User Modelling - Computing

utterlypanoramicΑσφάλεια

30 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

60 εμφανίσεις

Damian Gordon

People Modelling

People in Design


Ergonomics

is the study and activity of
adapting the workplace environment to the
specific needs of people (etymology:
combination of
work

and
economics
).


Anthropometrics

is the measurement of the
human body in terms of body size, strength,
shape, and work capacity (etymology:
combination of
man

and
measurement
).

People in Design


In ergonomics, anthropometric data is used
to design workspaces, safety equipment and
personal protection tools considering the
differences between the characteristics,
abilities, and physical limits of any particular
human body.

People in Design


Anthropometrics
has a long history, an
interesting place to start is in Paris in 1882
when Alphonse Bertillon introduced the
French police to a new way of distinguishing
and identifying criminals based on a series of
“man measurements”.




Born April 24, 1853


Died February 13, 1914


a French police officer


Biometrics pioneer


Created modern
anthropometry


His other contributions
include the mug shot and the
systematisation of crime
-
scene photography

Alphonse Bertillon

People in Design

People in Design

Francis Galton


Born 16 February 1822


Died 17 January 1911


cousin of Charles Darwin,
was an English Victorian
polymath, anthropologist,
eugenicist, tropical explorer,
geographer, inventor,
meteorologist, proto
-
geneticist,
psychometrician
,
and statistician
.

People in Design

People: Modelling

People in Design


How do built environment practitioners
represent people in design?



They use a range of approaches, many of
the issues around people are embodied in
legislation and regulation, but the is also a
range of modelling approaches, one example
would be the use of computers to do crowd
modelling.

People in Design

People in Design


How do IT practitioners represent people in
design?



They use
Use

Case

diagrams, which use
stickmen to represent each type of user, and
oval shapes to represent all of the functions
that the IT system needs to provide.

People in Design


Let’s take an example of e
-
mail:

e
-
Mail

Read new
messages

Log in

Delete
messages

Send new
messages

Create
mailing
list

Log out

Reread
old
messages

Users

e
-
Mail

Read new
messages

Log in

Delete
messages

Send new
messages

Create
mailing
list

Log out

Reread
old
messages

Users

Administrator

e
-
Mail

Read new
messages

Log in

Delete
messages

Send new
messages

Create
mailing
list

Log out

Reread
old
messages

Users

Administrator

e
-
Mail

Read new
messages

Log in

Delete
messages

Send new
messages

Create
mailing
list

Log out

Reread
old
messages

Users

Administrator

Create
new email
account

Delete
email
account

People in Design


Now that we have reviewed the various
elements in operation when we do even the
simplest of tasks, let us look at them working
in concert, through
task analysis
.

People: Task Analysis

People in Design


Now that we have reviewed the various
elements in operation when we do even the
simplest of tasks, let us look at them working
in concert, through
task analysis
.

People in Design


Task analysis

is the process by which any
task is reviewed and a detailed description of
the elements of the activity is developed.

People in Design


So the first thing we do is to define the task (e.g.
emptying the bins), then we break down the task into
a set of elements that has to be accomplished to
achieve the task.


Then we look at each of those elements and see if
we can break it down into further sub
-
elements and
so on.


For some elements it will be possible to break them
down into layers and layers of sub
-
elements,
whereas for other elements they will be fully broken
down to their most basic actions quickly.

People in Design


This approach is very similar to:



Top
-
Down Design


Problem Decomposition


“divide
-
and
-
conquer”

People in Design


The analysis will typically incorporate action
from the three domains we have previously
reviewed:


Sensory


Cognitive


Activity


People in Design


Let’s consider a simple example, such as making a
cup of tea.



We’ll do this in layers, so we start with Layer 0:



0. Make a cup of tea.


People in Design


So how do we break this down further?



We develop Layer 1.


People in Design

Layer 1. Make a cup of tea.


1. Organise everything together;

2. Plug in kettle;

3. Put teabag in cup;

4. Put water into kettle;

5. Add water to cup;

6. Remove teabag with spoon/fork;

People in Design


Can we go further?


Sure, we develop Layer 2 on each of the
elements of Layer 1, so for example, element 3
“Put teabag in cup”.


People in Design

3. Put teabag in cup;


3.1 REACH to teabox

3.2 OPEN teabox

3.3 GET single teabag;

3.4 MOVE arm to cup;

3.5 PUT teabag in cup;

People in Design


And each of these steps can be further
broken down into smaller actions.



We can represent this visually as follows:

1.


Organise
everything

2
.


Plug in kettle

3
.


Put teabag in
cup

4
.


Put water

in
kettle

5
.


Add water to

cup

0.


Make a cup of
tea

3.1.


Reach to
teabox

3.2
.


Open teabox

3.3
.


Get

single
teabag

3.4
.


Move arm to
cup

3.5
.


Put teabag in
cup

People in Design


Timing:


Now can we put times beside each element
of the task.


Let’s say Layer 0 “Make a cup of tea” takes
4
-
5 minutes. If we put timing beside each of
the elements in Layer 1 and add them up, do
they sum to 4
-
5 minutes?


People in Design


We can also look at the actions from the
perspective of the human, so which elements
of the person that we have discussed already
are involved in this task. I’ve provided tables
in the
following few
slides to help consider
this question...

People in Design

Sense

Used

(y/n)?

Description

Sight

Hearing

Taste

Smell

Touch

Task ____________________________________

People in Design


Now consider how a mild impairment in each
of the five senses impact this task.



Now consider how a major impairment in
each of the five senses impact this task.



People in Design

Cognitive

Used

(y/n)?

Description

Perception

Memory

Attention

Task ____________________________________

People in Design


Now consider how a mild impairment in each
of the three cognitive elements impact this
task.



Now consider how a major impairment in
each of the three cognitive elements impact
this task.



People in Design

Activity

Used

(y/n)?

Description

Dexterity

Locomotion

Reach

Task ____________________________________

People in Design


Now consider how a mild impairment in each
of the three activity elements impact this
task.



Now consider how a major impairment in
each of the three activity elements impact
this task.



People in Design


Now you try a task analysis on one of the
following:



Opening a door


Sending text message


Drinking a bottle of water