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THE FIRST MOROCCO


KOREA BILATERAL SYMPOSIUM

ON POLYME
RS, MATERIALS & NANO

-

TECHNOLOGY




Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane, Morocco

November 21


25, 2004







Organized by:



Al Akhawa
y
n University in Ifrane


Hannam University, Korea


Centre National pour la Recherche
Scientifique et Technique
(CNRST)


Korea Science & Engineering
Foundation (KOSEF)

1
st

Morocco
-
Korea Bilateral Symposium on Polymers, Materials & Nano


Technology

Al Akhawayn University in I
frane, Morocco
---------

November 21

25, 2004


2











THE FIRST MOROCCO


KOREA BILATERAL SYMPOSIUM

ON POLYMERS, MATERIALS & NANO

-

TECHNOLOGY




Al Akhawayn
University in Ifrane, Morocco

November 21


25, 2004




Main Topics

Nano
-
Technology, Nano
-
Photo
nic
s
,
Biopolymers,
Structures
&

Properties

of
Polymers and Materials



Organized by

School of Science and Engineering, Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane, Ave. Hassan II, B.P. 104, Ifrane, Morocco.


http://www.aui.ma/MK
-
Symposium/index.htm



1

Note

:
Event organized by the support of the Ministry of Education

and Research

«

Ministère de l’Enseignement Supérieur, de
la Formation des Cadres et de la Recherch
e

Scientifique

»

by funds managed by the

C.N.R.S.T



Al Akhawa
y
n University
in Ifrane


Hannam University, Kor
ea


Centre National pour la
Recherche Scientifique et
Technique

(CNRST)
1


Korea Science &
Engineering Foundation

1
st

Morocco
-
Korea Bilateral Symposium on Polymers, Materials & Nano


Technology

Al Akhawayn University in I
frane, Morocco
---------

November 21

25, 2004


3





Message from
the
Chairs




It is our pleasure to welcome you to participate in the 1
st

Morocco
-
Korea Bilateral Symposium
on Polymers, Materials and Nano
-
Technology (MKS 2004). Th
is Symposium represents part of
the effort from both Morocco and Korea to share the
ir

experiences in working with polymers
and materials in science and technology. This year’s symposium concentrates on the area of
nano
-
photonics and nano
-
technology as well

as biopolymers and structure property of polymers
and materials. Over thirty leading scientists from Korea and Morocco as well as guests from
Japan and France will give lectures on the state of the art of the subject areas, and the
symposium will focus on

the identification of new research topics which

will

lead to further
cooperation between the two countries. It is also hoped that the symposium will provide
continuous bases for strong cooperative links in science and engineering research activities and
e
ducation for young scientists and students.


We hope that all participants have a great time throughout this symposium.


Zouheir Sekkat

Sunwoong Choi

1
st

Morocco
-
Korea Bilateral Symposium on Polymers, Materials & Nano


Technology

Al Akhawayn University in I
frane, Morocco
---------

November 21

25, 2004


4

Guests of Honor



Mr. Rachid Benmokhtar Benabdallah, President of Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane



Mr. Habi
b El Malki, Minister of National Education, Higher Education, Staff
Training and Scientific Research



M. Said Oulbacha, Secretary of State, minister of employment, social affairs and
solidarity.



Mr. Jayson Park, Ambassador of the Republic of Korea in Moroc
co



Mr. Noureddine Sefiani, Directeur des Affaires Asiatiques et de l’Océanie, Ministry
of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation



Mr. Jaafar Alj Hakim, Ambassador of His Majesty the King of Morocco in Republic
of Korea



Professor Abdellatif Benchrifa, President of
Moulay Ismail Universty, Meknes



Professor Toufik Ouazzani, President of Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Fes



Professor Saïd Belcadi, Directeur, Centre National pour la Recherche Scientifique et
Technique



Mr. Byung
-
Whan Ho, Director, Division of Int
ernational Cooperation, Korea
Science and Engineering Foundation



Professor Driss Ouaouicha, Vice
-
President for Academic Affairs, Al Akhawayn
University in Ifrane



Professor Amine Bensaid, Dean of the School of Science & Engineering, Al
Akhawayn University i
n Ifrane


Conference Co
-
Chairs:



Zouheir Sekkat
, School of Science and Engineering , Al Akhawayn University in
Ifrane, Morocco



Sunwoong Choi, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering,


Hannam
University, Korea


Organizing Committee




Hassane Darhmaoui

-

Chair (School of Science & Engineering, Al Akhawayn
University, Ifrane)



Mimouna Ba
ï
toul
(Faculté des Sciences Dhar Mehraz, Fes)



Mohammed Benaissa (CNRST, Rabat)



Abdellah Haddout (ENSEM, Casablanca)



Dong Keun Han (Korea Institute of Science and Tech
nology)



Kwang
-
Sup Lee (Hannam University, Korea)



Ahmed Legrouri (School of Science & Engineering, Al Akhawayn University, Ifrane)



Khalid Loudiyi (School of Science & Engineering, Al Akhawayn University, Ifrane)



Abdel
-
Karim Maaroufi (Université Mohammed
V, Rabat)



Abdelilah NADIRI
(Faculté des Sciences, Meknes)



Izeddine Zorkani (Faculté des Sciences Dhar Mehraz, Fes)

1
st

Morocco
-
Korea Bilateral Symposium on Polymers, Materials & Nano


Technology

Al Akhawayn University in I
frane, Morocco
---------

November 21

25, 2004


5




Program





Sunday, November 21, 2004



Welcome Mixer

/ Registration

(18:00
-

20:00)

(VIP Room
-

AUI
-

Restaurant)



Monday, November

22, 2004

EEC
,

Library Building (2
nd

floor)

Opening Remarks

09:05
-

09:15

Invited Presentations

Nano
-
Technology & Nano
-
Photonics

Chair: Sunwoong Choi (Hannam University, Korea)


09:15
-
09:45 In Jae Chung (Korea Advanced Institute of Science & Techno
logy, Korea)

The Dispersion of Singlewall Carbon Nanotubes in Various Solvents by
attaching

Surfactants and Polymers


09:45
-
10:15 Satoshi Kawata (Osaka University. & RIKEN, Japan)


Near Field and Non Linear Spectroscopy for Molec
ular Imaging
in

Nanometer
Resolution


10:15
-
10:45 Zouheir

Sekkat (Al Akhawayn University
,

Ifrane,

Morocco)


Two
-
Photon Orientation of Isomers:Towards Applications in Nano
-
Photonics


10:45
-

11:15


Coffee Break

1
st

Morocco
-
Korea Bilateral Symposium on Polymers, Materials & Nano


Technology

Al Akhawayn University in I
frane, Morocco
---------

November 21

25, 2004


6

Nano
-
Technology and Nano
-
Materials

Chair: Zouheir Sekkat (Al Akhawayn University,
Ifrane,

Morocco)


11:15
-
11:45 Mohammed Benaissa (CNRST, Rabat, Morocco)

Optical, Structural and Electronic Nanoscale C
haracterization of p
-
type GaN
Thin Films


11:45
-
12:15
Jean
-
Michel Nunzi (University of Angers, CNRS, France)


Physics and Technology of Nano
-
Structured Photovoltaic Polymer Solar Cells



12:15
-
12:45 Changjin Lee (Korea Research Institute for Chem
ical Technology, Korea)

Molecular Scale Device Fabricated Using Aromatic Thiol Monolayer

Assembled in the Nano Via
-
hole Electrode


12:45
-

14:30
Photo Taking & Lunch

Structure
-
Property & Nano Materials

Chair: Kwang
-
Sup Lee (Hannam Uni
versity, Korea)


15:00
-
15:30 Kilwon Cho (Pohang University of Science and Technology, Korea)


Enhanced Field
-
Effect Mobility of Organic Thin Film Transistors by Surface
-
Mediated Molecular Ordering


15:30
-
16:00 Mimouna Baïtoul (
FS Dhar El Mehraz, Fes
, Morocco
)


Optical and vibrational properties of conducting polymers: effect of
conjugating lengths distribution


16:00
-
16:30
Jong
-
Beom Baek (Chungbuk National University, Korea)

Surface Modification and Polymerization onto Car
bon nanotubes


16:30
-
17:00

Coffee Break and Poster session

1

Structure
-
Property and Nano
-

Materials

Chair: Mohammed Benaissa (CNRST, Rabat)


17:00
-
17:3
0 Kwang
-
Sup Lee (Hannam University, Korea)


Efficient Two
-
Photon Absorbin
g Multibranched and Dendritic Materials


17:30
-
18:0
0 Tatsuo Wada (RIKEN, Japan)


Chiral Phthalocyanine Supramolecular Structures


18:00
-
18:30 Abdellatif Bouchelkha (FST, Mohammedia, Morocco)



Picosecond Time Response Measurements of an Octupolar Polymer


18:3
0
-

20:00


Break

20:00
-

22:00


Banquet
(AUI Restaurant)


1
st

Morocco
-
Korea Bilateral Symposium on Polymers, Materials & Nano


Technology

Al Akhawayn University in I
frane, Morocco
---------

November 21

25, 2004


7


Tuesday, November 23, 2004

EEC
,

Library Build
ing (2
nd

floor)

Structure
-
Property and Nano
-
Technology

Chair: Kilwon Cho (Pohang University of Science and Technology, Korea)


08:30
-
09:00 Ji Young Chang (Seoul National University, Korea)


Use of Thermally Reversible Reactions
in the Organic Materials Synthesis


09:00
-
09:30 Khalid Loudiyi (Al Akhawayn University,
Ifrane,
Morocco)


Induced order in Polystyrene Suspensions


09:30
-
10:00 Yoshimasa Kawata (Shizuoka Univ., Japan)



Nano
-
Patterned Media for High Density

Optical D
ata Storage


10:00
-
10:30
Abdel
-
Karim Maaroufi
(FS, Agdal, Rabat, Morocco)


Non Linear Electrical Resistivity of Polymeric Matrix Loaded with Nickel and
Cobalt Powders


10:30
-

11:
00
Coffee Break and Poster session

1

Biopolymers and Nano
-
Technology

Chair: Anouar Jorio
(FS Dhar El Mehraz, Fes, Morocco
)


11:00
-
11:30 Dong Keun Han (Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Korea)


Cartilage Regeneration Using Hydrophylic Porous Scaffolds


11:30
-

12:00 Izeddine Zorkani (
FS Dhar El Mehraz, Fes, Morocco
)


FIR Absorption in CdSe nano
-
crystallites embedded in a SiO matrix: Effect of
a magnetic field


12:00
-
12:
30 Jin Ho Lee (Hannam University, Korea)



PEG
-
Containing Polymer Films and Gels as Postoperative Tissue Adhesion
Barriers


12:30
-

14:
00
Guided Campus Tour and Lunch

14:00
-

19:00


Excursion: Meknes

Free Time


1
st

Morocco
-
Korea Bilateral Symposium on Polymers, Materials & Nano


Technology

Al Akhawayn University in I
frane, Morocco
---------

November 21

25, 2004


8


Wednesday, November 24, 2004

EEC
,

Library Building (2
nd

floor)

Nano
-
Technology and Nano
-
Photonics

Chair: Ji Young Chang (Seoul National University, Korea)


08:30
-
09:00 Hwan Kyu Kim (Hannam University
, Ko
rea
)


Lanthanide
-
cored Supramolecular
Materials With Highly efficient Light
-
Harvesting ans Site
-
isolation Effects For Advanced Photonics.



09:00
-
09:30
Ali AHAITOUF (FST, EE Dept.
Fes)

Room temperature Photoluminescence, Electro
luminescence and Infrared
spectroscopy, three techniques for material and electronic devices
characterizations.


09:30
-
10:00 Abdellah Rezzouk (
FS Dhar El Mehraz, Fes, Morocco
)




13
C MAS NMR investigation of two
-
dimensional po
lymerized C
60

using
paramagnetic O
2

as a chemical shift agent.


10:00
-
10:30 Hassane Darhmaoui (Al Akhawayn University,
Ifrane,
Morocco)


Correlation Between the Nanoscopic Phase Separation and other Physical
Properties of YBCO an
d TlBCCO Superconducting Thin
films


10:30
-

11:00
Coffee Break and Poster session

2

Structure
-
Property and Nano
-
Technology

Chair: Changjin Lee (Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology)


11:00
-
11:30 Abdelilah Nadiri (
FS Meknes, Morocco)


New formulations of glass based on

Moroccan natural phosphate


11:30
-
12:00 Yasushi Inouye (Osaka University, Japan)


Near Field Vibrational Spectroscopy for Molecular Nano
-
Imaging


12:
00
-
12:30 Anouar Jorio (FS Dhar El Mehraz, Fes, Morocco)


Effect of Intrinsic Defects on the Mobility of the Gallium Arsenide Grown by
Molecular Beam Epitaxy and

Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition



12:30
-

14:00


Guided Campus Tour and Lunch

14:00
-

19:0
0
Excursion: Ancient City of Fes (Fes
-
Medina)


Free Time










1
st

Morocco
-
Korea Bilateral Symposium on Polymers, Materials & Nano


Technology

Al Akhawayn University in I
frane, Morocco
---------

November 21

25, 2004


9

Thursday, November 25, 2004

EEC
,

Library Building (2
nd

floor)

S
tructure
-
Property

Chair: Hassane Darhmaoui (Al Akhawayn University,
Ifrane,

Morocco)


08:30
-
09:0
0 Ahmed Legrouri (Al Akhawayn University,
Ifrane,
Morocco)


Promising Materials for Water Purification


09:00
-
09:30 Soo
-
Jin Park (
Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technologhy, Korea)


Filler
-
Elastomer Interaction
s:

Interfacial Adhesion of Silicas/Rubber
Compoundings



09:30
-
10:00 Azzeddine El Midaou (
FS,

Kenitra, Morocco)



Polymeri
c Membranes: Synthesis and Application in Water Treatments


10:00
-

10:30
Coffee Break and Poster session

2

Structure
-
Property

Chair: Khalid Loudiyi (Al Akhawayn University,
Ifrane,
Morocco.)


10:30
-
11:00 Sunwo
o
ng Choi (Hannam

Universtiy, Korea)


Stable Creep Crack Growth in Polymers


11:00
-
11:30 Mohamed Hamdoune (
FS Dhar El Mehraz, Fes, Morocco
)


Exchange coupling and surface effects on critical behaviour of magnetic
nanostructu
re


11:30
-
12:00 Hyun Hoon Song (Hannam Universtiy, Korea.)


Evolution of Structure and Preperties of Melt
-
Quenched Partially
Oriented PET Yarns upon Heat Treatment


12:00
-
12:30

Closing Rema
rks




Poster Presentations


Poster Session 1



Polymers and Nano
-

Technology

New Fluorinated Acrylic Copolymers with Cyano Compounds for Dielectric Material:
Synthesis and Characterization

Mustapha Raihane (FST, Marrakech)


Nanocomposite by Insitu Polym
erization of Teraethoxysilane in Polyimide Polymer: Effect of
the Coupling Agent in the Microstructure and Interfacial Interaction

Hamid
Kaddami (FST, Marrakech)


Organometallic Synthesis of Co
-
Polymers Based On Thiophene and Phenylene. A Route to
Organic
Conjugated Polymers with Improved Physical Properties

Mohamed Bouachrine

(FST, Errachidia)


1
st

Morocco
-
Korea Bilateral Symposium on Polymers, Materials & Nano


Technology

Al Akhawayn University in I
frane, Morocco
---------

November 21

25, 2004


10

Density Functional Theory Study of Oligo
-
Para
-
Phenylenes in Their Neutral, Polaronic and
Bipolaronic States

Mohamed Bouachrine

(FST, Errachidia)


Tetrakis(Phenyleth
ynyl)Tin (Iv); A Versatile Catalyst For The Preparation Of Synthetic
Biopolymers

Mohammed Lahcini (FST, Marrakech)


Modeling and Simulation in Piezopolymers and Piezolaminated Active Structures Containing
Piezoelectric Polymers

Miloud

Rahmoune

(FST Errachi
dia)


Poster Session 2


Structure
-
Property

of Materials


Electrical and EPR Studies of Alkali
-
Molybdophosphate Glasses

Lahcen Bih
,
Abdelilah Nadiri
,
Youssef El Amraoui
(FST Errachidia)


Study of the Thermal Behavior of Strained Inas/Gaas Quantum Dots by Ph
otoluminescence
Technique

Adil Chahboun (FS, Fes)


Properties of Sm
2
-
x
Ce
x
Cuo
4
-
Δ

Superconducting Thin Films Grown by MBE

M.Boujida
(FST, Fes)


Elaboration of Grafted Celluloses as Ion Exchangers from Natural Materials Application to the
Adsorption of Dyes

S
abah Elbariji (FS, Agadir)


Resistance to Compression of the Mixing Cement with Fine Sand

ElHassan

Gourri
(FS, Agadir)


Materials and Solar Photovoltaic Cells

Khalida Zazi (CNRST, Rabat)


Synthesis of new sensors gaz
: nanosized materials based of ceria

K
halid
.Ouzaouit

(FS, Agadir)


Flux F
low and
Noise Power Spectral Density in T
hin
E
pitaxial YBa
2
Cu
3
O
7
-


F
ilms

Abdelaziz Labdag

(FS, Agadir)


Analysis of the 1/f
Noise in the High
-
Tc Superconducting T
hin
F
ilms

Abdelilah NADIRI

(FS, Agadir)


Irreversibilit
y Magnetic Field and the Critical Current Density of an YBa
2
Cu
3
O
7
-


Single
Crystal

Abdelaziz Ramzi

(FS, Agadir)



1
st

Morocco
-
Korea Bilateral Symposium on Polymers, Materials & Nano


Technology

Al Akhawayn University in I
frane, Morocco
---------

November 21

25, 2004


11




INVITED P
RESENTATIONS



1
st

Morocco
-
Korea Bilateral Symposium on Polymers, Materials & Nano


Technology

Al Akhawayn University in I
frane, Morocco
---------

November 21

25, 2004


12

The Dispersion of Singlewall Carbon Nanotubes in Various Solvents by
attaching

Surfactants and Polymers


Hyeong Ta
ek Ham, Yeong Suk Choi, Mu Guen Chee, and
In Jae Chung
*

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, KAIST (Korea Advanced

Institute of Science and Technology)

373
-
1 Guseong
-
dong, Yuseong
-
gu, Daejeon, South Korea, 305
-
701


Physical adsorption of po
lymers or surfactants on the sidewall of SWNTs and

chemical
modification of SWNTs were developed to make singlewall carbon nanotubes

(SWNTs)
soluble. Physical adsorption of polymers not only keeps the SWNT sidewall

intact, but has the
chance to make SWNTs/
polymer composites in the application.

The purpose of this work is 1)
to make long SWNTs soluble in various organic

solvents and water without covalent bonding
between polymer and SWNTs keeping

SWNTs intact, and 2) to induce polymerization around
the SWNTs

inside the micelle

surrounded by surfactants in order to make SWNTs soluble in
organic solvents.

Dispersions of single
-
walled carbon nanotubes in various solvents and
aqueous

surfactant emulsions were investigated to correlate the degree of dispersion sta
tes with

Hansen solubility parameters (
d
t
2
=
d
d
2
+
d
p
2

+
d
h
2
). SWNTs were dispersed or suspended

very well
in the solvents with certain dispersive component (
d
d
) values. They were

precipitated in the
solvents with high polar component (
d
p
) values or hydrogen

bonding

component (
d
h
) values. In
case of polymerization, crosslinking agent was used with

monomer to fix the polymer to the
sidewall of SWNTs. After polymerization,

singlewall carbon nanotubes enveloped by dew
-
shaped polystyrene molecules were

prepared b
y in situ miniemulsion polymerization of
styrene. They were dispersed in

water in the existence of surfactants, which were used during
the polymerization. After

surfactants were removed, they were soluble up to 5 wt % in a good
solvent of

polystyrene, and
showed no precipitation for 700 hrs. Because the crosslinking
reaction

was occurred during polymerization, polystyrene was not separated from SWNTs. The

different structure of dew
-
shaped polystyrene attached to nanotubes affected the

conductivity differenc
e.



1
st

Morocco
-
Korea Bilateral Symposium on Polymers, Materials & Nano


Technology

Al Akhawayn University in I
frane, Morocco
---------

November 21

25, 2004


13

In Jae Chung


Affiliation:

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, KAIST


Education:

1976
-
1977


Post. Doc., University of Tennessee, USA

1972
-
1976

Ph.D. Chemical Engineering, University of Tennessee, USA

1969
-
1972


M.S. Chemical Engine
ering, Tennessee Technoloical University, USA

1961
-
1968


B.S. Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, South Korea


Experience:

1977
-
Present


Professor, KAIST, South Korea

2001
-
Present


Member of the Korean Academy of Science and Technology

1999
-
2002


Chi
ef editor of the Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers, South Korea

1989
-
1991


Chief editor of the Korean Society of Rheology, South Korea

1985
-
1986

Visiting Scientist, University of Akron, USA


Recent Representative Publications:

1. Effect of monomers o
n the basal spacing of sodium montmorillonite and the structures of
polymer
-
clay nanocomposites, Chemistry of materials, Vol 16, 2522, 2004

2. An explanation of silicate exfoliation in polyacrylonitrile/silicate nanocomposites prepared
by in situ polymeriz
ation using an initiator absorbed on silicate, Polymer, Vol 45, 3827, 2004

3. Physical properties of polyethylene/silicate nanocomposite blown films, J. Appl. Polym. Sci.
Vol. 89, 2131, 2003

4. Study on morphology evolution, orientational behavior, and ani
sotropic phase formation of
highly filled polymer
-
layered silicate nanocomposites, Macromolecules, Vol 36, 2748, 2003

5. Polymer/silicate nanocomposites synthesized with potassium persulfate at room temperature:
polymerization mechanism, characterization,
and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites,
Polymer, Yol 44, 8147, 2003

6. Synthesis of exfoliated polyacrylonitrile/Na
-
MMT nanocomposites via emulsion
polymerization, Chemistry of materials, Vol 14, 2936, 2002

7. Deformation behavior of polyethylene/
silicate nanocomposites as studied by real
-
time wide
-
angle X
-
ray scattering, Macromolecules, Vol 35, 5529, 2002

8. Morphology evolution and anisotropic phase formation of the maleated polyethylene
-
layered
silicate nanocomposites, Macromolecules, Vol 35, 51
16, 2002

9. The effect of chain length of flexible diacid on morphology and mechanical property of
modified phenolic resin, Polymer, Vol. 109, 89, 2002

1
st

Morocco
-
Korea Bilateral Symposium on Polymers, Materials & Nano


Technology

Al Akhawayn University in I
frane, Morocco
---------

November 21

25, 2004


14

Near
-
field and nonlinear spectroscopy for molecular imaging

in nanometer resolution


Satoshi Kawata

*Os
aka University, RIKEN

*2
-
1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565
-
0871,
Japan

email: skawata@skawata.com


An optical microscope to see nano structure with nanometer resolution beyond the
diffraction limit has been a dream of scientists. A nano
-
sized metallic probe is

now successfully
used to generate a nano light source [1,2]. Owing to excitation of local plasmon polaritons, the
optical field is strongly enhanced at the proximity of the probe tip. This plasmonic nano light
source locally excites Raman scattering of mo
lecules to bring the information on molecular
species and their conformation [3,4]. Coherent anti
-
Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), one of
nonlinear Raman scatterings which provides the same chemical information as the spontaneous
Raman scattering [5], is al
so induced in the nano spot by using two pulse
d

lasers [6,7]. A DNA
network structure has been visualized at a specific vibrational frequency of adenine bases.
Although the wavelengths of the lasers are about 800 nm, the achieved spatial resolution is ~15
nm. This super resolution is made not only by the plasmonic near
-
field probe but also the
nonlinear property of CARS. Three distinct effects have been found as near field effects in the
experimental results and molecular orbital calculations: electromagnet
ic effect due to the
plasmon polariton excitation by the metallic probe tip, chemical effect due to charge transfer
and spectral shift due to the formation of metal
-
molecule complex, and mechanical effect due
to the tip force (pressure) exerted on the comp
lex [8]. These unique effects can give us
additional information of molecules near the probe tip and hopefully provides the spatial
resolution for DNA sequencing.


References

[1]

Y. Inouye and S. Kawata, Opt. Lett. 19, 159 (1994).

[2]

S. Kawata (Eds.), Nea
r Field Optics and Surface Plasmon Polariton, Springer
-
Verlag (2001).

[3]

N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, Opt. Commun. 183, 333 (2000).

[4]

N. Hayazawa, T. Yano, H. Watanabe, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, Chem.
Phys. Lett. 376, 174 (2003)

[5]

M. Hashimoto, T. Araki, and S. Kawata, Opt. Lett. 25, 1768 (2000).

[6]

N. Hayazawa, T. Ichimura, M. Hashimoto, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 2676
(2004).

[7]

T. Ichimura, N. Hayazawa, M. Hashimoto, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, Phys.
Rev. Lett.

92, 220801
(2004).

[8]

H. Watanabe, Y. Ishida, N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye, and S. Kawata, Phys. Rev. B 69, 155418 (2004).

1
st

Morocco
-
Korea Bilateral Symposium on Polymers, Materials & Nano


Technology

Al Akhawayn University in I
frane, Morocco
---------

November 21

25, 2004


15

Satoshi Kawata


Affiliation:

Osaka University and RIKEN


Education
:

1979

Ph. D. in Applied Physics, Osaka University
, Japan

1976

M.S. in

Applied Physics, Osaka University
, Japan

1974

B.S. in Applied Physics, Osaka University
, Japan



Experience

present

Professor, Department of Applied Physics, Osaka University

Chief Scientist, RIKEN

Joint Professor, Al Akhawayne University, Ifrane, Morro
cco,

Joint Professor, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing

Project Leader, CREST Nonlinear Nanophotonics project, Japan Science and Technology
Corporation(CREST)

Chairman, Nanophoton Corp.,

2002
-
2004 Professor, Department of Information and physical science

2001
-
2004
Director, Handai Frontier Research Center (FRC)

1997
-
2002 Project Leader of "Photonic Bio
-
medical Sensing & Control" Project, Japan


Society for the Promotion of Science

1997
-
2000 Project Leader of "Near
-
field Nano
-
optics" Project, Mini
stry of Education

1996
-
1997 Chairman, Department of Applied Physics, Osaka University

19
93


Professor, Department of Applied Physics, Osaka University

19
92 Associate professor, Department of Applied Physics, Osaka University

1981

Assistant Professor, Depar
tment of Applied Physics, Osaka University

1979

Research Associate, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of


California, Irvine

19
79


Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science


Recent Representative Publicati
ons

1. Taro Ichimura, Norihiko Hayazawa, Mamoru Hashimoto, Yasushi Inouye, and

Satoshi Kawata, “Tip
-
Enhanced Coherent Anti
-
Stokes Raman Scattering for Vibrational
Nanoimaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 92, No. 22, pp. 220801
-
1


220801
-
4 (2004).

2. Hiroyuki

Watanabe, Yasuhito Ishida, Norihiko Hayazawa, Yasushi Inouye, and Satoshi
Kawata, “Tip
-
enhanced near
-
field Raman analysis of tip
-
pressurized adenine molecule,” Phys.
Rev. B, Vol. 69, pp. 155418
-
1
-
155418
-
11 (2004).

3. H
ong
-
Bo Sun
, T
oru
Suwa, K
enji
Takada,
Moon
-
Soo Kim, Kwang
-
Sup Lee and S
atoshi

Kawata
,


F
idelitible two
-
photon
l
aser writing of 3D photonic
l
attices
,

Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol.
84, (2004).

4. Makoto Maeda, Hidekazu Ishitobi, Zouheir Sekkat and Satoshi Kawata,“Polarization storage
by nonlinear ori
entational hole burning in azo dye
-
containing polymer films,” Appl. Phys.
Lett., Vol. 85, No. 3, pp. 351
-
353.(2004).

5. S. Kawata, H
-
B. Sun , T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional
microdevices,"Nature, Vol.412, No.6848, pp.697
-
698 (200
1).


1
st

Morocco
-
Korea Bilateral Symposium on Polymers, Materials & Nano


Technology

Al Akhawayn University in I
frane, Morocco
---------

November 21

25, 2004


16

Isomeric Orientation by Two
-
Photon Excitation: Towards Applications in
Nano
-
Photonics


Zouheir Sekkat

School of Science and Engineering, Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane, Morocco

Handai Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Suita, Japan


Sub
-
g
lass transition temperature optical ordering of molecules in polymers does not require
heating and allows for the drawing of patterns of oriented molecules with potential application
in three
-
dimensional (3D) nano
-
photonics; e.g. 3D orientation patterning
by two
-
photon
absorption (TPA). TPA provides a tool for activating physico
-
chemical reactions with high
spatial resolution, in some cases up to 120 nm. In this presentation I will show that TPA creates
molecular orientation of photoisomers in thin polymer
films, and I will discuss its possible
application in 3D orientation storage. It will be shown that both the cis and trans isomers of a
diarylethene derivative are oriented by two
-
photon excitation in films of poly
-
methyl
-
lethacrylate (PMMA), and that an a
zo dye molecule, e.g. disperse red one (DR1), is
orientationally bleached in PMMA by polarized two
-
photon excitation at a fundamental of 760
nm to yield anisotropic refractive index contrast in a polarization confocal microscope.




Polarization sensiti
ve microscope images of a film of PMMA doped with DR1
excited by a linearly polarized infra
-
red Ti
-
Sapphire Laser (wavelength 760 nm)
and read by a red laser (He
-
Ne, Wavelength 633 nm) linearly polarized in a
reflection confocal. In (a), the polarization
s of the pump and probe lasers are
parallel to each other, and in (b) they are mutually perpendicular. The written bits
are due a two
-
photon polarized bleaching of the azo dye. The ratio of the parallel
to the perpendicular reflected intensities is
~

2.5;
a feature which is consistent
with two
-
photon orientational hole burning.


References:


Maeda M, Ishitobi, H, Sekkat Z, Kawata S, "Polarization Storage by Nonlinear orientational
Hole Burning in Azo Dye Containing Polymer Films" Appl.Phys. Lett. 58, 251
-
2
54, July 19,
2004; Sekkat Z, "Isomeric orientation by two
-
photon excitation: a theoretical study" OPT
COMMUN 229 (1
-
6): 291
-
303 JAN 2 2004; Sekkat Z, Ishitobi H, Kawata S, "Two
-
photon
isomerization and orientation of photoisomers in thin films of polymer"
OPT COMMUN 222
(1
-
6): 269
-
276 JUL 1 2003.

1
st

Morocco
-
Korea Bilateral Symposium on Polymers, Materials & Nano


Technology

Al Akhawayn University in I
frane, Morocco
---------

November 21

25, 2004


17


Zouheir Sekkat


Affiliation
:

Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane, Morocco & Osaka University, Japan.



Education
:

1998 Habilitation in Physics at Université de Paris
-
Sud, Orsay, France.

1996 Doctorat d’Etat in Physi
cs at Université de Fez
-
Atlas, Morocco.

1992 Ph.D. in Physics at Université de Paris
-
Sud, Orsay, France.

1989 M.S. in Physics at Université de Paris
-
Sud, Orsay, France.

1988 B.S. in Physics at Université de Fez
-
Atlas, Fez, Morocco.



Experience
:

10/04
-
date

President, Moroccan Association of Nano
-
Technology.

4/02
-
date Professor, Handai
-
FRC, Osaka University, Japan.

1/01
-
date Associate Professor, Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane.

1/00
-
date Optics Communications, Advisory Editorial Board.

9/99
-
3/02 Associate P
rofessor, Dep. Appl. Phys. Osaka Univ., Japan.

9/99
-
12/01 Assistant Professor, Al Akhawayn University in Ifrane.

10/97
-
7/99 Senior Scientist, Dep. Appl. Phys. Osaka Univ., Japan.

1/96
-
9/97 Postdoctoral Researcher, ECE
-
UC
-
Davis & CPIMA: Stanford

Univ. & IBM
-
Almaden & UC
-
Davis; USA.

8/93
-
1/96 Postdoctoral Researcher, Max
-
Planck Institute for Polymer

Research, Mainz, Germany.



Recent Representative Publications
:

1. Maeda M, Ishitobi, H, Sekkat Z, Kawata S, "Polarization Storage by Nonlinear orientational
Hole

Burning in Azo Dye Containing Polymer Films" Appl.Phys. Lett. 58, 251
-
254, July 19,
2004.

2. Sekkat Z, "Isomeric orientation by two
-
photon excitation: a theoretical study" OPT
COMMUN 229 (1
-
6): 291
-
303 JAN 2 2004

3. Sekkat Z, Ishitobi H, Kawata S, "Two
-
ph
oton isomerization and orientation of photoisomers
in thin films of polymer" OPT COMMUN 222 (1
-
6): 269
-
276 JUL 1 2003

4. Hayazawa N, Inouye Y, Sekkat Z, Kawata S, "Near
-
field Raman imaging of organic
molecules by an apertureless metallic probe scanning opt
ical microscope" J CHEM PHYS 117
(3): 1296
-
1301 JUL 15 2002


1
st

Morocco
-
Korea Bilateral Symposium on Polymers, Materials & Nano


Technology

Al Akhawayn University in I
frane, Morocco
---------

November 21

25, 2004


18

Optical, S
tructural and

Electronic Nanoscale
-
Characterization of p
-
type
GaN Thin F
ilms


Mohammed BENAISSA*

Centre National pour la Recherche Scientifique et Technique, Rabat, Morocco


High resol
ution electron microscopy (HREM) is a powerful tool for nano
-
sized materials
characterization. Indeed, HREM offers the possibility to exactly locate the information in the
real space, which very much helps resolving structural and chemical matters at a per
tinent
scale. When combined to cathodoluminescence (CL), X
-
ray energy
-
dispersive (EDX)
spectroscopy and electron energy
-
loss spectroscopy (EELS), optical, chemical and electronic
properties are also determined at the nano
-
object scale. In the present paper
, nanometric
-
studies
on Mg
-
doped GaN thin films will be presented.

Let however give a brief recall of the problem. GaN
-
based semiconductors have become
a very active area of research ever since their successful use in the fabrication of blue laser
diodes.

The ability to control the charge carrier concentration through doping is still considered
as the key issue for a wide and novel applications. Currently,
p
-
type GaN with room
temperature free hole concentrations of about 10
17
-
10
18

cm
-
3

is routinely obtain
ed using
metalorganic vapor
-
phase epitaxy (MOVPE) growth technique. Despite its very large acceptor
binding energy (around 160 meV), Mg is still the dopant of choice to achieve such a
performance although a complete understanding of the optical and electri
cal behavior of the
resulting compound (GaN:Mg) is still subject to vivid discussions. Particularly the origin of the
2.8
-
2.9 eV blue emission detected in most heavily Mg doped samples.

It will be shown that the combination of high resolution imaging with

CL, EDX and
EELS were ideally suited to locally investigate optical, structural, chemical and electronic
properties of the thin films. Indeed, the presence of pyramidal defects (of few nanometers
width) within the films were found to be at the origin of t
he blue emission at 2.8
-
2.9 eV.



Acknowledgements:



This work has been supported in part by the CNRST
-
CNRS Convention.



P.Vennéguès, B.Beaumont, and P.Gibart from CRHEA
-
CNRS, and M.Albrecht from University of Erlangen
are highly acknowledged for a fruitful
collaboration


* email:
benaissa@cnr.ac.ma


1
st

Morocco
-
Korea Bilateral Symposium on Polymers, Materials & Nano


Technology

Al Akhawayn University in I
frane, Morocco
---------

November 21

25, 2004


19

Mohammed BENAISSA


Affiliation:

Centre National pour la Recherche Scientifique et Technique (CNRST)


Education:

2003: Habilitation Universitaire, Univ. Mohammed V, Raba
t

1994: Ph.D. Solid State Physics, Louis Pasteur University
-

France

1990: DEA (Master’s) Solid State Physics, Univ.
Blaise Pascal


France


Experience:

since 02

Enseignant Chercheur


CNRST
-

Morocco

99
-

01

Chercheur Associé


CNRS
-

France

97

Post
-
Doc.,
LBNL Berkeley
-

USA

94

99

Chercheur Titulaire


UNAM
-

Mexico


Recent Representative Publications:

1.

"Pyramidal defects in metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial Mg doped GaN,
Applied Physics
Letters, vol.77, p. 880
(2000)

2.

"Electron energy
-
loss spectroscopy ch
aracterization of pyramidal defects in metalorganic
vapor
-
phase epitaxy Mg
-
doped GaN thins films",
Applied Physics Letters, vol. 77, p. 2115
(2000)

3.

"Structural change induced at an atomic scale by equilibrium sulfur segregation in tilt
germanium Grain
-
Boun
daries ",
Philosophical Magazine B, Vol. 81, p. 1821
(2001)

4.

"The atomic structure of
Σ
=33{144}<011>(
θ
=20.05°) tilt grain boundary in germanium",
Scripta Materialia, vol. 45, pp. 1171
-
1176
(2001)

5.

"Structural Defects and Relation with Optoelectronic Properti
es in Highly Mg
-
Doped GaN",
phys. stat. sol.
(a) 192, No. 2, p. 394
(2002)

6.

"Influence of high Mg doping on the microstructural and optoelectronic properties of p
-
type
GaN", Mat. Sci. Eng.
B93, p.224 (2002)
.

7.

Atomic structure of pyramidal defects in Mg
-
doped

GaN,
Physical Review B
, 68, 235214
(2003)

1
st

Morocco
-
Korea Bilateral Symposium on Polymers, Materials & Nano


Technology

Al Akhawayn University in I
frane, Morocco
---------

November 21

25, 2004


20

Physics and Technology of Nano
-
Structured Photovoltaic Polymer Solar
Cells


Jean
-
Michel NUNZI

POMA
-
CNRS, University of Angers, France


Plastic solar cells are a rapidly developing field in a high societal impact
research field.
Reaching a 10% solar efficiency threshold is a cutting edge topic at the frontiers of polymer
chemistry, organic semiconductor physics and nano
-
technologies. We present the key
requirements to achieve realistic stability and efficiency obje
ctives from a theoretical point of
view. We present some original physics characterization techniques which readily deliver the
key parameters relevant to efficient solar cell materials. We then describe some solar cell
optimization strategies from a techn
ological point of view with practical examples. We finally
present an original method which permits to identify

the key parameters and limits of
practically realized organic solar cells from a simple theoretical modelisation of their
optoelectronic behavio
ur.


1
st

Morocco
-
Korea Bilateral Symposium on Polymers, Materials & Nano


Technology

Al Akhawayn University in I
frane, Morocco
---------

November 21

25, 2004


21

Jean
-
Michel NUNZI


Affiliation:

POMA
-
CNRS, University of Angers, France


Education:

1999: Habilitation degree, Université Orsay Paris Sud, France

1990: PhD in Physics, Université P.M. Curie, Paris VI, France

1984: Doctorate thesis in Physics, Ecole
Polytechnique, France

1982: Engineer degree, ESPCI, Paris, France.

1980: Master in theoretical physics, Université de Paris 6, France.


Experience:

2002 Committee member of COST P8 program.

Sept 2000
-

date: Professor of Physics at Université d'Angers; Di
rector of Technological
Research "Cellules Solaires Photovoltaiques Plastiques".

1998
-
2000: Associate professor of Physics at Université d'Angers.

1995
-
2000: Group Leader "Composants Organiques" CEA, France.

1990
-
1995: Projet Leader in NLO, "Comp. Org." Gr
oup, Saclay, France.

1984
-
1990: Permanent researcher, the group of J. Messier, CEA, France


Recent Representative Publications:

1. Quasi phase matched

(2)

gratings printed by all
-
optical poling in polymer films, Opt. Lett.
27(22), 2028
-
30 (2002).

2. Ampli
fied Stimulated Emission

from a Needle
-
like Single Crystal of an End
-
Capped
Fluorene/Phenylene co
-
oligomer, Adv. Mater. 15, 906
-
9 (2003)

3. Planarized Star
-
shaped Oligothiophenes as Organic Semi
-
Conductors for Efficient
Heterojunction Solar Cells, Adv. Mat
er. 15(22), 1939
-
1943 (2003)

4. Photo
-
induction of surface relief gratings during all
-
optical poling of polymer films, Opt.
Lett. 29(1) 98
-
100 (2004)

5. Efficient polymer
-
based Interpenetrated network photovoltaic cells, Appl. Phys Lett 84(12)
2178
-
80 (2
004)



1
st

Morocco
-
Korea Bilateral Symposium on Polymers, Materials & Nano


Technology

Al Akhawayn University in I
frane, Morocco
---------

November 21

25, 2004


22

Molecular Scale Device Fabricated Using Aromatic Thiol Monolayer

Assembled in the Nano Via
-
hole Electrode


Changjin Lee
*, 1
, Yongku Kang
1
, Kyungja Seo
1
, Youn Mi Shin
1
,

Jinhee Kim
2
, Hei Mi Soh
2
, Hoyoung Lee
3
, Dohyun Kim
3, 4
and Chung Keun Song
4

1
Advanced Materials Div, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology;
2
Electron Devices

Lab., Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science;
3

Future Technology Div., Electronics and

Telecommunication Research Institute, Yusung Daejeon, Korea;
4

De
pt. of Electrical, Electronics and

Computer Eng., Dong
-
A University,
Pusan, Korea

*e
-
mail: cjlee@krict.re.kr


The successful demonstration
1

of electron transport through a single molecule has brought high
hope to the molecular scale electronics where molec
ules are tested as the electronic
components in microelectronic circuits such as wires, diodes and transistors. The advantage of
using molecules is the simplicity in fabrication as millions of molecules can be assembled in
one step by simply immersing the
electrode into the solution containing the molecules. But
fabricating molecular devices from the monolayer was not a simple matter.

The naturally occurring defects and permeation of metal atom during the deposition of top

electrode were the main cause of t
he failure of devices. Reliable devices could be built using

the nanopore prepared from the SiNx membrane by e
-
beam lithography and RIE process.

Thus,
reduction of defects in the self
-
assembled monolayer (SAM) could be achieved by

confining
monolayer
withi
n nano
-
sized electrodes
.


We found that nano via
-
hole could be also effectively used for the molecular scale

devices
2
.

The
nano via
-
hole device could be more easily integrated. The newly synthesized

dimethyl
substituted phenylethynylene thiol was assembled

in the nano via
-
hole electrode and

i
-
V
characteristics were examined with the
prepared devices. This compound

showed some

improvement of device stability. The

i
-
V
measurement at various temperatures showed that

different tunneling mechanisms could be assi
gned depending on the temperature and bias

range. Most devices showed diode like characteristics and logic gate could be demonstrated

using these molecular diodes.



References

1. a) L. A. Bumm, J. J. Arnold, M. T. Cygan, T. D. Cunbar, T. P. Burgin, L. Jo
nes II, D. L. Allara, J.

M. Tour, and P. S. Weiss: Science
271
(1996) 1705. b) M. A. Reed, C. Zhou, C. J. Miller, T. P.

Burgin, J. M. Tour: Science
278
(1997) 252.

2. a) D
-
H. Kim, C.
-
K. Song, Y. Kang, C. Lee, H. Lee, H. M. So and J. Kim,
J. Kor. Phys. Soc.
,
2004
,

45
, 470
-
474. b)
H.
-
M. So, J.
-
W. Park, D.
-
J. Won, W. S. Yun, Y. Kang, C. Lee, J.
-
J. Kim and

J. Kim,
Jap. J. App. Phys.
,
2004
,
43
, 6503
-
6506.

1
st

Morocco
-
Korea Bilateral Symposium on Polymers, Materials & Nano


Technology

Al Akhawayn University in I
frane, Morocco
---------

November 21

25, 2004


23

Changjin Lee


Affiliation:

Advanced Materials Div., Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT)


Education:

1989 Ph.D.

Chemistry, University of Minnesota, USA

1983
M
.S.

Chemistry, Seoul National Univ., Korea

1981 B.S.

Chemistry, Seoul National Univ., Korea


Experience:

1991
-
present


Principal Research Scientist, KRICT



1989
-
1991


Post
-
doctoral res
earch fellow, The Univ. of Texas at Austin


Recent Representative Publications:

1.“Molecular wires and gold nanoparticles as molewares for the molecular scale electronics”,
C. Lee, Y. Kang, K. Lee, S. R. Kim, D.
-
J. Won, J. S. Noh, H.
-
K. Shin, C.
-
K. Song, Y
.
-
S.
Kwon, H.
-
M. So, J. Kim,
Cur. Appl. Phys.
,
2002,
2
, 39
-
45.

2.“Imaging on a Vapor Deposited Film by Photopolymerization of a Rod
-
Like Molecule
Consisting of Two Diacetylenic Groups”, J. Y. Chang, K. Seo, H. J. Cho, C. J. Lee, C. Lee, Y.
Kang, and J. Kim
,
Macromolecular Research
,
2002,
10,
204
-
208.

3.“Curing and optical properties of thin films prepared by vacuum deposition of acetylene
containing triphenylamines”, C. Lee, Y. Kang, S. H. Jung, J.
-
S. Kim, J. Lee,
Opt. Mat.
,
2002,
21,
337
-
341.

4.“A Study of

cross
-
linked PEO gel polymer electrolytes using bisphenol A ethoxylate
diacrylate: ionic conductivity and mechanical properties”, Y. Kang, K. Cheong, K.
-
A. Noh, C.
Lee, D.
-
Y. Seung,
J. Power Soruces
,
2003,
119
-
121, 432
-
437.

5.“Photochromic and fluorescenc
e studies of spiropyran indoline derivatives in the presence of
acids”, H. kang, Y.
-
S. Lee, E. Kim, Y. Kang, D. W. Kim, C. Lee,
Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.
,
2003,
406,
169
-
179.

6.“Doping of polyaniline by thermal acid/base exchange reaction”, Y. Kang, S. K. Ki
m, C. Lee,
Mater. Sci. Eng. C,

2004,
24,
39
-
41.

7.“Porous Polyimide Films Prepared by Thermolysis of Porogens with Hyperbranched
Structure”, D. W. Kim, Y. Kang, M. Y. Jin, S. Seok, J. C. Won, C. Lee, J. Yi, J. Kim, J. Kang,
J. S. Shin,
J. Appl.
Polm. Sci.
,

2004,
93,
1711
-
1718.


1
st

Morocco
-
Korea Bilateral Symposium on Polymers, Materials & Nano


Technology

Al Akhawayn University in I
frane, Morocco
---------

November 21

25, 2004


24

Enhanced Field
-
Effect Mobility of Organic Thin Film Transistors

by Surface
-
Mediated Molecular Ordering


Kilwon Cho

Department of Chemical Engineering
,

Pohang University of Science and Technology,

Pohang, 790
-
784, Korea (kwcho@postec
h.ac.kr)


Abstract

With the aim of enhancing the field
-
effect mobility by promoting surface
-
mediated two
-
dimensional molecular ordering in self
-
aligned regioregular poly (3
-
hexylthiophene), P3HT,
we have controlled the intermolecular interaction at the int
erface between P3HT and the
insulator substrate by using self
-
assembled monolayers (SAMs) functionalized with various
groups (
-
NH
2,
-
OH and
-
CH
3
). We clearly showed that, depending on the properties of the
substrate surface, the P3HT nanocrystals adopt two

different orientations


parallel and
perpendicular to the insulator substrate


which have field
-
effect mobilities that differ by more
than a factor of 4, and that are as high as 0.28 cm
2
V
-
1
s
-
1
.


Introduction

Regioregular P3HT has recently been incorpora
ted as the active material in field
-
effect
transistors (FET) in which a preferential supramolecular two
-
dimensional ordering of the
polymer chains with high regioregularity induces a high field
-
effect mobility of up to 0.1 cm
2

V
-
1
s
-
1
, approaching that of s
ingle crystal oligothiophenes.
1

Among the factors affecting field
-
effect mobility, the molecular ordering of nanocrystallites in thin films of regioregular P3HT
has been the most extensively investigated
2
. In order to enhance two
-
dimensional molecular
orde
ring, many groups have examined the outcomes of modifying the molecular parameters
(regioregularity, molecular weight and side
-
chain length) and processing conditions (solvent
power, film thickness, doping level and film forming method). Despite the result
ing
improvements in the field
-
effect mobility of regioregular P3HT, little is yet known about how
the interface between regioregular P3HT and the insulator is stabilized and how the orientations
of P3HT chains at the interface can be optimized to obtain hi
gher mobilities. Herein, we focus
on controlling the structural ordering that results from the intermolecular interactions at the
interface between regioregular P3HT and the insulator (SiO
x
) with the aim of enhancing the
two
-
dimensional molecular ordering
of thin films of regioregular P3HT. We show in this paper
that there is a clear correlation between the field
-
effect mobility of regioregular P3HT and the
surface
-
mediated orientation (parallel and perpendicular) of P3HT chains with respect to the
insulato
r substrate.


Results and Discussion

We used a simple spin
-
casting method to fabricate regioregular P3HT thin films with a
thickness of about 70

80 nm. The resulting thin films were annealed at 240


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楮捲ease 瑨攠 牥g畬慲楴y 潦o 瑨攠 扡c止潮k c潮o潲浡瑩潮⸠ S畲灲楳i湧ly, 瑷漠 摩晦e牥湴n c桡in
潲楥湴慴楯湳n⡥d来
-
潮o潲oe湴慴楯渠a湤nface
-
潮o潲oe湴慴楯温n潦o瑨t 湡湯cry獴慬汩湥 牥g楯牥g畬ur
P㍈吠摯浡楮猠睩瑨wre獰ec琠
瑯t瑨t 楮獵ia瑯爠獵扳sra瑥猠浯摩晩f搠by S䅍猠睥牥 楤敮瑩晩i搠⡆ig.
ㄩ⸠周T 瑷漠摩晦e牥湴no物r湴慴楯湳na牥 e癩摥湴v晲o洠瑨攠摩晦ere湴n楮ie湳楴y 摩獴物扵瑩潮猠潦o瑨攠
⠱〰( 牥晬fc瑩潮猠摵d 瑯tt桥 污浥汬a爠污ye爠獴牵s瑵re ⠱㘮( 씩 a湤n瑨攠⠰㄰⤠牥晬fc瑩潮猠摵d

瑯t

-


interchain stacking (3.8 Å) through out
-
of
-
plane and in
-
plane geometric mode. The degree of
orientational anisotropy was found to depend strongly upon the surface characteristics of the
insulator substrate. In samples (P3HT_NH
2

and P3HT_OH) on insu
lator substrates with
1
st

Morocco
-
Korea Bilateral Symposium on Polymers, Materials & Nano


Technology

Al Akhawayn University in I
frane, Morocco
---------

November 21

25, 2004


25

unshared electron pairs (
-
NH
2

and
-
OH) the preferential orientation of the ordered domains was
found to be along the (100)
-
axis normal to the P3HT film and the (010)
-
axis in the plane of the
film. Particularly, the P3HT_NH
2

film has a

more perfectly perpendicular orientation with
respect to the insulator substrate than found in the P3HT_OH film. In contrast, most of the
crystallites in samples (P3HT_CH
3
) on insulator substrates without unshared electron pairs (
-
CH
3
) are preferentially
oriented along the (100)
-
axis in the plane and the (010)
-
axis normal to
the P3HT film.





Fig
ure

1
.

Out
-
of
-
plane (a) and in
-
plane (b) g
razing incidence angle X
-
ray diffraction
intensities as a function of the scattering angle 2
θ

for regioregular P3HT

thin films crystallized
against
insulator

substrates modified with different
SAMs. The insets show schematically the
crystallography of the nano
-
crystallite with respect to insulator substrate.



P3HT_NH
2
,



P3HT_OH
,


P3HT_CH
3
.

Thi
s anisotropy in molecular ordering is clearly an important influence on the field
-
effect
mobility of P3HT thin film transistors, since this perpendicular orientation ensures that
delocalized intermolecular states are formed in the direction parallel to the

insulator substrate,
which is the transport direction in the field
-
effect transistor.
3

This ability to control the chain
orientation and crystalline order allows us to establish a direct correlation between the direction
of

-


stacking and the in
-
plane f
ield
-
effect mobility.

In order to determine the relationship between molecular ordering and field
-
effect mobility,
the field
-
effect mobilities of regioregular P3HT were measured using a bottom
-
contact thin
-
film
field
-
effect transistor (FET) geometry. Tabl
e 1 shows the variation of the field
-
effect mobility
with annealing and with surface characteristics. It shows that the annealing process results in
field
-
effect mobilities (0.08

0.28 cm
2
V
-
1
s
-
1
) that are higher by more than a factor of 8 ~ 30 than
those of

the as
-
prepared samples (0.01 cm
2
V
-
1
s
-
1
). For samples annealed under the same
conditions, the highest mobilities are observed for the P3HT_NH
2

sample (0.28 cm
2

V
-
1
s
-
1
).






Table

1.

Mobility as obtained in the saturation regime from the regioregular P3HT FETs
according to the surface characteristics.


This surprising
increase in the field
-
effect mobility
is attributed to
the perpendicula
r
orientation with respect to the insulator substrate (in the P3HT_NH
2

case).


Modified
insulator

Average mobility, µ

( cm
2
V
-
1
s
-
1
)

As
-
prepared

Annealed

-
CH
3

0.01

0.08±0.01

-
NH
2

0.01

0.28±0.02

1
st

Morocco
-
Korea Bilateral Symposium on Polymers, Materials & Nano


Technology

Al Akhawayn University in I
frane, Morocco
---------

November 21

25, 2004


26

Conclusions

We conclude that surface
-
mediated molecular ordering has a substantial effect on the
preferential orientations of the P3HT chains, and that this effect can be used
to enhance the
field
-
effect mobility.


Acknowledgment.

The authors would like to thank the National Research Laboratory Pro
gram

(Ministry of Science and Technology of Korea), the Ministry of Education of Korea for its support
through its BK21 Program, and

the Pohang Acceleratory Laboratory for providing the synchrotron
radiation source at the
8C1 and 3
C2 beam line used in this study.


References

[
1
]

H. Sirringhaus, N. Tessler, R. H. Friend,
Science
,

280
, 1741

(1998)
.

[
2
]

H. Sirringhaus, P. J. Brown, R. H.
Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. M. W. Langeveld
-
Voss,
A. J. H. Spiering, R. A. J. Janssen, E. W. Meijer, P. Herwig, D. M. de Leeuw,
Nature
,
401
, 685

(
1999
)
.


[3] D. H. Kim, Y. D. Park, Y. S. Jang, H. C. Yang, K. Cho,
Adv. Func. Mater
., in press (20
04).

1
st

Morocco
-
Korea Bilateral Symposium on Polymers, Materials & Nano


Technology

Al Akhawayn University in I
frane, Morocco
---------

November 21

25, 2004


27

Kilwon Cho


Affiliation:

Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology


Education:

1986


Ph. D. in Polymer Science, University of Akron

1982

M. S. in Applied Chemistry, Seoul National University

1980


B. S. in Appl
ied Chemistry, Seoul National University.


Experience:

1988
-

present

Professor, Pohang University of Science and Technology

1993

Visiting Prof. Tokyo Institute of Technology

1987
-
1988

Visiting Scientist, IBM Research Center

1986
-
1987


Postdoctoral
Fellow, Polymer Research Institute, University of Akron


Recent Representative Publications:

1. Fabrication of Superhydrophobic Surface from a Supramolecular Organosilane with
Quadruple Hydrogen Bonding, J.Am.Chem.Soc, 126, 4796, 2004

2. Formation of Amorp
hous Calcium Carbonate Thin Films and Their Role in
Biomineralization, Chem. Mater. 16, 1740, 2004

3. Thermally Responsive Poly(N
-
isopropylacrylamide) Monolayer on Surface Characterization,
and Protein Interaction/Adsorption Studies. Polymer, 45, 3195, 200
4

4. Incorporation and Release Behavior of Hydrophobic Drug in Functionalized Poly(D,L
-
lactide)
-
block
-

Poly(ethylene oxide) Micelles. J.Contl. Release, 94, 323, 2004

5. Role of Bound Water and Hydrophobic Interaction in Phase Transition of Poly(N
-
isopropyl
acrylamide) Aqueous solution, Macromolecules, 36, 9929, 2003

6. Fabrication of a Stable Inorganic
-
organic Hybrid Multilayer film with Uniform and

dense Inorganic Nanoparticle Deposition, Chem. Commun., 2003, 966, 2003

7. Structure and Chain Orientation in

Thin Films of Side
-
Chain Liquid Crystalline Polymers,
Langmuir, 19, 7021, 2003

8. Switchable Tack in Side
-
chain Liquid Crystal Polymers, Macromolecules, 36, 2009, 2003

9. Effect of Substrate Surface Energy on Transcrystalline Growth and Its Effect on Inte
rfacial
Adhesion of Semicrystalline Polymers, Macromolecules, 36, 7652, 2003

10. Pattern formation in Ultra Thin Films of Dimethylsiloxa
ne
-
Acrylate Triblock Copolymer,
Macromolecules, 36, 8902, 2003


1
st

Morocco
-
Korea Bilateral Symposium on Polymers, Materials & Nano


Technology

Al Akhawayn University in I
frane, Morocco
---------

November 21

25, 2004


28

OPTICAL AND VIBRATIONAL PROPERTIES OF
POLY(P
-
PHENYLENE
VINYLENE) AND COMPOSITE
: EFFECT OF
CONJUGATING LENGTHS DISTRIBUTION


M. Baïtoul

1
,
H. Aarab
1, 2

J. Wéry
2
, S. Lefrant
2

and E. Faulques
2

1

Laboratoire de Physique du Solide,Groupe matériaux polymères, Faculté des Sciences Dhar el
mahraz, BP 1796 Atlas, 3
0000 Fes, Morocco

2

Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux et Nanostructures, Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel, BP
32229 2 rue de la Houssinière, 44322 Nantes, Cedex 03, France


Conjugated polymers have become an important field of study due to the very
special
properties of these materials. Besides having the desired mechanical properties of polymers, a
high electrical conductivity can be achieved after doping. Semiconducting polymers are also
efficient for use in optical devices such as light
-
emitting d
iodes (LED’s). Poly(p
-
phenylenevinylene)

(PPV)

has become a very attractive polymer in this field because of its
electroluminescence and nonlinear optical properties. It has been shown that conjugating
lengths and their distribution in the polymer depend o
n the synthesis method and essentially on
the conversion conditions of the precursor polymer

[1]
. We present the effect of thermal and
photochemical conversion of the prepolymer on the optical, and vibrationnal properties of
poly(p
-
phenylene vinylene). Res
onant Raman Scattering studies were used to obtain
informations on the distribution of the conjugation lengths in thermally and photochemically
converted films. In addition, in highly doped polymer, the stability and localization
,

on
different segments
,

of

charged excitations (polarons) and (bipolarons) are explained by the
presence of short

and long

conjugated segments and disorder in the polymer

[2]
. The change of
effective conjugating length distribution has been also observed when we introduced single
-
W
all Carbon Nanotubes (SWNT) in PPV. Significant change
s

in optical and vibrational
properties of PPV/ SWNT composites at different weight concentrations
have

be
en

related to
the conjugated segments lengths shortening and the increase of disorder in the PPV

[3]
.

In this
case,

t
he photoluminescence occurs only if the ch
a
rge carriers remain trapped on short
segments or migrate on longer segments without encountering the SWNT network. Indeed the
migration to the nanotubes prevents the radiative recombination of

charges and increase the
probability of charge separation and therefore of the photocourant

[3], [4].

[1]
J. Wéry, B. Dulieu, J. Bullot, M. Baïtoul, P. Deniard, J
-
P Buisson

Polymer 40 (1999) 519
-
523

[2]

M. Baïtoul, J. Wéry, S. Lefrant, E. Faulques, J
-
P.
B
uisson, and O. Chauvet

Physical Review B 68, 195203 (2003)

[3]
H. Aarab, M. Baïtoul, J. Wéry, S. Lefrant, E. Faulques, J. L. Duvail and M. Hamedoun

to appear in Synthetic. Metals

[4]
E. Mulazzi, R. Perego, H. Aarab, L. Mihut, S. Lefrant, E. Faulques and J
. Wéry,

Physical Review B 70, 1 (2004)

1
st

Morocco
-
Korea Bilateral Symposium on Polymers, Materials & Nano


Technology

Al Akhawayn University in I
frane, Morocco
---------

November 21

25, 2004


29

BAITOUL
Mimouna


Affiliation:

Département de Physique, Laboratoire de Physique du Solide Sidi Mohamed ben abdellah
University, Fès, Morocco


Education:

1999
-
Thèse d’état (PhD.) in collaboration with Nantes Universi
ty (France)

1982
-
Doctorat de 3ème Cycle
-
spécialité chimie physique, Pau University(France)

1980
-
Master
-
Chimie
-
physique, Pau University (France)


Experience:

1982
-
1987 Maître
-
assistante à l'École Normale Supérieure de FES
-
Morocco

1987
-
1994 Maître
-
assistan
te à la Faculté des Sciences de FES
-

Morocco

1994
-
1998 Enseignant chercheur au laboratoire de Physique Cristalline


Institute of material of Nantes
-
France

Since 1999 Professeur de l’enseignement supérieur

Faculté des Sciences Fès


Recent Representative
Publications:

Characterisation of photochemically converted Pol(para
-
phenylene vinylene)

J. Wéry, B. Dulieu, J. Bullot, M. Baïtoul, P. Deniard, J
-
P Buisson, Polymer 40 (1999) 519
-
523


Thermal conversion of PPV precursor: characterization at different stage
s of the process; J.
Wéry, B. Dulieu, M. Baïtoul, P. Paniez, G. Froyer and S. Lefrant

Synthetic Metals 101 (1999)194

In
-
situ Resonant Raman Spectroelectrochemical study of p
-
doped poly(p
-
phenylene vinylene)

:
influence of the conversion; M. Baïtoul, J. Wé
ry, B. Dulieu, S. Lefrant, J.P. Buisson and M. Hamedoun,
Synthetic Metals 101 (1999)173


In
-
situ Resonant Raman and optical investigations of p
-
doped poly(p
-
phenylene vinylene); M.
Baïtoul, S. Lefrant, J.P. Buisson, J. Wéry, B. Dulieu, and M. Hamedoun, Pol
ymer 41 (2000)
6955


Vibrational Analysis of polarons and bipolarons in p
-
doped Poly(p
-
phenylene vinylene)
-

Model
Compounds Approach; M. Baïtoul, J. Wéry, F. Ragot, S. Lefrant, and J
-
P. Buisson, Synthetic
Metals 119 (2001) 239


Evidence of electron
-
hole sy
mmetry breaking in Poly(para
-
phenylene vinylene)

M. Baïtoul, J. Wéry, S. Lefrant, E. Faulques, J
-
P.
Buisson, and O. Chauvet

Physical Review B 68, 195203 (2003)



1
st

Morocco
-
Korea Bilateral Symposium on Polymers, Materials & Nano


Technology

Al Akhawayn University in I
frane, Morocco
---------

November 21

25, 2004


30


Surface Modification and Polymerization onto Carbon Nanotubes


Se
-
Jin Oh,
1

Hwa
-
Jeong Lee,
1

Dong
-
Ki Keum,
1

Seung
-
Woo Lee,
2

Soo
-
Young Park,
2

Christopher B, Lyons,
3

Loon
-
Seng Tan,
4

and
Jong
-
Beom Baek
1*

1
School of Chemical Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk, 361
-
763 South
Korea (
jbbaek@chungbuk.ac.kr
)

2
Department of Polymer Science, Kyungbuk National University, Taegu, 702
-
701 South Korea

3
Southwestern Ohio Council for Higher Education (SOCHE)

4
Polymer Branch, US Air Force Research Lab (AFRL/MLBP), WPAFB, OH 45433
-
7750 USA


Functionalization onto electron deficient carbon nanotubes (CNTs, diameters: 10
-
20

and 100
-
200

n
m) was accomplished
via

Friedel
-
Crafts acylation with
various 4
-
substituted benzoic acids

in
polyphosphoric acid

(PPA)/phosphorus pentoxide (P
2
O
5
) medium, which

was

non
-
destructive

but
superior electrophilic substitution
condition that we previously described.
1

The progress of the reaction
was conveniently monitored with FT
-
IR spectroscopy following the growth of the keto
-
carbonyl band
around 1665 cm
-
1

associated

with the product. In addition to scanning electron microscopic (SEM),
tunneling electron microscopic (TEM), UV
-
vis spectroscopic data, the combined results from the
elemental analysis

(EA)
and thermogravimetric analysis

(TGA)

further suggested that aryl
carbonyl
groups indeed covalently attached to the surface of CNTs. Based on TGA analysis, 38 wt% of
substituted benzoyl moieties

was
attached

to the
functionalized
CNT (diameter: 100
-
200

n
m).

Based on
above

model
study, we extended our work on
grafting on
to

CNT
s

via
i
n
-
S
itu

poly
condensation

of 3
-

and 4
-
phenoxybenzoic acid in the presence of various amounts (1
-
30 wt%) of
CNTs in PPA/P
2
O
5

(4/1,

w/w) medium to form poly(oxy
-
1,3
-
phenylenecarbonyl
-
1,4
-
phenylene,
m
PEK)
and poly(oxy
-
1,4
-
phenylenecarbonyl
-
1,4
-
phen
ylene,
p
PEK), respectively.
2

The overall
supportive
evidence
s

based on the data from EA, TGA, FT
-
IR as well as SEM and TEM of the resulting materials
implicate
d

that CNT
s

remained structurally intact under the
reaction condition
,
which was
relatively
high
-
shearing and h
igh reaction temperature
. It
was

also evident that
m
PEK and
p
PEK were grafted
onto the surface of CNT resulting in “hairy tube”

under th
e

reaction condition,

since almost no
homopolymers were extracted out
.
3

The wide
-
angle x
-
ray diffraction
result showed the growth of 3.35
Å peak characteristic of CNT that increased in intensity proportionately to the presence of CNT in the
sample and correlated well with the EA and TGA results. The conductivity of cast film (10 wt% CNT)
had

0.25 S/cm (bottom

of film) and 0.30 S/cm (top of film), respectively.


References

1

(a)
Baek, J.
-
B.; Lyons, C. B.; Tan, L.
-
S.
J. Mater. Chem.

2004
,
14
, 2052
; (b)
Baek, J.
-
B.; Lyons, C. B.;
Tan, L.
-
S.

Polym
.

Prepr
.

2003
, 44(1), 925
.

2

(a) Baek, J.
-
B.; Lyons, C. B.; Tan, L.
-
S.
Macromolecules

2004
, 37, 8278
; (b)

Baek, J.
-
B.; B.; Tan, L.
-
S.
US

Pat. Appl.
10/963

468

2004
; (c)

Baek, J.
-
B.; B.; Tan, L.
-
S.
US

Pat. Appl.
10/963

469

2004
.

3

(a) Oh, S.
-
J.; Lee, H.
-
J.; Keum, D. K.; Lee, S.
-
W.; Park, S.
-
Y.; Lyons, C. B.; Tan, L.
-
S.; Bae
k, J. B.
Polym. Prepr.

2005
, 46(1), xx; (b) Lee, H.
-
J.; Oh, S.
-
J.; Keum, D. K.; Tan, L.
-
S.; Baek, J. B.
Polym.
Prepr.

2005
, 46(1), xx; (c) Oh, S.
-
J.; Lee, H.
-
J.; Keum, D.
-
K.; Lee, S.
-
W.; Park, S.
-
Y.; Lyons, C. B.;
Tan, L.
-
S.; Baek, J.
-
B.
Adv.
Mater.

2004
,
submitted.
1
st

Morocco
-
Korea Bilateral Symposium on Polymers, Materials & Nano


Technology

Al Akhawayn University in I
frane, Morocco
---------

November 21

25, 2004


31


Jong
-
Beom Baek


Affiliation:

School of Chemical Engineering, Chungbuk National University


Education:

1998 Ph.D. Polymer Science, The University of Akron, USA

1993 M.S.

Polymer Science, Kyungbuk National University, Korea

1991 B.S.

Industrial
Chemistry, Kyungbuk National University, Korea


Experience:

2003
-
present Assistant Professor, Chungbuk National University



1999
-
2003


Research Chemist, US Air Force Research Lab/UDRI, USA

1998
-
1999

Research Associate, Kent State University, USA.

1998
-
19
98

Postdoc, Case Western Reserve University, USA


Recent Representative Publications:


1. Synthesis and Photoluminescence of Linear and Hyperbranched Polyethers Containing

Phenylquinoxaline Unit and Flexible Aliphatic Spacer, J. Polym. Sci., Part A; Polym
. Chem.

2004, 42, 3587
-
3603

2. Covalent Modification of Vapor
-
Grown Carbon Nanotubes (VGCNF) via Friedel
-
Crafts

Acylation in Polyphosphoric Acid, J. Mater. Chem. 2004, 14, 2052
-
2056

3. Improved Syntheses of Poly(oxy
-
1.3
-
phenylenecarbonyl
-
1,4
-
phenylene) an
d Related

Poly(ether
-
ketones) Using Polyphosphoric Acid/P2O5 as Polymerization Medium, Polymer

2003, 44(15), 4135
-
4147

4. Poly(arylether amides) and poly(aryletherketone amides) via aromatic nucleophilic

substitution reactions of self
-
polymerizable AB an
d AB2 monomers, J. Polym. Sci., Part A:

Polym. Chem. 2003, 41(15), 2374
-
2389

5. Linear
-
Hyperbranched Copolymerization as a Tool to Modulate Thermal Properties and

Crystallinity of Poly(Ether
-
Ketones), Polymer 2003, 44(12), 3451
-
3459

6. Room
-
Temperature F
ree
-
Radical
-
Induced Polymerization of 1,1'
-
(Methylenedi
-
1,4
-

Phenylene)bismaleimide via a Novel Diphenylquinoxaline
-
Containing Hyperbranched

Aromatic Polyamide, Macromolecules 2003, 36, 4385
-
4396

7. A New Hyperbranched Poly (arylrne
-
ether
-
ketone
-
imide): S
ynthesis, Chain
-
end

Functionalization, and Blending with a Bismaleimide, Macromolecules 2002, 35, 4951
-



1
st

Morocco
-
Korea Bilateral Symposium on Polymers, Materials & Nano


Technology

Al Akhawayn University in I
frane, Morocco
---------

November 21

25, 2004


32

Efficient Two
-
Photon Absorbing Multibranched and Dendritic Materials


Kwang
-
Sup Lee

Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Hannam Umversity,

Daejeon 306
-
791, Korea
(kslee@hannam.ac.kr)

Nonlinear optical features of organic materials have been extensively studied for various
applications in optical and opto
-
electronic devices. One of the important nonlinear optical
features is two
-
photon absorp
tion in which some molecules can absorb simultaneously two
photons, when irradiated by intense laser pulses. This makes an electronic transition from the
ground state to an excited state. The rate of TPA scales quadratically whereas the rate of one
-

photon

absorption linearly increase with the intensity of the incident radiation. The rate also
depends upon the TPA cross
-
section (

2
) of the molecule. Therefore, the development of lasers
as well as organic materials with large TPA cross
-
sections (

2
) are a re
quirement for various
applications including two
-
photon fluorescence microscopy, three
-
dimensional optical storage,
three
-
dimensional fabrication, photodynamic therapy, and optical power limiting.

Several research groups have tried to understand structure
-
to
-
property relationship for the
design in organic materials possessing of large TPA cross
-
sections
-

They have obtained some
understanding concerning the enhancement of TPA cross
-
sections of organic chromophores.
They pointed out that substitution with sy
mmetrical or asymmetrical donors and acceptors (D
-

-
D, A
-

-
A, D
-

-
A), increasing the conjugation length, changing donating abilities of electron
-

donors, and enhancing the co
-
planarity of


-
center played an important role in the
enhancement of TPA cross
-
s
ections of organic chromophores. Based on these molecular design
concepts we prepared various new organic TPA molecules having phenylenevinylnene,
fluorene, phenylenecthynylene, thiophene, dithienothiophene (DTT) moieties as


-
center.
Among them, DTT
-
base
d molecules showed highest TPA activities. This result indicates d1at
the planarity of


-
center might be more crucial molecular factors than structural symmetry and
donor strength.

To expand the utility of TPA materials, the enhancement of TPA activity b
y the increase of the
chromophore number density is required. For this purpose, multi
-
branched molecules with
conjugated chain branches have been synthesized. In addition, most two
-
photon absorption
(TPA) compounds based on

-
conjugated double bond present
ed a problem of reduction in
TPA activities due to the quenching of fluorescences resulting from the formation of

-
complex
by the chromophore aggregation. This occurs both in solid state and in solutions of high