S S SM M MA A AR R RT T TP P PH H HO O ON N NE E E

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10 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

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Prepared By:








Guided By:

Foram Patel







Mahashweta mem


BE IT


090130116015







Faculty of IT/CE Dept.

Govt. Engg. College, Sec
-
28

Gandhinagar.



-
: Submitted
To:
-




Government Engineering College, Sector



28,

Gandhinagar
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CERTIFICATE



T
his is to certify that Ms
.
Foram Patel
Roll No.
090130116015
in

semester
5
TH

of

INFORMATION AND TECHNOLOGY

Engineering has

satisfactoril
y completed
her Term work in Subject

SEMINAR within

four
walls of Government Engineering Colle
ge, Sector
-

28, Gandhinagar for

the Term ending in
OCT
-
2011





Date:


Staff In
-
Charge







Head of
Department


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT




We take this opportunity to thank our respected
H.O.D.
M.B.Chaudhary

and

Mrs.
Vandana

Rathod

without whose support and encouragement, this paper could
not have been completed. We also take this opportunity to thank full to our other
faculty members and friends who have helped us in gathering and organizing the
required informati
on.











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ABSTRACT:


A
smart phone

is a high
-
end

mobile phone
that offers more advanced
computing ability and connectivity than a contemporary

feature phone
(i.e. a modern
low
-
end phone).

A smart phone combines the functions of a
personal digital assistant
(PDA) and a mobile phone. Today's models typically also serve as
portable media
players

and
camera phones
with high
-
resolution
touch screen, GPS
navigation,
Wi
-
Fi
and
mobile broadband
access.

A
smart

phon
e is a small, all
-
in
-
one
device

that is used for communi
cation and
computing function.
A smart phone runs a complete mobile operating system,
while cell
phones don’t have operating systems at all.

In contrast to ordinary cell phones, smart
phones allow users to choose the applicat
ions that they want to install and use. This
means that users can personalize the range of

applications in their smart phones to suit
their lifestyle and their job.

A few of the commoner brand names include the Blackberry, Palm Source, Nokia,
and Windows C
E.

Because smart phones are PDA/cell phone combinations, they can receive and
send phone calls; manage user information through their to
-
do list, calendar/organizer
and notes; create or establish networks as well as synchronize data with the devices in
the

network; send and receive emails; and download and play media files.






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Contents:

1,
Introduction of

Smartphone………………………………………………...
6

2
, History of Smartphone

……………………………………………………..
7


2.1
Early years
………………………………………………………….
7

2.2 Symbian
…………………………………………………………….
7

2.3

Palm, Windows, and BlackBerry…………………………………...
7

2.4 iPhone………………………………………………………………
8

2.5 Android……………………………………………………………..
8

3, Smartphone processor

……………………………………………………..
9

4, Touch screen………………………………………………………………11


4.1 Touch
screen Technologies
………………………………………..11

4.2 Cons
truction
……………………………………………………….12

4.3 Developmen
t
………………………………………………………12

4.4 Ergonomics and usage
……………………………………………..13

5, Modem
……………………
………………………………………………
14

6, Connectivity and other devices
…………………………………………...
15

8, Analysis
…………………………………………………………………..
16

9, References
………………………………………………………………..
17



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1]
I
ntroduction:

A
Smartphone

is a high
-
end
mobile phone

that combines the functions of a
personal digital assistant

(PDA) and a mobile phone. Today's models typically also
serve as
portable media players

and
camera phones

with high
-
resolution
touch
screen
s
,
web browsers

that can access and properly display standard web pages
rather than only mobile
-
optimized sites,
GPS

navigat
ion,
Wi
-
Fi

and
mobile
broadband

access.

The term Smartphone is usually used to describe phones with more
adva
nced computing ability and connectivity than a contemporary
feature phone
,
although the distinction can be vague and there is no official definition for what
constitutes the diff
erence between them. The definitions also shift over time since
many phones that are considered feature phones today can have capabilities that
exceed those of phones that had been promoted as Smartphone in the past.

Smartphone run
mobile operating systems

such as
Apple's

iOS
,
Google's

Android
,
Microsoft's

Windows Phone
,
Noki
a's

Symbian
,
RIM's

Black
Berry OS
,
and
embedded Linux

distributions such as
Maemo

and
MeeGo
. Such systems can
be installed on many different phone models, and typically each device can receive
multiple OS software updates over its lifetime.

Smartphone run third
-
party applications using adv
anced
application
programming interfaces

(APIs), which can allow those applications to have better
integration with the phone's OS and har
dware than is typical with feature phones.
In comparison, feature phones more commonly run on proprietary
firmware
, with
third
-
party software support through platforms such as
Java ME

or
BREW
.






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2]
History:

2.1
Early years

The first Smartphone was the
IBM Simon
; it was designed in 1992 and shown as a
concept product that year at
COMDEX
, the co
mputer industry trade show held in
Las Vegas
,
Nevada. It was released to the public in 1993 and sold by
BellSouth
.

The
Nokia Communicator

line was the first of Nokia's Smartphone starting with the
Nokia 9000
, released in 1996. In 1998, it was followed by
Nokia 9110
, and in 2000 by
Nokia
9110i
, with improved web browsing capability.

In 1997 the term 'Smartphone' was used for the
first time when
Ericsson

unveiled the concep
t phone GS88
,
the first device labeled as
'
Smartphone
'.

2.2
Symbian

In 2000, the touch screen
Ericsson R380 Smartphone

was released. It was the first device
to use an open opera
ting system, the
Symbian OS
. It was the first device marketed as a
'Smartphone'.

Also in 2000, the
Nokia 9210 communicator

was introduced, which was the first color
screen model from the above
Nokia Communicator

line. It was a true
Smartphone

with an open
operating system, the
Symbian OS
. It was followed by the
9500

Communicator, which also was
Nokia's first
camera phone

and first
Wi
-
Fi

phone. In 2010 Nokia released the
Nokia N8

Smartphone

with a
stylus
-
free capacitive
touch screen
, the first device to use the new
Symbian^3

OS.It featured a 12
megapixel

camera with
Xenon

flash capable of recording
HD video

in
720p
,
described by Mobile Burn as the best camera in a phone, and satellite navigation that

Mobile
Choice described as the best on any phone
.

It also featured a front
-
facing
VGA

camera for
videoconferencing.

2.3
Palm, Windows, and BlackBerry
:

In the late 1990's the vast majority of mobile phones had only basic phone features and
many people who needed functionality beyond that also carried
PDA

and/or
pager

type devices
running early versions of operating systems such as
Palm OS
,
BlackBe
rry OS

or
Windows
CE
/
Pocket PC
.

In early 2001,
Palm, Inc.

introduced the
Kyocera 6035
, the first smartphone to be
deployed in widespread use in the United States. In 2001 Microsoft announced its
Windows CE

Pocket PC OS would be offered as "Microsoft Windows Powered Smartphone 2002. In early
2002
Handspring

re
leased the
Palm OS

Treo

smartphone, utilizing a full keyboard that combined
wireless web browsing, email, calendar, and
contact organizer with mobile third
-
party
applications that could be downloaded or synced with a computer.

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2.4
iPhone
:

In 2007,
Apple Inc.

introduced its first
iPhone
. It was initially costly, priced at $499 for
the cheaper of two models on top of a two year contract. The first mobile phone to use a
multi
-
touch

interface, the iPhone was notable for its use of a large touchscreen for direct finger input as
its main means of interaction, instead of having a
stylus
, keyboard, and/or keypad, which were
the typical input methods for other smartphones at the time

In July 2008, Apple introduced its second generation
iPhone

with a lower list price
starting at $199 and 3G support. Released with it, Apple also created the
App Store
, adding the
capability for any
iPhone

or
iPod Touch

to officially execute additional native applications (both
free and paid) installed directly over a
Wi
-
Fi

or cellular network, without the more typical
process at the time of requiring a PC for installation.

In June of 2010, Apple introduced iOS 4, which included APIs to allow third
-
party
applications
to multitask, and the
iPhone 4
, which included a 960×640 pixel display with a pixel
density of 326
pixels per
inch

(ppi), a 5
megapixel

camera with
LED

flash capable of recording
HD video

in
720p

at 30
frames pe
r second
, a front
-
facing
VGA

camera for videoconferencing, a
1
GHz

processor, and other improvements.

2.5
Android
:

The
Android

operating system for smartphones was released in 2008. Android is an
open
-
source

pl
atform backed by
Google
, along with major hardware and software developers (such as
Intel
,
HTC
,
ARM
,
Motorola

and
Samsung
, to name a few), that form the
Open Handset Alliance
.
The first phone to use
Android

was the
HTC Dream
, branded for distribution by
T
-
Mobile

as the
G1. The software suite included on the phone consists of integration with Google's proprietary
applications, such as Maps, Calendar, and Gmail, and a full HTML web browser. Android
supports the execution of n
ative applications and a preemptive multitasking capability (in the
form of services). Third
-
party apps are available via the
Android Market

(released October
2008), including
both free and paid apps.

In January 2010, Google launched the
Nexus One

smartphone using its Android OS.
Although Android has multi
-
touch abilities, Google initially removed that feature

from the
Nexus One,but it was added through a firmware update on February 2, 2010.

Concerning the
Xperia Play

Smartphone, an analyst at CCS Insight said in March 2011
that "Console
wars are moving to the mobile platform". In the same month, the
HTC EVO 3D

was announced by
HTC Corpor
ation
, which can produce 3D effects with no need for special
glasses (auto stereoscopy). The HTC EVO 3D was officially released on June 24, 2011.



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3]
Smartphone Processors:


Processors use the same CPU design, licensed from the UK
-
based designer ARM.
Much
like Intel's near ubiquity in PC processing, ARM's processor cores have dominated the mobile
world. In fact, ARM originally stood for Acorn RISC Machine and its CPU design has a heritage
that dates back to the eighties and the classic BBC Micro and Ac
orn Archimedes computers.

This RISC architecture eventually lost out to the Intel x86 architecture in the PC space,
but it continued to thrive in devices like PDAs and Phones. ARM cores ended up inside such
iconic devices as Apple's Newton and iPod, Ninten
do's Game boy Advance and DS, 3DO's 3DO,
Canon's EOS 5D Mark II camera and Amazon's Kindle DX.

ARM's most current CPU family is known as Cortex A9. These CPU cores are used in
Orion and Tegra 2 processors. Where confusion often lies is in this relationship

between the
'CPU' and the 'Processor' inside a Smartphone.

In a traditional desktop PC the CPU, RAM, Graphics card and storage all plug into a
motherboard, which has discrete chips to control Audio and Input/output functions.


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Inside a Smartphone most of

the space is taken up with battery and the luxury of
spreading functionality between different chips isn't an option, nor is such a design very power
efficient. Instead mobile phones use what's called System on a Chip (SOC) approach to
processor design.

S
ystem on a Chip refers to processors that incorporate as many functions as possible in a
single package.

At its most basic a mobile processor will incorporate both CPU and graphics cores. In the
case of the Hummingbird processor from Samsung, which is used

in the Galaxy phones and
Galaxy Tab tablet and also forms the basis of Apple's A4 processor, used in the iPad and iPhone
4; it is an ARM Cortex A8 processor core with a PowerVR SGX 535 graphics chip. NVIDIA's
Tegra 2 uses a similar design, pairing two ARM

Cortex processor cores with an NVIDIA
-
developed graphics core.

Most of these kinds of chips support something called Package on Package or Multi
-
Chip
Module (MCM). This refers to a design where the silicon chip is packaged in a way that a
memory chip can
sit on top of it. This is not as fast a adding the memory directly to the
processor, but it is still fast and a much more efficient use of space to stack chips in this way.

This is drilling down to a level of detail beyond what one needs to know about the
processors on Smartphone, but it is important to realize the process behind the design. Despite
the fact that every major Smartphone uses ARM's processing architecture, the actual silicon
chips come from a variety of manufacturers. These silicon implementa
tions of ARM's designs,
and importantly the choice of graphics processor, will ultimately determine how a Smartphone
will perform.

It is for this reason that the source of a phone's processor is important. The battle between
NVIDIA's Tegra 2 and Samsung's
Orion is going to be quite heated, and it comes down not just
to the ARM cores but the underlying graphics performance. Curiously both Samsung and LG
touted a fivefold increase in graphics performance when announcing their products this week
-

we now play
the waiting game to see just how true this statement is.








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4]
Touch screen:

A
touch screen

is an
electronic visual display

that can detect the presence and location of
a touch within the display area. The term generally refers to touching the display of the device
with a
finger

or
hand
. Touchscreens can also sense other passive objects, such as a
stylus
.
Touchscreens are common in devices such as
all
-
in
-
one computers
,
tablet computers
, and
Smartphone.

The touch screen has two main attributes. Firs
t, it enables one to interact directly with
what is displayed, rather than indirectly with a pointer controlled by a
mouse

or
touchpad
.
Secondly, it lets one do so without requiring any intermediate device that would need to be held
in the hand. Such displays can be attached to computers, or to networks as terminals. They also
play a prominent role in
the design of digital appliances such as the
personal digital assistant

(PDA),
satellite navigation

devices,
mobile phones
, and
video games
.

4.1 Touch screen Technologi
es:

1.

Resistive

2.

Surface acoustic wave

3.

Capacitive

4.

Surface capacitance

5.

Projected capacitance

5.1
Mutual capacitance

5.2
Self
-
capacitance

6.

Infrared

7.

Optical imaging

8.

Dispersive signal technology

9.

Acoustic pulse recognition


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4.2 Construction:

There are several
principal ways to build a touch screen. The key goals are to recognize
one or more fingers touching a display, to interpret the command that this represents, and to
communicate the command to the appropriate application.

In the most popular techniques, the

capacitive or resistive approach, there are typically four
layers;

1.

Top polyester coated with a transparent metallic conductive coating on the bottom

2.

Adhesive spacer

3.

Glass layer coated with a transparent metallic conductive coating on the top

4.

Adhesive laye
r on the backside of the glass for mounting.

When a user touches the surface, the system records the change in the electrical current that
flows through the display.

Dispersive
-
signal technology which
3M

created in 2002, measures the
piezoelectric effect



the
voltage generated when mechanical force is applied to a material


that occurs chemically when
a streng
thened glass substrate is touched.

4.3
Development
:

Most touchscreen technology
patents

were filed during the 1970s and 1980s and have
expired. Touchscreen component manufacturing and product design are no longer encumbered
by
royalties

or legalities with regard to patents

and the use of touchscreen
-
enabled displays is
widespread.

The development of multipoint touchscreens facilitated the tracking of more than one
finger on the screen; thus, operations that require more than one finger are possible. These
devices also allow

multiple users to interact with the touchscreen simultaneously.

With the growing use of touchscreens, the
marginal cost

of touchscreen technology is
routinely absorbed into the
products that incorporate it and is nearly eliminated. Touchscreens
now have proven reliability. Thus, touchscreen displays are found today in airplanes,
automobiles, gaming consoles, machine control systems, appliances, and handheld display
devices includ
ing the
Nintendo DS

and the later multi
-
touch enabled
iPhones
; the touchscreen
market for mobile devices is projected
to produce US$5 billion in 2009.

The ability to accurately point on the screen itself is also advancing with the emerging
graphics tablet/screen h
ybrids
.

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4.4 Ergonomics and usage:

1.

Fingernail as stylus

2.

Fingerprints

3.

Combined with hepatics

4.

Gorilla arm

5.

Screen protectors
















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5]
Modem:

A
modem

is a device that encodes and decodes digital data transmitted by a telephone or
other analog communications system.

Modems which use a mobile telephone system (
GPRS
,
UMTS
,
HSPA
,
EVDO
,
WiMax
,
etc.), are known a
s
wireless modems

(sometimes also called cellular modems). Wireless modems
can be embedded inside a laptop or appliance or external to it. External wireless modems are
connect cards
,
usb modems

for
mobile broadband

and
cellular routers
.

A
connect card

is a
PC card

or
Express Card

which slides into a
PCMCIA
/PC
card/Express Card slot on a computer.
USB

wireless modems use a USB port on the laptop
instead of a PC card or Express Card slot. A cellular router may have an external datacard
(
Air
Card
) that slides into it. Most cellular routers do allow such data cards or USB modems. Cellular
Routers may not be modems per se, but they contain modems or allow modems to be slid into
them. The difference between a cellular router and a wireless m
odem is that a cellular router
normally allows multiple people to connect to it (since it can route, or support multipoint to
multipoint connections), while the modem is made for one connection.

Most of the
GSM

wireless modems come with an integrated
SIM cardholder

(i.e.,
Huawei E220
, Sierra 881, etc.) and some

models are also provided with a microSD memory slot
and/or jack for additional external antenna such as Huawei E1762 and Sierra Wireless Compass
885. The CDMA (EVDO) versions do not use
R
-
UIM

cards, but use
Electronic Serial Number

(ESN) instead.

The cost of using a wireless modem varies from count
ry to country. Some carriers
implement flat rate plans for unlimited data transfers. Some have caps (or maximum limits) on
the amount of data that can be transferred per month. Other countries have plans that charge a
fixed rate per data transferred

per me
gabyte or even kilobyte of data downloaded; this tends to
add up quickly in today's content
-
filled world, which is why many people are pushing for
flat
data rates
.

The faster data rates
of the newest wireless modem technologies (UMTS, HSPA, EVDO,
WiMax) are also considered to be
broadband wireless modems

and compete with other
broadband modems below.

Until end of April 2011, worldwide shipments of USB modems still surpass embedded
3G and
4G modules by 3:1 due to USB modems can be easily discarded, but embedded modems
could start to gain popularity as tablet sales grow and as the incremental cost of the modems
shrinks, so by 2016 the ratio may change to 1:1.



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6]
Connectivity

and External Devices
:

WiFi Ad
-
Hoc Networking

is a popular method to share internet connection
between

computers

(pc or laptop) or between a

computer and a
Smartphone

that has built in
WiFi. Unfortunately, this method of networking is

not supported by Android

since it was
released u
ntil the

time of this writing.

One of the popular method to enable ad hoc mode on Android devices is by


changing a
WiFi configuration file located on /system/etc directory called
tiwlan.ini
. But this method is
specific to phone’s WiFi chipset and you need root access to change the file. The tiwlan.ini is a
configuration file for Texas Instruments WiFi chipset (e.g HTC dream) so you will not find it on
Samsung Spica

that use Broadcom WiFi chipset.

Another alternative method is by using a software based virtual access point that using
Windows 7’s Wireless Hosted Network

technology. This method only runs on Windows 7 and
hardware specific. Currently i found two best virtual access point softwares,
Virtual Router

and
Connectify
. They both operate in the same
manner

and very easy to use. I have tested both of
them to share internet connection from my PC that used


Sierra Wireless
US
B

Connect

881
modem for internet access and an external
TP
-
Link TL
-
WN31G

Wireless USB adapter with my
Samsung Spica.




For checking connection status in Android, first we need to get an instance of
Connection Manager us
ing getSystemService(). The syntax is as,

ConnectionManager connManager = (ConnectionManager) getSystemService(Context.
CONNECTIVITY_SERVICE);



if ( connManager .getNetworkInfo(0).getState() == NetworkInfo.State.CONNECTED || connManager
.getNetworkI
nfo(1).getState() == NetworkInfo.State.CONNECTING ) {


text.setText("hey your online!!!");


//Do something in here when we are connected


} else if ( connManager.getNetworkInfo(0).getState() == NetworkInfo.Sta
te.DISCONNECTED ||
connec.getNetworkInfo(1).getState() == NetworkInfo.State.DISCONNECTED ) {


text.setText("Look your not online");

}










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7]
Analysis:





2010 saw the rapid rise of the Google Android operating system from 4 percent of new
deployments in 2009 to 33 percent at the beginning of 2011 making it share the top position with
the since long dominating
Symbian OS
. The smaller rivals include US popular
Blackberry OS
,
iOS
, Samsun
g's recently introduced
bada
, HP's heir of
Palm Pilot

webOS

and the Microsoft
Windows Phone

OS seeing a possible revival through an alliance with
Nokia
.




Over late 2009 and 2010 Android's Smartphone operating system market share
increased very rapidly. In the fourth quarter of 2010, Android surpassed Symbian as the most
common operating system in smart phones, with 32.9 million units sol
d versus 31.0 million.
Android
-
equipped phones sold seven times more than in the prior year. According to
Canalys
,
Google's Android operating system, which is offered to phone makers for fre
e, has raced to the
top past operating systems by Nokia, Apple, RIM, and Microsoft. In Q1 2011 Google's Android
market share was 35 percent, increasing significantly from 10 percent the previous year, while
Nokia's Symbian dropped to 26 percent from 46 per
cent over the same time period.





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8]

References:




Wikipedia



www.nottingham.ac.uk



www.discovery.com




www.citehr.com




www.ehow.com




www.howstuffworks.com