Technology In Action, Chapter 9

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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall


Technology In Action, Chapter 9


BUZZ WORDS

Word Bank

1.

AGP

2.

ALU

3.

ASCII

4.

binary

5.

buses

6.

byte

7.

cache

8.

control unit

9.

decoded

10.

DRAM

11.

fetch

12.

instruction set

13.

Level 1 cache

14.

Level 2 cache

15.

Level 3 cache

16.

number system

17.

registers

Instructions:

Fill in the blanks using the words
from the Word Bank above.

Computers are based on a system of switches, which can be either on or off. The (1)
binary

number system, which has only two digits, models this well. A(n) (2)
number system
is a set of
rules for the representation of numbers. Eig
ht binary digits are combined to create one (3)
byte
,
so they are easier to work with. The (4)
ASCII

code organizes bytes in unique combinations of
0s and 1s to represent characters, letters, and numerals.

The CPU organizes switches to execute the basic com
mands of the system. No matter what
command is being executed, the CPU steps through the same four processing stages. First it
needs to (5)
Fetch

the instruction from RAM. Next the instruction is (6)
decoded
, and the
(7)
control unit


sets up all of the CPU hardware to perform that particular command. The actual
execution takes place in the (8)
ALU
. The result is then saved by storing it in the (9)
REGISTERS

on the CPU. Another form of memory the CPU uses is (10)
cache


memory. (11)
lev
el 1 cache

is the form of this type of memory located closest to the CPU. (12)
level 2 cache

is
located a bit farther from the CPU.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall


RAM comes in several different types. (13)
DRAM


must be refreshed each cycle to keep the
data it stores valid. The pathways connecting the CPU to memory are known as (14)

buses
. The
speeds at which they can move data, or the data transfer rates, vary. (15)
AGP

is a bus designed
primarily to move three
-
dimensional graphics data quickly.


MULTIPLE CHOICE

Instructions:

Answer the multiple
-
choice and true/false questions below for more practice with
key terms and concepts from this chapter.


1.

Switching can be done by


a.

using transistors built of
semiconductors.


b.

turning on and off the flow of water.


c.

using vacuum tubes to allow electricity to flow or not flow.


d.

All of the above


2.

Hexadecimal notation is based on


a.

powers of 16.


b.

powers of 10.


c.

powers of 8.


d.

powers of 2.


3.

B
its can be encoded in different ways to represent


a.

numeric values.


b.

the letters and symbols of the ASCII table.


c.

the alphabets of all modern languages.


d.

All of the above


4.

A video card


a.


has its own memory section.


b.

has its own
processor called the GPU.


c.

might have multiple GPUs.


d.

All of the above


5.

The decode stage of the CPU cycle is used to


a.

gather data from the registers.


b.

execute an instruction in the ALU.


c.

pull data from the Level 1 cache.


d.

translate the

program’s binary code into instructions the CPU understands.


6.

Dynamic RAM is called “dynamic” because


a.

it is faster than static RAM (SRAM).


b.

it must be refreshed to keep the data valid.


c.

it has a great personality.


d.

it changes its value eve
ry clock cycle.


7.

Which of the following is a computer bus standard?


a.

PCIe


b.

FIS


c.

HTT

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall



d.

All of the above


8.

Corsair Dominator RAM is


a
.

DDR2 that is overclocked and designed with its own heat exchange system.


b.

a brand of ROM.


c.

found on
some video cards.


d.

SDRAM modules that are inexpensive but a bit slower than most RAM.


9.

Multi
-
core CPU design means


a.

more than one processing path can run at the same time in the CPU
.


b.

only one CPU is used in the system but there are several dif
ferent types of RAM.


c.

there are multiple, separate CPU chips on the motherboard.


d.

multiple CPUs, but only if each has its own operating system.


10.

There are different types of memory in a computer system because


a.

RAM is more economical and bette
r for larger temporary storage needs
.


b.

cache memory is used only for most needed instructions.


c.

there is a need for both volatile and nonvolatile storage.


d.

All of the above


TRUE/FALSE

__
F
__ 1. A binary number can be only two digits long.

__
F
__ 2.

SDRAM is the fastest memory available for a home system.

__
F
__ 3. The system clock runs at different speeds depending on the workload.

__
F
__ 4. The GPU does memory management to help lighten the load of the CPU.

__
F
__ 5. All of the different types of buse
s inside a computer system run at the same speed.