SUMMARY REPORT ENERGY RECOVERY AND STORAGE: A NEW APPROACH FOR THE UK AND CHINA

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21 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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SUMMARY
REPORT


ENERGY RECOVERY AND
STORAGE:

A NEW APPROACH FOR T
HE UK AND CHINA



18


22 March 2013


White Rose University Consortium







With support from:

British Consul
ate
-
General Shanghai
,
Science and Innovation Team

Hosting Institutions in China:
The Joint Leeds
-

IPE Institute in Beijing and the Joint Leeds
-

IPE
-

NCIP Lab in Nanjing



Funded by
:

Global Partnerships Programme, Department of

Business,
Innovation and Skill
s

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Introduction


The White Rose University Consortium of Leeds, Sheffield and York, plus the University of Hull, ran
two

workshop
s

on ‘Energy Recovery and Storage: A New Approach for the UK and China’
, one

in
Beijing and again in Nanjing in March 2013.


Our team of 8 UK academics had expertise in 3 key areas


1)

Utilisation of Waste Heat

2)

Energy from Biomass

3)

Energy Storage.


The aim of the workshops, run on an open
-
innovation model, was to presen
t and share expertise
and then to encourage joint UK
-
CHINA discussions in each of the key areas in order

to create a
number of potential project ideas for future collaborative R&D agreements. Follow up visits by the
Consulate General Shanghai Science and I
nnovation team to our Chinese colleagues
were

also part
of the project.


In Beijing,
the workshop was

hosted by the Chinese Academy of Sciences at the Institute of Process
Engineering. 12 Chinese academics from 9 different universities/organisations joine
d the workshop



In Nanjing, we were hosted by the Nanjing University of Science and Technology and supported by
the
Joint Leeds
-

IPE
-

NCIP Lab. 1
5

Chinese academics from
10

different universities/organisations
joined the workshop
.



We would like to express our thanks to the Science and Innovation Team at the British Consulate
General in Shanghai for their support with this project. And also to the Joint Institutes for Process
Engineering at the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Nan
jing University of Science and
Technology for their generous hosting and hospitality. And finally, also to the academics from both
the UK and China who participated so knowledgeably and enthusiastically during the workshops.

The project was funded by the
Department of Business, Innovation and Skills Global Partnership
Fund


Julian White, CEO of the White Rose University Consortium

Claire Pickerden, Project Development Manager, White Rose University Consortium

www.
whiterose.ac.uk


contact
c.pickerden@whiterose.ac.uk


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Workshop Themes

The workshop was structured around short presentations on each theme, followed by a quickfire

discussion to collect initial thoughts, issues, ideas and questions. An additional Theme on Cross
-
Collaborative Projects steered discussion towards synergy between the themes.
Small
discussion
groups focus
ed

on shared interests and the development of pote
ntial joint project ideas.


THEME 1) Utilisation of Waste Heat

Theme Lead: Professor Jim Swithenbank, University of Sheffield

It is widely recognised that the efficient use of energy requires that we should recover and use the
low grade heat rejected to a
tmosphere by power generation, in a combined heat and power (CHP)
system. However, it is not so widely appreciated that the gas boilers now used to produce low grade
heat for buildings or industry waste the fundamental power generation capability of

high
t
emperature flames and
should
be
replace
d

by micro
-
generation systems. Thus the challenge is to
develop and apply CHP in the urban environment in a cost efficient manner. There is an urgent need
to develop new and appropriate technologies and supporting mea
sures which are needed to
enhance and exploit the large amount of unused low grade heat available from the

wide range of
industries (e
g iron/steel industry). This low
-
grade heat is predomin
ately available in the gases (eg

fl
ue gases) and liquid streams (eg

cooling water).


District Heating/Cooling (DHC) provided by a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system, offers an
increase in overall plant efficiency from approximately 55% for the best electricity generating plant
to approximately 85% for a CHP plant, re
ducing CO2 emission by 30%. Furthermore, CHP can also be
provided from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration, which can represent almost 20% of the
total energy needs of a city, again contributing a major reduction to net CO2 emissions. In city areas
t
hat have a heat demand during winter and a cooling demand during the summer the combination
of CHP, district heating and absorption refrigeration plants can be an optimal solution for ensuring
the efficient use of capital invested in production capacity.



THEME 2) Energy from Biomass

Theme Lead: Dr Mark Gronnow, University of York

Renewable sources of energy (eg wood, agricultural crops, biofuels, forestry residues, waste) can
make an important contribution to securing sustainable and diverse energy supp
lies and are
therefore an essential element of a cost
-
effective climate change programme. This Theme
addresses the international need to limit the emission of greenhouse gases by exploiting the energy
contained in biomass/biofuels by extending state
-
of
-
th
e
-
art technologies. This is particularly timely
since disappointing experience with industrial pilot
-
scale “energy
-
from
-
biomass” plants (e.g
gasification) has emphasised the importance of first establishing the enabling scientific and
engineering principl
es underpinning these technologies. The key areas will focus on the use of
microwave heating to convert agricultural and municipal wastes to solid and liquid energy products.



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The key to this work is energy densific
ation through a range of means:


Enhan
ced seed oil recovery
-

Through essentially a steam distillation, oil can be recovered from seed
meal thereby enhancing oil value for use in bio
-
diesel.


Pyrolysis to Liquid Fuels
-

The use of microwave heating to create pyrolysis of biomass and wastes

at
a

much lower temperature to
flash pyrolysis (200°C)
and fractionate

into liquid products such as
heavy heating oils, chemicals and liquid transport fuels.


Pyrolysis/Torrefaction to Solid Fuels
-

the microwave can be used to torrify

materials and generate
materials with a higher energy density weight for weight and volume for volume than native
biomass or waste. These solid fuels can be used in co
-
firing applications. Furthermore, both pyrolysis
system generate gas products, this is
a relatively new area of our research.


Hydrothermal Treatment to Sugar
-

Through the use of high water content, high pressure, relatively
low
temperature microwave systems,
we have observed the formation of sugar from lignocellulosic
materials which can su
bsequently be fermented to bioethanol, biobutanol etc.


THEME 3)
Energy storage

Theme Lead:
Professor
Yulong Ding, University of Leeds


Energy Storage is to play a key role in large scale use of renewable energy resources, distributed
energy systems, and peak shaving of
the
power network. Integration of energy storage technologies
with industrial processes is also a highly effective w
ay to

significantly increase

energy efficiency.
This

theme will cover heat and cold storage technologies, conversion between thermal energy and
electrical energy, and techno
-
economic analyses.


We need new solutions to capture and “warehouse” green energy and
allow it to be used, when
required, either on grid or in a vehicle. At one end of the scale, pumped hydro is limited
geograghically by requiring mountains; while, at the other end, batteries are expensive and have
short lifetimes. Liquid air is an alternat
ive to “store” energy. It is cheap, uses mature components
and
is
highly scaleable. Additionally, the low boiling temperature of liquid air allows it to harness low
grade waste heat by increasing the expansion rate from liquid back to gas

by about 700 time
s.
As
with a traditional steam engine, a cryogenic engine relies on phase
-
change (liquid to gas) and
expansion within a confined space, eg engine cylinder or turbine.



Critically, the system can be scaled to 100MWs/GWhs of storage, similar to a m
edium sca
le pumped
hydro. L
iquid air can easily be stored in the same low pressure tank
s as used by the LNG industry;
it
is hundreds of times more energy dense than water and the proces
s does not need large mountains.

This cycle is beginning to be exploited for lar
ge scale electricity storage in UK, China and North
America for grid balancing and large scale energy storage, and in a number of novel vehicle engine
designs.




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Potential Project Collaborations



Large Scale


1)

Hydrogen generation through gasification of

microwave torrified biomass

Joint
le
ad: Leeds and
York

Biomass has been selected as a key renewable resource for a step change in the energy use for a
green and sustainable fut
ure. Hydrogen is a clean energy which

can be used in various applications
(i.e. fuel cell). Producing hydrogen from renewable resources will be important for a sustainable and
clean future, however currently there are many problems preventing the use of biomass as a
feedstock for hydrogen gen
eration.
In this project, w
e hope to integrate the known technologies of
torrefaction and gasification with an aim of demonstrating in China and Europe a complete
operational system for converting biomass into hydrogen with zero by
-
product. The first key

part of
the project will be torrefaction comparing conventional and microwave generated chars and
addressing some of the
major issues associated with it
s production. The second key unit operation
is the gasification process whereby biochar will be conver
ted to gas. We anticipate the project will
then iterate between gasification and torrefaction to produce optimum bio
-
char for the gasification
process, in tur
n maximising hydrogen yields. Collaboration
is currently being shaped with
Huazhong
University o
f Science and Technology,
the

Institute of Engineering Thermophysics (IET,) Chinese
Academy of Science
,
Dalian University of Technology

and
Southeast University, Nanjing
.



2)

District energy supply and management based on trigeneration and storage technol
ogies


led by Leeds

This project will choose a real world example such as an 'industrial park' as the study case. The
investigation will cover the aspects of: i) supply and demand dynamic interaction ii) renewable
power connection iii) storage integration.

The research and demonstration of this project will show
key technologies and operation of a mini 'smart grid' which enables high performances of all sectors.
The UK lead is Professor Yulong Ding, working alongside the Universities
of
Leeds, Sheffield and

Hull

with Tongji University
lead
ing

the Chinese team

from

the
Peking
,
Sun Yat
-
Sen
, Nanjing Science and
Technology

and
Shanghai Jiaotong
Univ
ersities
.
Some potential industrial partners will also be
contacted and involved in both UK and China.



3)

Oxygen

Separation Technology



led by Sheffield

Due to the need for oxy
-
fuel or oxy
-
gasification technology for future power generating systems that
include capture and sequestration of carbon dio
xide, collaboration is being explored

with

Tianjin
University
who
specialise in

cryogenic separation of oxygen.

The team at Sheffield has

demonstrated the use of steam blowing through molten iron to separate oxygen by chemic
al looping
with biomass/coal.






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Potential Project Collaborations



Medium/Small Scale


This l
ist of potential shared projects is currently undergoing further refinement and discussion.

1.

Influence of alkali metals on catalytic biomass gasification

T
he influence of alkali metals released from biomass pyrolysis will be evaluated for catalytic
reforming for hydrogen production

(Leeds and Huazhong University of Science and Technology)


2.

F
ood waste biorefinery

Extending the refinery to generate both energy and chemical products
, University of York, City
University Hong Kong


3.

Medicinal Plant Waste f
or Energy and Chemicals

Generation of chemical and energy products from processed medicinal plant waste
, University of
York, City University Hong Kong


4.

Novel recovery of metal from fly ash

Microwave treatment of fly ash aluminium recovery, University of York, Huaneng Clean Energy
Research Institute


5.

Graphene
:


Development
of composites based on carbona
ceous mesoporous materials (Starbon) and conductive
polymer for making supercapacitor
s,

University of York, Nanjing University of Science and Technology



6.

Risk Assessment

Joint s
eminars and workshops on methodology with

University of Sheffield,

Tinjing University and
Beijing University of Chemical Engineering Technology

in September 2014
.


7.

Coal
-
fired supercritical power plants

Modelling/simulation and analysis of coal
-
fir
ed supercritical power plants,
University of Hull with Prof
Zhu from the Shanghai

Electric Power University.




8.

Application of Energy Storage in Power Plant with Carbon
Capture


C
onsidering national grid requirements, University of Hull, working with North China Electric Power
University in Beijing.


9.

Hydrogen production from thermo
-
chemical conversion of renewable resources

Mixing organic solvent (e.g. ethanol) into crud
e biooil will be carried out to improve the reforming
process in terms of reduction of coke formation and increase of hydrogen production.


10

Biomass algae feedstock for pyrolys
is/gasification


Use of Sheffield’s
slow pyro
lysis rig to generate biochar

which
will be ground to powder and gasified in
the

gasifier. The Collaboration involves the transfer of dried material from Tsinghua. This system can
also capture carbon dioxide for energy recycling.



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Future Collaboration

By
late 2013,
further visit
s

by

the UK academic
s

to China
will take place in order to develop the
projects up to and including funding application stage. The visits will:




Foster UK/China Project Team working



Finalise collaboration research agreements



Enable project enhancement and refi
nement



Detailed
Action planning



extend the project network to include (as appropriate); other Chinese research staff; links to
other HEIs; links to industry



Source potential funding and discuss application process



Discussion with funders at a provincial
level with the aid of the Consulate



Act as a model for joint UK/China research project development and operation



Raise the profile of the academics involved and the benefits of UK/China collaboration






Summary


Both workshops were successful in the
level of interaction and engagement between the academics
from the two countries
, the presentation of expertise and areas of interest on both sides and the
identification of key areas for potential collaboration
. The workshops were operational and
discussi
on based to encourage ‘on
-
the
-
ground’ development and uptake of project ideas

and were
facilitated by White Rose staff
. The thematic approach allowed both specialism and cross
-
collaborative discussion

and the individual theme leaders were instrumental in p
resenting an
overview and analysis of potential projects that could be developed
.
On returning to the UK, the
r
esearch ideas were plentiful and
work was done on
refining and developing into potential projects
and outline action plans.
There is interest in
creating an overall framework for ‘Energy Recovery and
Storage’, with specialist themes, work packages and activities within it.
Future visits to China by the
UK academic lead to refine project plans are key to maintaining engagement and momentum.
Funding
sources need accessing in both UK and China by the project groups which would be enabled
by further face
-
to
-
face meetings
, and by utilising the commercial and investment understanding of
the Consulate’s Science and Innovation Team in Shanghai. The White Ro
se University Consortium
welcomed the opportunity to facilitate this initial activity and is enthusiastic in helping to secure and
embed the potential projects and any further strategic interventions
.




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UK
Delegate List

University of Sheffield

Prof
essor

Ji
m Swithenbank

Leader of Theme 1


Chairman of Sheffield University Waste Incineration Centre
Department of Chemistry and Biological Engineering

Dr Yajue Wu

Lecturer
,
Department of Chemistry and Biological Engineering


University of York

Dr Mark Gronnow

Leader of Theme 2


Process Development Unit Manager


Green Chemistry Centre of Excellence

Dr Vita
liy Budarin

Senior Researcher,
Microwave technology platform Leader
Green Chemistry Centre of Excellence


University of Leeds

Prof
essor

Yulong Ding

Leader o
f Theme 3


Director, Institute of Particle Science & Engineering

Dr Yongliang Li

Research Fellow, Institute of Particle Science and E
ngineering,

Dr Chunfei Wu

Research Fellow,
Energy Research Institute


University of Hull

Dr Meihong Wang

Reader in Engineering


White Rose University Consortium

Dr Julian White

Chief Executive

Claire Pickerden

Project Development Manager







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Contributors in Beijing


Chinese Academy of Sciences

Professor Shimou Chen


In
stitute of Process Engineering

Dr Yi
Jin


I
nstitute of Process Engineering

Dr Liang Wang


Institute of Engineering Thermophysics

Dr
Fengwu Bai


Institute of Electrical Engineering

Prof
essor

Haisheng Chen


Institute of Engineering Thermophysics

Dr
Yun Huang


Institute of Process Engineering


Tsinghua University, Beijing

Prof
essor

Qun Chen


Dept of Thermal Engineering

Prof
essor

Baoguo Wang



Dept of Chemical Engineering


University of Science and Technology Beijing

Professor

Hao Bai


Department of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering

Profe
ssor
Hongxu Li




Other Institutions

Professor Michael Leung


City University of Hong Kong

Dr Xiaolong Wang



Huaneng Clean Energy Research Institute



Professor
Xinrong Zhang


Peking University

Dr Dongliang Chen


Beijing University of Chemical
Technology

Professor Hongyuan (David) Wei



School of Chemical Engineering, TianJin University.

Dr Xiyun Yang


Control Science and Computer Engineering School, North




China Electric Power University

Ms Ming Liu



Head

of Science & Innovation Office
,




British Consulate
-
General Guangzhou

Prof
essor

John Loughhead


Executive
Director,
UK Energy Research Centre

Dr Nicola Combe


UK Energy Research Centre





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Contributors in

Nan
jing

Mr Yangwei ZHAO

Director International Cooperation Division, Department of



Science and Technology, Jiangsu Province

British Consulate General Shanghai

Mr Tim Standbrook

Co
nsul of Science and Innovation,

Ms Bronte Zhang

Senior
Science and Innovation Officer

Ms Lily Zhu

Science and Innovation Officer


Ms

Ying ZHANG

Senior Trad
e Officer

Ms

Tracy TANG

Inward Investment Officer


Nanjing University of Science & Technology

Professor
Lianjun Wang

Vice President

Prof
essor

Yang Dongmei

International Exchanges and Co
-
operation

Professor
Qinhua Li

Deputy Dean of School of Chemical
Engineering

Professor Dongping Sun

School of Chemical Engineering

Professor

Qingli Hao

School of Chemical
Engineering

Professo
r Junwu Zhu

School of Chemical
E
ngineering

Southeast University, Nanjing

Dr

Huiyan Zhang

Energy

Thermal Conversion and Control

Dr

Dekui Shen

School of Energy and Environment

Huazhong University of Science and Technology


Professor Haiping Yang

Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

Prof
essor

Hanping CHEN

Deputy Director
,
Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

Nanjing University Of Aeronautics And Astronautics

Prof
essor

Yimin Xuan

School of Energy and Power Engineering


Prof
essor

Bo Shi

Shanghai Electric Power University

Prof
essor Weiguo PAN

Vice President


Profess
or Qunzhi ZHU

Associate Dean,
College of Ene
rg
y and Mechanical
Engineering

Tong Ji University

Prof
essor

Dong Zhang


School of ma
terials science and engineering

Yuefeng Li



Other Institutions

Dr Carol Lin

Assistant Professor of

SEE, City University Hong Kong

Changying Zhao

Shanghai Jiao Tong
University

Dr Guanghui Leng

Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences

Prof
essor

Jianzhong Sun

Jiangsu University

Professor

Jing Ding

School of Engineering, Sun Yat
-
sen University

Dr Hui Cao

University of Leeds

Guo Hong

Deputy Director
, International Co
-
operation Division