored
nicely,
handwriting
is neat
, book
is neatly
bound

Content

Only one
content area
addressed

Two of the
three
content
areas
mentioned

All three
content
areas
mentioned,
but not
completely
explained

Complete
explanation
of all content
areas

Complete
explanation
of all content
areas,
addressed in
an age
-
appropriate
manner

Illustrations

No
illustrations

Less than
four
illustrations

Illustrations
are sporadic
and used
more for
decoration
than
explanation

Illustrations
are
complete
and fully
support the
page’s topic

Illustrations
are complete
and fully
support the
page’s topic.
Cover is
creatively
illustrated






Genetic Engineering Test


Multiple Choice

Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.


____

1.

A nasal spray containing copies of the healthy
gene that is defective in persons with cystic fibrosis has been used on
a trial basis. The patient sprays it into their noses hoping that the healthy gene will replace the unhealthy disease causing

gene in
their lungs. They would then produce normal mucus

as opposed to large amounts of thick mucus. This is an attempt at _____.

a.

palindrome formation b.

gene therapy c.

DNA fingerprinting


____

2.

Gel electrophoresis is a technique used to _____.

a.

clone chromosomes of various species b.

cut DNA into

fragments of various sizes c.

separate DNA fragments by length


____

3.

Transgenic bacteria are currently capable of producing _____.

a.

human insulin b.

human clones c.

viruses


____

4.

A small amount of DNA obtained from an original source can be

copied through a process called _____.

a.

polymerase chain reaction (PCR) b.

gel electrophoresis c.

DNA fingerprinting


____

5.

In 1973, Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer inserted a gene from an African clawed frog into a bacterium. The
bacterium produc
ed the protein coded for by the inserted frog gene. At the conclusion of the experiment,
a bacterium containing
frog DNA would be classified as a

_____.

a.

clone b.

plasmid c.

transgenic organism


____

6.

The Human Genome Project found that there were
approximately _________ genes on the 46 human chromosomes.

a.

3 billion b.

35,000 c.

500,000 d.

23


____

7.

Which of the following are applications of genetic engineering?

a.

transgenic bacteria in medicine like to produce insulin b.

transgenic
plants and animals c.

transgenic bacteria in industry like
cleaning oil spills d.

all of these




Figure 13

5


____

8.

What does Figure 13

5 show?

a.

gel electrophoresis b.

DNA sequencing c.

a restriction enzyme producing a DNA fragment


____

9.

I
n Figure 13

5, between which nucleotides is the DNA cut?

a.

thymine and cytosine b.

adenine and guanine c.

adenine and cytosine


____

10.

A DNA molecule produced by combining DNA from different sources is known as

a.

recombinant DNA. b.

a clone. c
.

a polyploid.


____

11.

What kind of technique do scientists use to make transgenic organisms?

a.

hybridization b.

inbreeding c.

inducing of mutations d.

genetic engineering


____

12.

The first sheep ever cloned was named Dolly. Why is Dolly

considered a clone (how can it be proven)?

a.

Her DNA was the same as DNA from a body cell of a different individual. b.

The DNA molecules in all her cells are identical.
c.

She was produced using the DNA from an egg cell.




Fig. 13.4




____

13.

Re
ferring to Fig. 13.4, which species of fish is the newly discovered species most closely related?

a.

A b.

B c.

C d.

D


____

14.

Referring to Fig. 13.4, assuming the DNA is placed at the top of the diagram initially, where are the longest pieces of
fi
sh DNA
-

at the bottom or the top of the gel?

a.

top b.

bottom


____

15.

Two scientists that worked on the Human Genome Project were _______.

a.

Crick and Watson b.

Redi and Pasteur c.

Chargaff and Franklin d.

Collins and Venter


____

16.

In the dis
tant past, the only way to predict hereditary disease was to ______.

a.

observe family histories b.

perform gel electrophoresis c.

examine chromosomes d.

create transgenic organisms


____

17.

Gel electrophoresis involves an electrical source and the
movement of DNA fragments. The DNA moves because of
its _______.

a.

positive charge b.

negative charge c.

neutral charge d.

size


____

18.

The vehicle that transports the foreign DNA when creating a trangenic organism is called the ______.

a
.

automobile b.

vector c.

plasmid d.

clone


____

19.


This process shown above is the is creation of a(n)_________.

a.

genetically engineered hybrid b.

genetically engineered transgenic organism c.

infected bacterium


____

20.


The suspect who
comitted the crime is # ______.

a.

1 b.

2 c.

3 d.

The suspect remains at large.


____

21.


The parents of this soldier shown above who was difugured in wartime were ______.

a.

A and B b.

C and D c.

Neither


____

22.

A small amount of DNA obtaine
d from a blood spatter at a crime scene would immediately be sent for _____ to make
sure that there was enough DNA to go around to all the labs.

a.

gene splicing b.

gel electrophoresis c.

DNA fingerprinting d.

polymerase chain reaction (PCR)


____

23
.

Selective breeding is a fairly technologically advanced technique that has been in use for less than 100 years.

a.

True b.

False


____

24.

The cloning of an organism is a process which must take place in a laboratory and follow very strict guidelines.

a.

True b.

False


____

25.

Allowing only those organisms which possess desired characteristics to reproduce is called ___________.

a.

cloning b.

selective breeding c.

DNA extraction

Genetic Engineering Test

Answer Section


MULTIPLE CHOICE



1.

ANS:

B

DIF:

B



2.

ANS:

C

DIF:

B



3.

ANS:

A

DIF:

B



4.

ANS:

A

DIF:

B



5.

ANS:

C

DIF:

B



6.

ANS:

B

DIF:

B



7.

ANS:

D

DIF:

B



8.

ANS:

C

DIF:

A



9.

ANS:

B

DIF:

A



10.

ANS:

A

DIF:

B



11.

ANS:

D

DIF:

B



12.

ANS:

A

DIF:

E



13.

ANS:

C



14.

ANS:

A



15.

ANS:

D



16.

ANS:

A



17.

ANS:

B



18.

ANS:

B



19.

ANS:

B



20.

ANS:

D



21.

ANS:

A



22.

ANS:

D

DIF:

B



23.

ANS:

B



24.

ANS:

B



25.

ANS:

B



Evolution and Natural Selection Test


Multiple Choice

Identify the letter of the choice that best completes
the statement or answers the question.


____

1.

The evolution from a common ancestor to a variety of species is an example of _____.

a)

divergent evolution b)

cross
-
pollination c)

vegetative propagation


____

2.

Mutations such as polyploidy and crossin
g over provide the genetic basis for _____.

a)

evolution b)

spontaneous generation c)

biogenesis


____

3.

Structures that have a similar embryological origin and structure but different functions, such as a bat
wing and a human arm, are called _____.

a)

embryological structures b)

analogous structures c)

homologous structures


____

4.

Natural selection can best be defined as the _____.

a)

survival of the biggest and strongest organisms in a population b)

elimination of the smallest organisms by t
he
biggest organisms c)

survival and reproduction of the organisms that occupy the largest area d)

survival and
reproduction of the organisms that are genetically best adapted to the environment


____

5.

Any structure that is reduced in function in a l
iving organism but may have been used in an ancestor is
known as a(n):

a)

analogous organ b)

vestigal organ c)

homologous organ


____

6.

A pattern of evolution that results when two unrelated species begin to appear similar because of
environmental co
nditions is _____.

a)

disruptive selection b)

convergent evolution c)

directional selection


____

7.

The average individuals of a population are favored in _____ selection.

a)

directional b)

stabilizing c)

disruptive


____

8.

In _____ selection,
individuals with both extreme forms of a trait are at a selective advantage.

a)

directional b)

stabilizing c)

disruptive


____

9.

_____ selection favors one extreme form of a trait in a population.

a)

Directional b)

Stabilizing c)

Disruptive


____

10.

What is the movement of genes into and out of a gene pool called?

a)

random mating b)

nonrandom mating c)

migration or gene flow


____

11.

Which answer BEST shows an animal's adaptation to the
tropical rain forest
?

a)

camouflage in a tree frog b)

the long neck of a giraffe c)

an elephant's long trunk


____

12.

The founder of modern evolution theory, and is called The Father of Evolution, is _____.

a)

Charles Darwin b)

Alexander Oparin c)

Stephen Jay Gould


____

13.

Mutations occur because o
f _____.

a)

the introduction of new variations from elsewhere b)

the introduction of new variations through mistakes in DNA
replication c)

the chance survival and reproduction of new variations


____

14.

Upon close examination of the skeleton of an adu
lt python, a pelvic girdle and leg bones can be
observed. These features are an example of _____.


a)

artificial selection b)

homologous structures c)

vestigial structures


____

15.

The theory of continental drift hypothesizes that Africa and South
America slowly drifted apart after once
being a single landmass. The monkeys on the two continents, although similar, show numerous genetic differences.
Which factor is probably the most important in maintaining these differences?

a)

comparative anatomy
b)

comparative embryology c)

geographic isolation


____

16.

Any species with more than one set of chromosomes is:

a)

haploid b)

diploid c)

polyploid


____

17.

A mechanism for change in a population in which organisms with favorable variations live, r
eproduce, and
pass on their favorable traits is:

a)

natural selection b)

mimicry c)

overpopulation


____

18.

The theories of need, use and disuse, and inheritance of acquired characteristics were part of the work
of:

a)

Charles Darwin b)

Jean Lamarck c)

Alexander Oparin


____

19.

The concept that evolution occurs over long periods of stability that are interupted by brief periods of
change is known as:

a)

adaptive radiation b)

polyploid c)

punctuated equilibriu
m d)

gradualism


____

20.

The total number of genes present in a population is the:

a)

allelic frequency b)

polyploid c)

gene pool


____

21.

A structural adaptation enabling an organism to blend in with its environment is ________.

a)

camouflage b)

mimicry


____

22.

This is a technique in which the human breeder selects particular traits.

a)

natural selection b)

directional selection c)

artificial selection


____

23.

The primitive Earth atmosphere was hypothesized to have consisted mostly of
_________.

a)

oxygen, nitrogen, and water vapor b)

hydrogen, methane, ammonia, and water vapor c)

amino acids, ATP,
carbohydrates, and oxygen


____

24.

The idea that life arises only from life is referred to as ________.

a)

biogenesis b)

mitosis c)

spontaneous generation d)

oogenesis


____

25.

The hypothesis that life began in the oceans was originated by _______.

a)

Redi b)

Pasteur c)

Oparin d)

Miller and Urey

Evolution and Natural Selection

Answer Section


MULTIPLE CHOICE



1.

ANS:

A

DIF:

B



2.

ANS:

A

DIF:

B



3.

ANS:

C

DIF:

B



4.

ANS:

D

DIF:

B



5.

ANS:

B



6.

ANS:

B

DIF:

B



7.

ANS:

B

DIF:

B



8.

ANS:

C

DIF:

B



9.

ANS:

A

DIF:

B



10.

ANS:

C

DIF:

B



11.

ANS:

A

DIF:

B



12.

ANS:

A

DIF:

B



13.

ANS:

B

DIF:

B



14.

ANS:

C

DIF:

B



15.

ANS:

C

DIF:

B



16.

ANS:

C



17.

ANS:

A



18.

ANS:

B



19.

ANS:

C



20.

ANS:

C



21.

ANS:

A



22.

ANS:

C



23.

ANS:

B



24.

ANS:

A



25.

ANS:

C