Biometrics in Security

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30 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

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Biometrics in Security


Svetlana V. Drachova
-
Strang

CPSC 681

Feb 23, 2006

What is Biometrics


Biometrics

is use of person’s unique physiological and behavioral,


or physical characteristics to determine or verify identity in order to


grant access to a protected location or device.




Physiological Characteristics: fingerprint, retina, iris,





DNA, hand geometry,


voice and face recognition




Behavioral Characteristics: signature, keystroke behavior


Biometric systems use:




Convenient


always with you, it’s what you are




Unique for each person


genotype + phenotype




Stable for lifespan


throughout aging and deceases




Untransferable to another


can not give, borrow, or steal




Hard or difficult to fake


liveness is unfakeable




Quantifiable


counted, numbered, expressed by mathematical


means



Why Use Biometrics ?

Biometrics in Use Today



Fingerprint identification






Iris Scan




Retina Scan




Hand geometry




Face Recognition




Voice Recognition




DNA ?




Signature Verification





Keystroke Behavior




Others


Fingerprint Identification



What is a “latent fingerprint” ?




Fingerprints are unique


how about identical twins ?




Fingerprints are persistent


how long do they last ?




Fingerprints are well understood


they’ve been around




Fingerprinting technology is inexpensive …




What’s in a fingerprint


features (ridges, valleys) and


patterns (arches, loops, whorls).

loop

arch

whorl

Historical Facts about Fingerprints

Prehistoric:





In Babylon


clay tablets with business transactions





14
th

century Persia


fingerprint impressions on government papers,


uniqueness is observed





In Ancient China


thumb prints on clay seals










Europe




1686


Marcello Malpighi, professor of anatomy, U of Bologna


wrote a treatise on ridges, loops and spirals.




1823


John Evangelist Purkinje, a professor of anatomy, University


of Breslau, published his thesis discussing 9 fingerprint patterns.




1858


Sir William Herschel, Chief Magistrate of a district in Jungipoor,


India, used fingerprints on native contracts. Later used palm prints


and right thumb. Noticed their uniqueness and permanence.




1880


Dr. Henry Faulds, British Surgeon
-
Superintendent published


an article where he discussed fingerprints as a means of identification,


and the use of printers ink as a method for obtaining such fingerprints.



There were others …


Historical Facts about Fingerprints cont’d

Historical Facts about Fingerprints cont’d


America




1882


Gilbert Thompson of the U.S. Geological Survey in


New Mexico, used his fingerprints on a document to prevent


forgery.
First known use of fingerprints in the United States.






1902


First systematic use of fingerprints in the US by NY Civil Service


Commission for testing.
Henry P. DeForrest pioneers US Fingerprinting.





1903


NY State Prison used fingerprints on prisoners.




1904


First repository: National Bureau of Criminal Identification.






1905, 1907, 1908


US Army, Navy and Marine Corps begin


using fingerprints.




2005


FBI’s IAFIS has > 49 million records.


Some Identification Techniques



Minutia based



assigns XY coordinates to ridge branches and


endings and stores them in file.




Correlation based



examines overall pattern of ridges and valleys.



… several other techniques…



Many image enhancing algorithms.


Both described methods have drawbacks, neither keeps

images, only data. Recreation of the fingerprint image from

data is impossible.




Fingerprint Identification Accuracy



Not 100% accurate.




Reported FAR/FRR rates 3
-
5%.




Quality of the print is critical, many factors involved.




Fakeable


Yes, numerous ways and recipes on the web:


latex fakes, molds, images, cadaver finger, etc…




Liveness Tests are needed to ensure identity:


blood pressure, skin luminosity, resistance, temperature.


Fingerprint Readers

Biopoint reader

USB reader

USB reader

PCMCIA reader

IBM laptops

Applications



Criminal Identification



Homeland Security



Personal/Child Identification



ATMs



Laptops and desktop computers, handhelds, cell phones



Jobsite clocking in/out devices



Car locks



House locks



Airport security



Safes, vaults, etc.



Companies:

Numerous:

Identicator, Biocompare, VeriFinger,

… many many others …

Hand Geometry



Use geometric shape of the hand to determine user’s identity.




Camera gets 2 orthogonal 2
-
D images of the palm and side of the hand.




Get 90 measurements: finger width, height and length, distance between


joints, knuckle shapes.


Hand Geometry

Advantages:




Need to keep small amount of data, no large images to save.




Simple algorithm.




Devices are rugged.




Hands are not highly distinctive.




Devices are large and expensive.




Error rates 2
-
10%




Difficult to fake a real hand




Embedded liveness test

Disadvantages:


Hand Geometry


Companies:




Dominated by Recognition Systems, Inc.

Uses:




Controlled accesses in the banks, and other places




Airport security




Supplemental Security



Hand Readers

NOVAtime Technology, Inc.

Kantech, Inc.

Retinal Scan




Retinal scan uses blood vessel patterns for identification




Retinas are unique


even in twins and both person’s eyes




Exceptionally accurate


came from ophthalmology,


less than .5% error rate.




Non
-
intrusive


shines infrared into your eye, no scary


lasers !!!




Persistent


deceases and injury


do not change it.



Retina Scan

Advantages:




No, no way to replicate retina, cadaver retina deteriorates too fast.


Disadvantages:




Very Expensive hardware


Used:




Access to highly secure areas, military installations, power plants.

Companies:




EyeDentify dominates the market.




Emergent company Retinal Technologies.

Retina Scanners

Access Scanner at Workplace

Scanning airline passengers

Iris Scan




Iris scan analyzes random variations in the visible features:


speckles, furrows, rings.




Irises are unique


even in twins and both person’s eyes




Exceptionally accurate


came from ophthalmology,


less than 1 in a million error rate.




Persistent


deceases and


injury do not change it.



Iris Scan

Advantages:




No, no way to replicate iris, systems detect pupil dilation.


Disadvantages:




Very Expensive hardware


Used:




Access to highly secure areas, military installations, power plants,


airports.

Companies:




EyeTicket, IrisGuard, IrisPass,


Iridian Technologies, LG Electronics.

Iris Scanners

Panasonic iris scanner

Iridian Technology, Inc.

Iridian Technology, Inc.

Face Recognition

Measure and analyze overall structure and shape, distance between

eyes, nose, mouth, jaw lines.


May include:




Facial geometry




Facial thermogram




Skin pattern recognition




Smile recognition


Most systems use straight 2D

Images


“mug shots”


Face Recognition

Advantages:




Inexpensive equipment


can use a small digital camera


connected to a PC




Fast

Disadvantages:




Liveness required to detect face molds




Should be use as part of multimodal system, combined


with facial thermogram for example.




Error rate is high: 4 in 100 faces


Face Recognition

Face Thermogram

Skin Pattern Scan

Face Recognition

Face Recognition

NEC 3D Face Recognition

system

Dual pin/face scan system

Face recognition system

DNA

DNS is different from other biometrics:




Part of genotype, unique, except in identical twins.




Does not employ feature extraction, needs to compare actual samples.




Intrusive, requires a physical sample such as blood, skin cells, hair, etc.




Can’t be done in real time yet, though processing is getting shorter.




The odds that two people have same DNA profile is 1 in a billion.




Process not fully automated.

Keystroke Dynamics

How it works:





Every person’s typing is unique, determined by neuro
-
physiological


and behavioral aspects.




Templates are built beforehand by having user type dynamic or


static text sequences and analyzing them.




User’s typing is compared with the stored template, either once at login,


or over the duration of the session, of at certain intervals.




Access is granted if current typing behavior matches template


according to preestablished probabilities.





Keystroke Dynamics

Measurements used in building a template:




length of time each key is held down




length of time between keystrokes




key pressure




typing speed




keystroke sequences involved in capitalization.




tendencies to switch between a numeric keypad and keyboard


numbers


Keystroke Dynamics

Advantages:




Easy to implement and use: no HW required, relies on SW




Low cost or free




Non
-
intrusive

Disadvantages:




Not much data is currently available about its accuracy




Has to be a supplemental authentication technique




Influenced by too many factors: hand injuries, fatigue,


arthritis, temperature, body position, type of keyboard


used.




Convenient


always with you, it’s what you are




Unique for each person


genotype + phenotype




Stable for lifespan


throughout aging and deceases




Untransferable to another


can not give, borrow, or steal




Hard or difficult to fake


liveness is unfakeable




Quantifiable


counted, numbered, expressed by mathematical


means



Why Use Biometrics ?

The End ;)


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