RESEARCH IN DIVISION OF CIVIL & MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
A brief description of the Division’s research activities is given below.
Civil Engineering Research Group
The Group was originally set up by Professor R.P. Johnson who was the first Professor of
il Engineering at Warwick. It has taken full advantage of the interdisciplinary nature of
the School and has collaborated extensively with many of the other research groups such as
the Fluid Dynamic Research Centre, the Development Technology Unit, and th
Engineering and Ultrasonic Groups. As a consequence, a considerable amount of research on
Civil, Sustainable and Environmental Engineering themes is also done in other research
The Group is currently led by Dr Toby Mottram and its rese
arch activities include: fibre
reinforced polymer composites; cement composite materials with reduced environmental
impact; behaviour of structural connections; advanced structural forms (tension cable nets and
membranes); composite steel/concrete structur
es; and behaviour of soils, in particular slope
stability, including the effects of earthquakes and climatic changes. It also has expertise in
rock mechanics, geotechnical aspects of waste disposal, and construction management with
regard to novel forms of
procurement, engineering design, and engineering risk.
Interest in the work on characterisation of fibre
reinforced polymer composite materials and
structures, carried out by Dr. Mottram, is growing rapidly as designers seek greater cost,
weight and envir
onmental impact savings. His research has support from industry and
EPSRC, and he is a member of several professional committees.
Research in durability of cement composite materials, led by Dr. Purnell, is supported by
EPSRC and industry and includes: “
critical carbonation” to improve properties of
cement composites, low
tech building materials such as cement
stabilized soil blocks, and
fibre reinforced concrete. Dr Purnell is a founder member of RILEM Technical
The work on composite steel/concrete structures, carried out by Professors Anderson and
Johnson has made a significant input into European codes of practice. Professor Anderson’s
work has also led to design recommendations that regulate structur
al steelwork design.
Professor Anderson is Chairman of the European Codes Panel, Member of Engineering
Practice and Membership Committees ICE/IStructE and Joint Board of Moderators.
Work on advanced structural forms, namely fabric roofs and pre
cable nets, is led by
Dr. Lewis. The main focus of her research is on achieving optimum structural form using
nature’s own design principle: maximum stability and strength with minimum weight. In this
respect, she has led a European research team on the
CRAFT project and participated in the
Innovation 2000 programme of the IMechE.
In the area of geotechnics, research led by Dr. Petley focuses on safety with regard to slope
stability. Additional factors influencing land
slide hazard assessment, such as ea
climatic changes and freeze
thaw cycles are also considered. Dr. Petley has acted as a
consultant to many prestigious organisations including the UN.
Research and teaching activities of the Group are intimately linked. For example, an essential
part of Dr. Burrow’s work in the area of construction management, is close liaison with
industrial practitioners and nurturing the ongoing relationship with the Industrial Advisory
Panel. Dr. Price
also has teaching and scholarly activities within the br
oad geotechnical arena
and has contributed with Dr. Petley to a TLTP
funded project in geotechnical CAL packages.
His principal interests lie in the area of rock mechanics, with application to slope stability,
underground structures and the problems that c
an result from old underground workings.
In the area of geotechnical aspects of waste disposal, Mr. Woods has had a long
involvement in industrial, teaching and consultancy settings. His particular interest includes
stabilisation of soils and quarry w
astes for use as engineering fill.
The common themes running through the research programmes of the Civil Engineering
Group are robustness, serviceability, durability, risk, and structural efficiency
subsets of sustainable development on w
hich the efforts of the Group are currently focused.
Dr J. T. Mottram
Much of his research involves the material and structural characterisation of fibre
polymer (FRP) profiles for construction. The work involves physical testing aimed at
erstanding the structural integrity and durability of structural systems (Mottram et al.
2003, Lane and Mottram 2001, Zheng and Mottram 1999), non
destructive evaluation and
numerical simulation (Winistörfer and Mottram 2000). More recent work focuses on
ightweight modular construction for sustainable development. Work has also been completed
on using advanced finite element analysis to establish the transient behaviour of a rolling car
tyre for the smart tyre concept.
The main objective of the FRP profi
le research is to generate a body of knowledge that will
polymeric composite structures. To meet this objective the research provides new
information through full
scale testing and theoretical analysis that can be used to develop
n procedures for the best use of pultruded profiles in primary load
For further information on Dr Mottram's research and contribution to the research community,
please see his web site at:
J. T. MOTTRAM, N. D. Brown, and D. Anderson, 2003. ‘Physical testing for concentrically loaded columns of
pultruded glass fibre reinforced plastic profile’
, Proc. Inst.
Civil Engrs. Structures and Buildings
A. Lane and J. T. MOTTRAM, 2002. ‘The influence of modal coupling upon the buckling of concentrically
reinforced plastic columns,’
Proc. Inst. Mech. Engrs. Part L: J. Mat
erials: Design and
A. Winistörfer, and J. T. MOTTRAM 2001. ‘Finite element analysis for the development of
laminated composite pin
loaded straps in civil engineering,’
J. Compos. Mater.
J. T. MOTTRAM and Y
. Zheng, 1999. ‘Further tests on beam
column connections for
pultruded frames: Flange
J. Compos. Constr.
Dr W. J. Lewis
She is a Chartered Engineer, a Member of the Institution of Structural Engineers,
ociation for Shell and Spatial Structures, and Structural Morphology Group.
Her research into the behaviour of tension structures, which spans some 20 years, focuses on
achieving optimum structural forms by using nature's own design principle: maximum
bility and strength with minimum weight. The main theme of her book, (to be published by
Thomas Telford in November 2003), is form
finding, a process unique to tension structures,
as their shape depends critically on the applied loads and boundary configur
ations. The main
innovation in the book is the extension of the concept of form
finding to structures whose
shape is supposedly known, i.e., suspension bridge cables. The software developed for this
purpose awaits patent evaluation. The work carried out
by her on the development of cutting
pattern for fabric structures also awaits a patent.
Her research work is known in Europe (particularly in Germany, France and Italy). She was
the initiator and principal investigator in the EU CRAFT projects, 1996
(total value EU 805,000). Her European partners are world leaders in architectural membrane
design and manufacture. Her research crosses boundaries from mechanical and structural
engineering to architecture, design, and applied mathematics
. She has industrial collaboration
with premier UK companies, such as Jaguar Cars (Coventry), Rolls
Royce (Derby) and Ove
Arup and Partners (London).
For further information on Dr Lewis' research, please see her web site at:
W. J. LEWIS,
Tension Structures. Form and Behaviour
,' Thomas Telford. (due to appear in
W. J. Lewis and J. Brew, 2003. 'Computational Form
Structures. Parts I to III,'
Inter. J. Numer. Meths. Engrg.
, Part I 651
668, Part II 669
Part III 685
W. J. Lewis and J. Chilton, 2002, 'Studying Form
Innovation in Structural Engineering
Inter. J. Space Struct
2/3 2002, 235
W. J. Lewis, 1999. 'Lightweight Tension Membranes
Civil Engineer Inter.,
Feb. issue, 19
Dr P. Purnell
His primary research interest is in the durability and accelerated ageing of cement composites
production of novel cement
based components using super
technology. Other research interests have been developed since Dr Purnell joined Warwick
University in 2000. The accelerated ageing and durability concepts developed for cement
mposites may be applicable, in principle, to other structural composites such as reinforced
polymers. Work is under way on accelerated ageing tests and durability studies for such
materials in structural situations, in collaboration with Dr. Mottram. The S
chool has a strong
tradition in the use of ultrasonics as a diagnostic tool, in particular the work of Prof. D. A.
Hutchins (Electrical and Electronics Division). Ultrasonics has long been used to diagnose
defects in concrete structures, but little radical
development in testing methodology and
equipment has occurred in the last few years. Dr Purnell and Prof. Hutchins are working on a
number of radical new diagnostic instruments for concrete that use state
transducers to supply next
eneration accuracy and ease of use.
Dr Purnell is the local organiser for the 24
Cement and Concrete Science Conference to be
held in Sept. 2004 for the first time at Warwick University.
For further information on Dr Purnell's research activities, p
lease see his web site at:
N. R. Short, A. M. G. Seneviratne, P. PURNELL and C. L. Page, 2002. 'Dimensional stability of super
fibre reinforced concrete.'
Cement and Concrete Research,
P. PURNELL, N. R. Short, C. L. Page, 2001. 'Supercritical carbonation of glass
fibre reinforced cement Part I:
Mechanical testing and chemical analysis,'
N. R. Short, P. PURNELL, C. L. Page, 2001. 'Preliminary investigations into supercritical carbonation of cement
J. Mater. Sci.
P. PURNELL, N. R. Short, C. L. Page, 2001. 'A static fatigue model for the durabil
ity of glass fibre reinforced
J. Mater Sci.
Emeritus Professors D. Anderson and R. P. Johnson
Staff members play an active role in the full range of academic, scientific, and professional
activities, attaining high regard
for their involvement with the Institutions of Civil Engineers
and Structural Engineers, and notably the work carried out by Professors Anderson and
Johnson on the Eurocode for Composite Structures.
Professor Anderson's work concerns the behaviour and de
sign of steel and composite steel
concrete structures. Recently this has been related to steel frames with semi
connections and to composite joints. That research has formed input to Eurocode 4 for
Composite Structures, where Professor Anderson
leads the CEN Project Team for buildings.
His work has also formed the basis for design recommendations published by the European
Convention for Constructional Steelwork and the Steel Construction Institute. As a nominee
for the UK, he is a member of two E
CCS Technical Committees and is a member of the BSI
committee for composite structures for buildings. He has provided support to Dr Mottram's
polymer composite research regarding the design and analysis of frame structures.
Professor Johnson's work conce
rns the behaviour and design of steel and composite steel
concrete for buildings and bridges. Recently, he has worked on statistical calibration of partial
safety factors for structural design and the resistance of shear stud connectors.
J. T. Mottram, N. D. Brown, and D. ANDERSON, 2003. ‘Buckling characteristics of pultruded glass fibre
reinforced plastic columns under moment gradient’,
N. D. Brown, and D. ANDERSON, 2001. 'Structural properties of c
omposite major axis end plate connections,'
Constructional Steel Research
R. P. JOHNSON, and D. ANDERSON, 2001. 'EN 1994 Eurocode 4 Design of composite steel and concrete
Proc. Inst. Civil Engrs. Civil Engineering
38. Paper 12630
R. P. JOHNSON, 2003. 'Cracking in concrete flanges of composite T
Tests and Eurocode 4,' Structural
R. P. JOHNSON, 2001.
'Local effects of concentrated longitudinal shear in composite bridge beams
, 79 5, 19
R. P. JOHNSON, 2000. 'Resistance of stud shear connectors to fatigue,'
J. Constructional Steel Research
Dr D. J. Petley
He specialises in the behaviour of soils and, in particular, how they behave in slopes, e.g
dams, railway embankments or shorelines. This is a safety
critical area, as slope instability
leads not only to landslides with obvious catastrophic effects, but also foundation subsidence
and building movement. His studies include the effects of eart
hquakes, climatic changes and
thaw cycles on slope stability. He has acted as a consultant to many prestigious
organisations including the UN.
D. J. PETLEY, M. W. Stevenson, 2002. 'The Franklands Village Landslide, West Sussex
and management: Seeking sustainable solutions to ground movement problems.
Edited by R. G. McInnes, J.
Jakeways. Thomas Telford. ISBN 0 7277 3132 7.
D.J. PETLEY 2001. 'Triaxial testing of soils and the measurement of residual st
Techniques 3rd Edition
edited by A.S. Goudie. Unwin Hyman/BGRG: 181
M.R. Cooper, E.N. Bromhead, D.J. PETLEY, et al. 2000.' The Selborne Cutting stability experiment,'
Fluid Dynamics Researc
The Fluid Dynamics Research Centre provides a focus for the research activities in fluid
dynamics and related topics. The Centre formalizes the existing collaboration between
engineers, mathematicians and physicists in this area of research. The
aim is to undertake a
broad range of research on fluid dynamics and related topics that involve experimental,
design, computational and theoretical work. A careful balance between
fundamental and more industrially
related research is maintain
ed. To this end emphasis is
currently being placed on developing further links with industry. Scientific Computing is a
major strategic development for both the School of Engineering and the wider university.
The Fluid Dynamics Research Centre has alway
s been in the forefront of these developments.
For example, it took the lead within the University on a 1998 JREI grant for the University’s
performance computing system (worth c. £800,000) which was managed by
Engineering who also provided the
support staff. This system has been superseded by the
memory computer system described above in the section on Computing Facilities.
The FDRC’s activities have been strengthened by the recent appointments of Professor R.M.
Kerr, Dr. Y.M. Chung (a
s Lecturer) and Dr. A.J. Cooper (as Royal Society Fellow).
Brief descriptions of the research activities of the academic staff are given below together
with selected papers (full information on publications are available on individual web
Professor P.W. Carpenter
Much of his research involves flow control in one form or another, including the development
and application of computational methods for its numerical simulation. For example, the
vorticity method (
Davies & Carpenter 2001). This highly efficient approach to direct
numerical simulation has been applied to flow control by means of compliant walls, i.e.
artificial dolphin skins, (see Davies & Carpenter 2001 and Carpenter
2000) and flow
y use of MEMS jet
type actuators (see Lockerby
. 2002). The research
programme with Dr. P.J. Thomas on flow control by means of compliant walls also includes
experimental and theoretical work. The research programme on MEMS control is carried out
collaboration with BAE Systems, Dassault Aviation, Cardiff University (Dr. C. Davies)
and other universities. There is also ongoing work on flow control by passive porous walls
(Carpenter & Porter 2002) and recent work on the aerodynamics and aeroacoustic
supersonic Coanda flows.
Other work involves:
simulation study (with Dr. C. Davies of Cardiff) of the global behaviour
resulting from the absolute instability in the 3D boundary layer over a rotating disc.
(Davies & Carpenter 2003)
l simulation (in collaboration with Dr. P.J. Thomas) of the development of a
vortex ring in a rotating fluid environment using a novel discrete
Biomechanics, for example, the development of a theoretical model for pressure
propagation in the
human intraspinal cerebrospinalfluid (CSF) system, and the
dynamics of the soft palate.
The development (in collaboration with Prof. D.A. Hutchins of the Division of
Electronic and Electrical Engineering) of a novel system for simultaneous whole
surements of vorticity and temperature based on tomographic reconstruction of
P.W. CARPENTER, C. Davies & A.D. Lucey 2000 The hydrodynamics of compliant walls: Does the dolphin
have a secret? Invited paper to ho
nour Professor Satish Dhawan in
P.W. CARPENTER & L.J. Porter 2001 The effects of passive porous walls on boundary
C. Davies & P.W. CARPENTER 2001 A novel velocity
mulation of the Navier
Stokes equations with
applications to boundary layer disturbance evolution.
J. Computational Physics
D.A. Lockerby, P.W. CARPENTER & C. Davies 2002 Numerical simulation of the interaction of MEMS
actuators and boundary
C. Davies & P.W. CARPENTER 2003 Global behaviour associated with the absolute instability of the
disk boundary layer.
J. Fluid Mech.
Dr. Y.M. Chung
His main research interests are in engineering comp
utational fluid dynamics, particularly
Unsteady turbulent flow and heat transfer;
Complex flows, e.g. Turbomachinery flows , 3D jets, and electronics cooling
Large Eddy Simulation and Direct Numerical Simulation of turbulent flows
CHUNG, Y.M., TUCKER, PG & Roychowdhury, DG 2002 Unsteady laminar flow and convective
heat transfer in a sharp 180 degrees bend.
Int J. Heat Fluid Flow
CHUNG, Y.M & Kai, KH 2002 Unsteady heat transfer analysis of an impinging jet.
E J. Heat
CHUNG, Y.M, Kai, KH & Sandham, ND 2002 Direct numerical simulation of an impinging jet.
Heat Fluid Flow
CHUNG, Y.M, Sung, HJ & Krogstadt, P.
A. 2002 Modulation of near
wall turbulence structure with
wall blowing and suction.
CHUNG, Y.M & Sung, HJ 2001 Initial relaxation of spatially evolving turbulent channel flow with
blowing and suction.
Dr A.J. Cooper
One of her main areas of research is
concerned with the aeroacoustics and unsteady fluid
dynamics of aero
machinery. Much of the work involves the development and
validation of analytical models with the aim of extracting physical mechanisms and
constructing efficient prediction
schemes. This area of research is in collaboration with
Royce and Cambridge University (Dr N. Peake).
Specifically, techniques in modern mathematical analysis and wave theory have been applied
to model resonant phenomena in aero
engine intakes (se
e Cooper & Peake 2000). This
supports experimental evidence of a link between intake acoustics and fan instability.
Ongoing work is in the development of an analytical prediction scheme for fan noise. This
involves modelling fan
blade wakes which subsequ
ently interact with downstream vanes
producing noise. The analytically
based nature of the models will
be exploited to provide
important information on the mechanisms of noise generation and ultimately be used to
identify noise reduction techniques.
of the research on turbo
machinery flows involves swirling flow and there is a general
interest in aspects of the stability and acoustics of both open (see Cooper & Peake 2002) and
closed duct (see Cooper & Peake 2001) flows.
Other work involves fluid
ructure instability problems (see Cooper & Carpenter 1997) and
global instability theory (see Cooper & Crighton 2000).
COOPER, A.J. & Carpenter, P.W. 1997 The stability of rotating
layer flow over a compliant wall.
2. Absolute instability,
J. Fluid Mech
COOPER, A.J. & Crighton, D.G. 2000 Global modes and superdirective acoustic radiation in low
Eur. J. Mech. B/Fluids
COOPER, A.J. & Peake, N. 2000 Trapped acou
stic modes in aeroengine intakes with swirling flow.
COOPER, A.J. & Peake, N. 2001 Propagation of unsteady disturbances in a slowly
varying duct with mean
J. Fluid Mech.
COOPER, A.J. & Peake, N
. 2002 The stability of a slowly diverging swirling jet.
J. Fluid Mech.
Dr. R.E. Critoph
Dr. Robert Critoph (Ph.D., M.Inst.E., C.Eng., Associate Member of International Institute of
Refrigeration) is a Reader in the School of Engineering a
t the University of Warwick. He
has published 51 papers, two book chapters and has managed research contracts for industry,
national government and EU totalling £1,500,000. Industrial clients have included British
Gas (now Advantica), Searle, and Unilv
er. He is on the UK National team of the IEA Heat
Pump Programme and is an associate editor of Applied Thermal Engineering and Renewable
Energy. He has been on the scientific committees of numerous international conferences
including the World Renewab
le Energy Congresses, The Heat Powered Cycle series, and
Sorption 2002 in Shanghai (where he delivered a Plenary presentation) and has given invited
lectures in the USA, China, Malaysia, Poland, Sharjah, Belarus, Bahrain and Iran. He has
o the International Institute of Refrigeration’s submission to the UNEP World
Summit of Sustainable Development in 2002. He has worked on sorption systems since
1982 and has three patents in the field. He has also worked in solar thermal systems and
mpact heat exchangers.
Telto & R.E. CRITOPH 2003 Advanced solid sorption air conditioning modules using monolithic
Applied Thermal Engineering
R.E. CRITOPH 2002 Multiple bed regener
ative adsorption cycle using the monolithic carbon
Applied Thermal Engineering
R.E. CRITOPH 2001 Simulation of a continuous multiple
bed regenerative adsorption cycle.
Int. J. Refrigeration
, 5, 428
R.E. CRITOPH, Z. T
Telto 2001 Monolithic carbon for sorption refrigeration and heat pump applications.
Applied Thermal Engineering
R.E. CRITOPH 1999 Forced convection adsorption cycle with packed bed heat regeneration.
Professor R.M. Kerr
Robert Kerr has recently taken up a joint professorship in the Mathematics Department and
School of Engineering. Previously he was at the National Center for Atmospheric Research
at Boulder, Colorado and the University of Arizona
. His professorship is held in association
with the Centre for Scientific Computing
He is a leading authority in the study of fundamental turbulence using simple non
models and full three
dimensional direct numerical simulations. One of his goals
to Warwick is to advance the application of this approach to other non
linear and geophysical
systems. This would include transport properties of the oceans, atmospheric flow and
precipitation over complex terrain, and magnetohydrodynamics. In
particular, we hope to
develop a new programme in Environmental Engineering. One aspect of this would be
numerical simulation of fine
scale atmospheric flows where the small
effects of the largest length scales influenced by turbulence
are neither directly simulated nor
modelled. Numerical methods using new advection schemes along with sophisticated
mesh methods would be integral to this approach. This work will take
advantage of the massively parallel systems bein
g developed in the Centre for Scientific
Computing. The ability to do such simulations is very recent. New funding opportunities
exist and to carry out this programme properly will require new expertise in the development
and use of such algorithms.
are now capable of simulating the effects of the largest scales of turbulence, but need to
continue to seek improvements in our understanding of the small
scale turbulence and of the
modelling of subgrid
scale turbulence. Professor Kerr was one of the fir
st to demonstrate
clearly that vortex tubes dominate the structure of small
scale turbulence. He has led the
search for how these configurations arise, how their interactions might be the origin of the
classical energy cascade, statistical properties asso
ciated with it, and hence how to improve
existing models of nonlinear subgrid effects. This work is strongly tied to the strengths of the
Mathematics department in nonlinear dynamical systems.
For further information on Professor Kerr’s research, please
see his web site at:
KERR, R.M. and Brandenburg, A. 1999: Evidence for a singularity in ideal magnetohydrodynamics: implications
for fast reconnection
. Phys. Rev. Lett
T.L., Hall, W.D., KERR, R.M., Middleton, D., Radke, L., Ralph, F.M., and Neiman, P.J., Levinson, D.
2000: On the origins of aircraft damaging clear
air turbulence during the 9 December 1992 Colorado downslope
windstorm: Numerical simulations and comparison
J. Atmos. Sci.
KERR, R.M. and Herring, J. 2000: Prandtl number dependence of Nusselt number in DNS.
J. Fluid Mech.
Holm, D.D. and KERR, R.M. 2002: Transient vortex events in the initial value problem for
Dr G.P. King
Much of his research involves the application of nonlinear dynamics (chaos theory) to
transport and mixing in Navier
Stokes flows. The long
range transport and mixing of
material tracers in fluid flo
ws can occur either through vigorous local instabilities and
turbulence, or because long
term trajectories of advected parcels of fluid are chaotic, even
when the basic flow pattern may be smooth and regular. Such chaotic advection processes
can be observ
ed in nature (atmosphere and oceans) and studied on a laboratory scale using
experimental systems and numerical models. Theoretical arguments (Yannacopoulos
1998) suggest that certain symmetries in the flow field can lead to a quantification of the
mixing due to chaotic advection. These ideas were applied to numerically simulated fields of
wavy Taylor vortex flow (King
et al. 2002
) where a near
perfect correlation between suitably
averaged Lagrangian and Eulerian quantities was found. A theoretic
al justification for the
agreement has been published in Yannacopoulos
Dr King is also starting a research programme to study the interaction of climate and health.
The work (with Dr G. Gomes of Gulbenkian Institute in Lisbon, Prof J.
I.R.D. in Montpellier, and Prof D.G. Dritschel of St. Andrews) will integrate the
analysis of climate data extracted from satellite measurements with geophysical fluid
dynamics and models of infectious diseases.
Other work involves:
imental studies of pattern formation in two
phase flows (with Dr. P.J. Thomas).
Investigation of spatio
temporal structures in flow past a cylinder (with Dr. N.G.
Investigation of transition to turbulence in Taylor
Couette flows using ultrasound
oppler methods (with Prof Y. Takeda of Hokkaido).
A.N. Yannacopoulos, G. Rowlands, and G.P. KING. 2002 A Melnikov function for the break
up of closed
streamlines in steady Navier
G, G. Rowlands, M. Rudman & A.N. Yannacopoulos. 2001 Predicting chaotic dispersion with Eulerian
symmetry measures: wavy Taylor
P. J. Thomas, G. D. Riddell, S. Kooner &
KING 2001 Fine structure of granula
r banding in two
N.G. Stocks, C.T. Shaw, and G.P. KING 1999 Energy distribution in modes in the wake of a finite
before and after transition.
J. Fluids and Structures
Yannacopoulos, I. Mezic, G. Rowlands and G.P. KING 1998 An Eulerian diagnostic for Lagrangian chaos in
three dimensional Navier
Phys. Rev. E
Dr S C Li
Much of his research involves cavitation in one form or another, includin
g the study of
fundamental phenomena, and its application in hydraulic machinery. For example, the
cavitation phenomenon associated with low
frequency fluctuations in flow systems was
firstly identified as Cavitation Resonance by his studies jointly with P
rof. F.G. Hammitt and
Prof. Zhang Y J in the Venturi Cavitating Flows at University of Michigan (Li, Zhang &
Hammitt, 1986). And, this is also recognised as an important phenomenon in hydraulic
machinery systems which affects the operation significantly (
Li, 1992). This phenomenon
was cited and further analysed in §3.7.3 (Li) and §7.4 (P Henry) of Li (2000a). The stochastic
nature of cavitation has been studied since early 1980 jointly with Prof. F.G. Hammitt and
Prof. Zhang Y J at University of Michigan (
e.g. Zhang, Li and Hammitt, 1986). And recently
funded cavitation tunnel was specially designed and built for studying the
stochastic bubble behavious near a compliant wall, jointly with Prof. P Carpenter (Li &
Carpenter, 1999). A Markov Stochast
ic Model has been proposed to describe the random
behaviour of bubbles (Li & Carpenter, 2000).
Other work involves:
The surface tension effect on cavitation erosion intensity is also being studied jointly with
Prof. Y Iwai (Fukui University, Japan). The
initial findings show an interesting effect of
bubble instability on the cavity pattern and in turn the erosion intensity (Iwai & Li 2002)
erosion turbine technology development (with Prof. P Carpenter), involving
Cambridge, Nortingham University, Al
stom Hydro (UK
France), and Chinese Yellow
River Committee, Shanghai Jiao Tong University and Mitsubishi Heavy Industrial Ltd
(Japan) etc (Li & Carpenter, 2002).
Novel hydraulic turbine development. The recently developed L
1 turbine is a low
intenance and extremely high
performance turbine specially used for small hydro
schemes. Its performances is comparable with the corresponding large turbines. The first
prototype has been operated non
stop since it was commissioned in March 2000 in Peru
without traceable damage at all. Such a performance hits the world record of ITC history
and now is in great demand and has been applied to other schemes in various countries
S C LI 2000a (editor & co
of Hydraulic Machinery
, Imperial College Press, London
S C LI 2000b Developing Low Head, Low Cost and Low Maintenance Turbines,
International Water Power &
, Nov, 32
S. C. LI and P W Carpenter 2000 Note on an Envisaged Markov Model
for Cavitation Bubble(s) near Compliant
Proceedings of 2000 ASME Fluids Engineering Conference
, June 11
15, 2000, Boston, USA
Y Iwai and S. C. LI 2003 Cavitation Erosion in Waters Having Different Surface Tensions.
S. C. LI and P.
W. Carpenter 2002 Anti
Erosion Turbine: Cavitation and Silt Synergetic Erosion. Invited Keynote
Proceedings of 9th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating
, Honolulu, Hawaii, February 10
14. Paper No: DD110
Dr N. G. Stocks
Dr Stocks' research interests are in the application and theory of stochastic nonlinear systems.
These systems can be used to model a wide variety of physical systems and current research
interests range from the modelling of neural acti
vity in sensory neurones (Stocks 2001, 2000)
to the study of laminar
turbulent transition in cylinder wakes (Stocks, Shaw & King
1999,1996a,1996b). In the context of fluid dynamics, his interests are in the effect of free
stream turbulence on wake instab
ility (in particular the secondary laminar
instability), the processes governing the generation of large
dislocations and the
role of boundary conditions on wake instability.
N G STOCKS 2001, "Generic nois
enhanced coding in neuronal arrays",
Phys. Rev E
N G STOCKS 2000, "Suprathreshold stochastic resonance in multilevel threshold systems",
Phys. Rev. Lett
N G STOCKS, C T Shaw and G P King 1999 "Energy distribution of modes
in the wake of a finite
cylinder before and after transition",
J. Fluids and Struct
N G STOCKS 1996a, C T Shaw and G P King, "Dynamical Characterisation of the spatiotemporal structures in
the wake of a bluff body",
J. Fluid an
N G STOCKS, C T Shaw and G P King 1996b "An experimental study of the laminar
turbulent transition in an
open flow system", in
, Ed. by R G Harrison et al, pp177
181 (World Scientific, Singapore,)
Dr P. J. Th
He is an experimental physicist working in fluid dynamics. Many of his research projects
involve the investigation of influences of background rotation on fluid flows. Some particular
research interests include laboratory simulations of oceanographic
flows (Thomas & Linden
1996, Thomas & Linden 1998), solid
phase flows (Thomas 1994, Boote &
Thomas 1999, Thomas et al. 2001, Zoueshtiagh & Thomas 2000) and vortex stability
(Thomas & Auerbach 1994).
In collaboration with Prof. Carpenter he is
presently initiating a new joint experimental and
computational investigation of the influence of background rotation on the dynamics and the
stability of vortex rings. A further collaboration with Prof. Carpenter is the research program
studying the effe
cts of wall compliance on laminar
turbulent transition (Colley
As part of this program Thomas and Carpenter maintain an active international collaboration
with the I.R.P.H.E. at the University of Marseille (Cros
THOMAS, P.J., Riddell, G.D., Kooner, S. King, G.P. 2001 The Fine Structure of Granular Banding in Two
Boote, O., THOMAS, P.J. 1999 Effects of granular additives transition boundaries between flow sta
tes of rimming
Colley, A.J. , THOMAS, P.J., Carpenter, P.W., Cooper, A.J. 1999 An experimental study of boundary
transition over a rotating, compliant disc,
Zoueshtiagh, F., THOMAS,
P.J. 2000 Wavelength scaling of spiral patterns formed by granular media underneath
a rotating fluid,
Zoueshtiagh, F., THOMAS, P.J. 2003 Universal scaling for ripple formation in granular media.
art no. 031301
Dr P. G. Tucker
Much of his research is carried out on numerical modelling of industrially related flows. In
this CFD work special emphasis is placed on modelling unsteady flows. This is because real
industrial flows are almost always unsteady. Tucker’s
interest in modelling unsteady flows is
reflected in his recent monograph ‘Computation of Unsteady Internal Flows’ (see Tucker
2001a). Numerical model development work is carried out in the following areas:
∙ Multigrid Methods
ial Equation Based Wall Distance Algorithms
∙ Particle Transport Modelling
∙ Large Eddy Simulation
∙ Zonal Large Eddy Simulation/Detached Eddy Simulation (DES)
∙ Novel non
linear eddy viscosity models
∙ Solution adaptive
∙ Moving boundary problems
∙ Complex geometry modelling including trimmed cell techniques
. Computational Aero Acoustics
Examples of the solution
stepping work and multigrid convergence
acceleration can be
found in Tucker (2002a). Particle transport modelling for unsteady flow
is discussed in Tucker (2001b). This work mostly features RANS modelling. However, his
transport work focuses strongly on LES. Recent zonal LES research can be
nd in Tucker and Davidson (2003). Some recent zonal LES and Computational Aero
Acoustics research has recently been carried out in association with Boeing through a Royal
Academy of Engineering Foresight award.
Special emphasis is placed on industrial a
pplications. Past and present research applications
have involved modelling unsteady flows for:
∙ Aeroplanes (The application of DES to wings and also jet noise)
mechanical systems and
∙ Room ventila
The turbomachinery interest is mostly motivated by modelling needs for unsteady flow in
pressure compressor drums (see Tucker (2002b)) in modern aero engines.
TUCKER P.G. 2001a.
Computation of unsteady internal flows
wer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
TUCKER P.G. 2002b. Temporal behaviour of flow in rotating cavities,
Numerical Heat Transfer
, No. 6
2002a. Novel multigrid orientated solution adaptive time
Int. J. for Numeri
Methods in Fluids
TUCKER P.G. 2001b. Computation of particle and scalar transport for complex geometry turbulent flows,
J. of Fluids Engineering.
and Pan Z. 2001. URANS Computations for a complex internal
Comp. Meths in
Applied Mechanics and Engineering
Precision Engineering and Materials
Initiated nearly 25 years ago by Professor David Whitehouse, this research area is currently
led by Professor Derek Chetwynd. Its princi
pal interests are: the design and use of novel
instrument systems, especially for short
range displacement measurement, surface metrology
surface characterization; mechanisms of sub
micrometre precision and micro
mechatronics; and mechanical proper
ties and metrology applied to MEMS (micro
mechanical systems). All are regarded as ‘enabling technologies’ for applications in many
other fields (e.g. bio
medicine, fluidics). The Group has been highly active in metrology
related to National and
International Standards, regularly collaborating with the National
Physical Laboratory. It has been at the forefront of developing x
ray interferometry as a
secondary standard of length and has designed and built several special instruments for NPL.
jor European Union collaboration to investigate new calibration standards for surface
metrology has recently ended. Currently, MEMS
related research (supported by EPSRC) is
concentrating on the mechanical properties of conducting
polymer thin films and on
roughness effects in small
scale fluid flow. Other current research projects can be
summarized as: nanotribology; contact behaviour of mechanical probes; mechanics of
orthopaedic fixations; machine kinematics; micro
metrology. Most work i
supported by EPSRC or other external sponsors. Recent or current collaborators include AG
Optics, Bayer, Canon, CSEM, Druck, NPL and Taylor Hobson as well as universities
in Europe, USA and the Far East.
The Group is a major contributor to the m
disciplinary Centre for Nanotechnology
and Microengineering and was predominant in the Centre being honoured as ‘Champions of
Metrology’ (Centre of Excellence) at the 1997 Metrology for World Class Manufacturing
Awards. The following year Professor W
hitehouse received the personal award in this
category and in 2001 Dr X Liu was highly commended at the same event for her novel multi
function tribological probe microscope. Following several years of collaboration with,
especially, Professor Whitehouse
on research into the dynamics of machines, Professor Tian
Huang has recently been appointed to a Professorship. He now has joint appointments with
Tianjing University (China) and Warwick.
Professor D.G. Chetwynd
Derek Chetwynd leads the Research Group an
d is a former Director of the Warwick Centre
for Nanotechnology and Microengineering. After an early career in industry introducing
metrology techniques, he came to Warwick in 1979 at the
foundation of the Centre. His interests e
ncompass a wide range of design issues in high
precision mechatronics, instrumentation and Microsystems. With Professor Bowen, he has
pioneered the use of x
ray interferometry for nanometrology, both displacement and angular.
In recent years he has concen
trated research somewhat towards the mechanics of MEMS,
devising and using methods for mechanical characterization: the properties of polymers are a
particular interest. However, he continues also to work on mechanisms and, often in
collaboration with Nati
onal Physical Laboratory, on formal metrology and standards. Keen to
promote proper understanding and practice of metrology, he is a member of: the Council of
; the Advisory Board for the Institute of Nanotechnology; and the Steering Group for
K Dimensional Metrology Awareness Club. He is Editor
Chief, Europe, for
Precision Engineering, the joint journal of the American, European and Japanese Societies.
In 2002 he was appointed Advisory Professor at Harbin Institute of Technology, a Chinese
National Centre of Excellence in Precision Engineering and Instrumentation, and was recently
invited to be a founding overseas member of the
Centre for Intelligent Nanometrology in
Tohoku University, Japan.
S T Smith & D G
Foundations of Ultra
precision Mechanism Design
London: Gordon &
D G C
, N O Krylova, P J B
Cross & Z Wang 1998 Applications of x
generated moiré patterns.
, D G C
, J W
Gardner, P N Bartlett & C Beriet 1998 Measurements of tribological properties of
poly(pyrrole) thin film bearings
M Mizuno & D G C
2003 Investigation of a resonance microgenerator.
, C M Gosselin, D J Whitehouse & D G C
2003 Analytical approach for optimal design of
a type of spherical parallel manipulator using dextrous performance indices.
Proc. Instn. Mech. Engrs., Part C: J.
Q Fang, D G C
, J W Gardner, C
S Toh & P N Bartlett 2003 A preliminary study of conducting
polymers as microvalve seals.
Mat. Sci. Eng.
Professor T. Huang
Tian Huang holds full professorships at Warwick and at Tianjin Univer
sity, where he is also
Dean of Mechanical Engineering. Currently he is spending one term per year at Warwick.
He is a specialist in precision machine design and he is internationally recognized for his
research on kinematic and kinetic analysis and synth
esis of parallel kinematic mechanisms.
Much of his work focuses on the design of low
cost industrial robots but he is also interested
in smaller mechanisms of exceptional precision.
D J WHITEHOUSE & T HUANG 1997 The use of graph th
eory to formulate the linear dynamic characteristics of
rigid body systems.
Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond
T HUANG & D J WHITEHOUSE 2000 A simple yet effective approach for error compensation of a tripod
parallel kinematic machine.
T HUANG & X Y Zhao 2001 Determination of servo motor parameter of a tripod
based parallel kinematic
Progress in Natural Science
, D J W
& D G C
2002 A unified error model for tolerance design, assem
and error compensation of 3
DOF parallel kinematic machines with parallelogram struts.
, C M Gosselin, D J W
& D G C
2003 Analytical approach for optimal
design of a type of spherical parallel ma
nipulator using dextrous performance indices.
Proc. Instn. Mech. Engrs.,
Part C: J. Mechanical Science
Dr X. Liu
Previously a Research Fellow here, ‘Ping’ Liu returned to Warwick as Lecturer in 2000. She
has interests in both the mechanic
s and electronics of precision instrument design, especially
for materials characterization, surface metrology and micro
friction. Her research has
included studies of special variants of electron tunnelling and atomic force probes, the
of stylus profilometers to maximize their fidelity, and the tribology of thin
film polymers. She also runs projects in industrial metrology, incorporating rigorous classical
approaches into systems robust and ‘simple’ enough to characterize complex shapes
factory floor. In recent years she has been especially concerned with a novel multi
surface characterization instrument, which she calls the Tribological Probe Microscope. She
is a Visiting Professor at Harbin Institute of Technology. Sh
e has published around 40 papers
in journals and at major international conferences.
D G C
, X L
& S T Smith 1996 A controlled force stylus displacement probe.
X LIU, D G CHETWYND & J W
Gardner 1998 Surface characterisation of electroactive thin polymer film
Int. J. Mach. Tools and Manuf.,
X LIU 2002 A four
one tribological probe microscope for characterising surface properties at the micro and
level. (Invited paper)
Proceedings of the Royal Microscopical Society,
, T Bell, D G C
& X Y Li 2003 Characterisation of engineered surfaces by a novel four
tribological probe microscope.
X LIU 2003 Ma
pping surface properties at micro/nanometre levels
by a novel multi
function Tribological Probe
Scottish Microscopy Group Symposium, West Park Conference Centre,
Dundee, 12 Nov. 2003.
Emeritus Professors D.K. Bowen
and D.J. Whitehouse
Keith Bowen and David Whitehouse are both former leaders of this research group and
former Directors of the Centre for Nanotechnology and Microengineering. Both are leaders
in their academic fields who now concentrate their efforts els
ewhere, but still retain regular
contact with the group. Keith Bowen is widely known for developing materials
characterization techniques, especially x
ray ones, and in designing novel instruments to
exploit them. He has also worked in nanometrology, wit
h major contributions to x
interferometry. For the last several years he has been a full
time Director of Bede Scientific
Instruments Ltd, mainly running their USA operation. In David Whitehouse was awarded the
2002 Lifetime Achievement Award of the
American Society for Precision Engineering, which
cited him as ‘the father of digital metrology’. While his theoretical and practical work has
indeed been critical there, his research covers a wider scope. He is fascinated by the
application of analytic
mathematics and statistics to the modelling of surface structure, small
scale contact phenomena and other problems in dynamics.
Selected Recent Publications
M Wormington, I Pape, T P A Hase, B K Tanner & D K BOWEN 1996 Evidence for grading at polished su
Phil Mag Lett
D J WHITEHOUSE 1999 Identification of two functionally different classes of maxima in random waveforms.
Proc. Instn. Mech. Engrs
M Wormington, C Panaccione, K M Matney
& D K BOWEN 1999 Characterization of structures from X
scattering data using genetic algorithms.
Philos T Roy Soc
D J WHITEHOUSE 2000 Stylus damage prevention index.
Proc. Instn. Mech. Engrs
D J WHITEHOUSE 2001 Fractal
D J WHITEHOUSE 2002
Surfaces and their Measurement
. London: Hermes Penton Science.
D J WHITEHOUSE 2002
Handbook of Surface and Nanotechnology
. Bristol: Adam Hilger.
D K BOWEN, M Wormington & P Feichtinger 2003 A novel digit
ray topography system.
J Phys D Appl Phys
Development Technology Unit (DTU)
Technologies appropriate to the needs of poor tropical countries have been a long
research and teaching interest of the School that was initiated and co
ntinues under the
leadership of Dr. T.H. Thomas. Current main fields of DTU interest are domestic water
supply (especially roofwater harvesting, water lifting and arid
zone agriculture), low
building materials, rural transport, humanitarian mine clear
ance and the role of design in
up’ industrialisation. Work continues at a lower level on energy from biomass,
power and solar refrigeration. Strong links are maintained with institutions and NGOs
in S Asia and Africa, often facilitated by pla
cements of students following the EDAT
undergraduate programme. Fuller details of DTU programmes and publications may be
viewed at www.eng.warwick.ac.uk/dtu
Following the execution of large EU and DFID research contracts (1998
roofwater harvesting (RWH) in the humid tropics, Dr Thomas is involved in ongoing East
African studies of this growing technology, is a Board member of the International Rainwater
Collection Systems Association and supervises three related PhD students.
Martinson, Teaching Fellow is also part of this RWH team.) Dr Thomas’s studies of soil
cement interactions and their application to
the design of block
which started in 1995, continue in collaboration with Dr Purnell
(Civil Engineering Research
Group) and research students. Former DTU research into humanitarian demining (HD)
technologies has led to the establishment of a charity, under the directorship of Drs Thomas
and Oram, now building specialist HD machines in Camb
odia for use in Asia, Europe and
Engineering design issues of accessibility, maintenance and repair are the underlying
theme of Dr Oram’s research. Work has included collaborative studies, with NGOs
such as KENDAT and ATNESA in East A
frica, of non
motorised transport provision
and use, both from macro and the practical levels. Detailed study of animal cart and
harness design & manufacture has been supported by DFID and animal welfare
charity contracts and Dr Oram is regularly invited
to international colloquia on non
motorised transport. Other significant accessibility technologies include water
pumping devices using novel materials and concepts, welding in remote areas and
humanitarian demining equipment.
Dr P.A Davies
Dr Davies has
been working for some years on technology to enable horticulture to take place
on desert coasts using only seawater and a modest energy input. Having been awarded a
Royal Society Industrial Fellowship, he will be researching the design of ‘seawater
uses’, and the use of renewable energy sources to power them, at Warwick University
The Optical Engineering Laboratory is led by Professor Bryanston
Cross. Their research
activities are amongst the most successful in th
e Division in terms of international
collaborations with industry and other research centres (e.g. MIT, NASA, Rover, Rolls
Royce, Cambridge University). Much of their work is aimed at state
measurements of the complex fluid flows met i
n challenging industrial applications. For
example, the first application of Particle
Imaging Velocimetry (PIV), using state
image intensification, to measure transonic flows in gas
turbines in collaboration with NASA,
MIT, Pratt & Whitney, and
Boeing. Professor Bryanston
Cross is programme manager for
£1,200,000 EPSRC/DTI Intersect Faraday Partnership Project on
in partnership with Rolls
Royce, DERA Pyestock, DERA Malvern, Corus, NPL and the
Universities of Manchester
and Oxford. The aim is to create a new combustion diagnostic
based on novel technology and data
fusion techniques; a low
cost spectral flame diagnostic
for Corus and the concept of the transparent spark plug have been developed recently.
the support of two EC research grants, the Optical Engineering Group have set
up a new laboratory and initiated a major research programme on the application of optical
techniques, including lasers, in ophthalmic surgery.