RESEARCH IN DIVISION OF CIVIL & MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

usefultenchΜηχανική

22 Φεβ 2014 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

65 εμφανίσεις


1

RESEARCH IN DIVISION OF CIVIL & MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


A brief description of the Division’s research activities is given below.


Civil Engineering Research Group

The Group was originally set up by Professor R.P. Johnson who was the first Professor of
Civ
il Engineering at Warwick. It has taken full advantage of the interdisciplinary nature of
the School and has collaborated extensively with many of the other research groups such as
the Fluid Dynamic Research Centre, the Development Technology Unit, and th
e Optical
Engineering and Ultrasonic Groups. As a consequence, a considerable amount of research on
Civil, Sustainable and Environmental Engineering themes is also done in other research
groups.

The Group is currently led by Dr Toby Mottram and its rese
arch activities include: fibre
-
reinforced polymer composites; cement composite materials with reduced environmental
impact; behaviour of structural connections; advanced structural forms (tension cable nets and
membranes); composite steel/concrete structur
es; and behaviour of soils, in particular slope
stability, including the effects of earthquakes and climatic changes. It also has expertise in
rock mechanics, geotechnical aspects of waste disposal, and construction management with
regard to novel forms of

procurement, engineering design, and engineering risk.

Interest in the work on characterisation of fibre
-
reinforced polymer composite materials and
structures, carried out by Dr. Mottram, is growing rapidly as designers seek greater cost,
weight and envir
onmental impact savings. His research has support from industry and
EPSRC, and he is a member of several professional committees.


Research in durability of cement composite materials, led by Dr. Purnell, is supported by
EPSRC and industry and includes: “
super
-
critical carbonation” to improve properties of
cement composites, low
-
tech building materials such as cement
-
stabilized soil blocks, and
glass
-
fibre reinforced concrete. Dr Purnell is a founder member of RILEM Technical
Committee
Textile Reinforced
Concrete.


The work on composite steel/concrete structures, carried out by Professors Anderson and
Johnson has made a significant input into European codes of practice. Professor Anderson’s
work has also led to design recommendations that regulate structur
al steelwork design.
Professor Anderson is Chairman of the European Codes Panel, Member of Engineering
Practice and Membership Committees ICE/IStructE and Joint Board of Moderators.

Work on advanced structural forms, namely fabric roofs and pre
-
stressed
cable nets, is led by
Dr. Lewis. The main focus of her research is on achieving optimum structural form using
nature’s own design principle: maximum stability and strength with minimum weight. In this
respect, she has led a European research team on the
CRAFT project and participated in the
Innovation 2000 programme of the IMechE.

In the area of geotechnics, research led by Dr. Petley focuses on safety with regard to slope
stability. Additional factors influencing land
-
slide hazard assessment, such as ea
rthquakes,
climatic changes and freeze
-
thaw cycles are also considered. Dr. Petley has acted as a
consultant to many prestigious organisations including the UN.

Research and teaching activities of the Group are intimately linked. For example, an essential

part of Dr. Burrow’s work in the area of construction management, is close liaison with
industrial practitioners and nurturing the ongoing relationship with the Industrial Advisory
Panel. Dr. Price

also has teaching and scholarly activities within the br
oad geotechnical arena
and has contributed with Dr. Petley to a TLTP
-
funded project in geotechnical CAL packages.
His principal interests lie in the area of rock mechanics, with application to slope stability,
underground structures and the problems that c
an result from old underground workings.

In the area of geotechnical aspects of waste disposal, Mr. Woods has had a long
-
term
involvement in industrial, teaching and consultancy settings. His particular interest includes
stabilisation of soils and quarry w
astes for use as engineering fill.


2

The common themes running through the research programmes of the Civil Engineering
Group are robustness, serviceability, durability, risk, and structural efficiency
-

all identified
subsets of sustainable development on w
hich the efforts of the Group are currently focused.


Dr J. T. Mottram

Much of his research involves the material and structural characterisation of fibre
-
reinforced
polymer (FRP) profiles for construction. The work involves physical testing aimed at
und
erstanding the structural integrity and durability of structural systems (Mottram et al.
2003, Lane and Mottram 2001, Zheng and Mottram 1999), non
-
destructive evaluation and
numerical simulation (Winistörfer and Mottram 2000). More recent work focuses on
l
ightweight modular construction for sustainable development. Work has also been completed
on using advanced finite element analysis to establish the transient behaviour of a rolling car
tyre for the smart tyre concept.


The main objective of the FRP profi
le research is to generate a body of knowledge that will
promote all
-
polymeric composite structures. To meet this objective the research provides new
information through full
-
scale testing and theoretical analysis that can be used to develop
improved desig
n procedures for the best use of pultruded profiles in primary load
-
bearing
structures.


For further information on Dr Mottram's research and contribution to the research community,
please see his web site at:
http://www.eng.warwick.ac.uk/staff/jtm/jtm.htm


Selected Publications

J. T. MOTTRAM, N. D. Brown, and D. Anderson, 2003. ‘Physical testing for concentrically loaded columns of
pultruded glass fibre reinforced plastic profile’
, Proc. Inst.

Civil Engrs. Structures and Buildings
,
156

2, 205
-
219.
Paper 12539


A. Lane and J. T. MOTTRAM, 2002. ‘The influence of modal coupling upon the buckling of concentrically
pultruded fibre
-
reinforced plastic columns,’
Proc. Inst. Mech. Engrs. Part L: J. Mat
erials: Design and
Applications
,
216
, 133
-
144.


A. Winistörfer, and J. T. MOTTRAM 2001. ‘Finite element analysis for the development of
non
-
laminated composite pin
-
loaded straps in civil engineering,’
J. Compos. Mater.
,
35

7
,

577
-
602.


J. T. MOTTRAM and Y
. Zheng, 1999. ‘Further tests on beam
-
to
-
column connections for
pultruded frames: Flange
-
cleated,’
J. Compos. Constr.
, ASCE
,

3

3, 108
-
116.




Dr W. J. Lewis

She is a Chartered Engineer, a Member of the Institution of Structural Engineers,
International Ass
ociation for Shell and Spatial Structures, and Structural Morphology Group.
Her research into the behaviour of tension structures, which spans some 20 years, focuses on
achieving optimum structural forms by using nature's own design principle: maximum
sta
bility and strength with minimum weight. The main theme of her book, (to be published by
Thomas Telford in November 2003), is form
-
finding, a process unique to tension structures,
as their shape depends critically on the applied loads and boundary configur
ations. The main
innovation in the book is the extension of the concept of form
-
finding to structures whose
shape is supposedly known, i.e., suspension bridge cables. The software developed for this
purpose awaits patent evaluation. The work carried out
by her on the development of cutting
pattern for fabric structures also awaits a patent.



Her research work is known in Europe (particularly in Germany, France and Italy). She was
the initiator and principal investigator in the EU CRAFT projects, 1996
-
197

and 1998
-
2000,

3

(total value EU 805,000). Her European partners are world leaders in architectural membrane
design and manufacture. Her research crosses boundaries from mechanical and structural
engineering to architecture, design, and applied mathematics
. She has industrial collaboration
with premier UK companies, such as Jaguar Cars (Coventry), Rolls
-
Royce (Derby) and Ove
Arup and Partners (London).


For further information on Dr Lewis' research, please see her web site at:

http://www.eng.warwick.ac.uk/staff/wjl/


Selected Publications

W. J. LEWIS,
Tension Structures. Form and Behaviour
,' Thomas Telford. (due to appear in
November 2003)


W. J. Lewis and J. Brew, 2003. 'Computational Form
-
finding of

Tension membrane
Structures. Parts I to III,'
Inter. J. Numer. Meths. Engrg.
,
56
, Part I 651
-
668, Part II 669
-
684,
Part III 685
-
697.


W. J. Lewis and J. Chilton, 2002, 'Studying Form
-
Innovation in Structural Engineering
Education,'
Inter. J. Space Struct
s.
,
17

2/3 2002, 235
-
242.


W. J. Lewis, 1999. 'Lightweight Tension Membranes
-

an Overview,'

Civil Engineer Inter.,

Feb. issue, 19
-

29.



Dr P. Purnell

His primary research interest is in the durability and accelerated ageing of cement composites
and the
production of novel cement
-
based components using super
-
critical carbonation
technology. Other research interests have been developed since Dr Purnell joined Warwick
University in 2000. The accelerated ageing and durability concepts developed for cement
co
mposites may be applicable, in principle, to other structural composites such as reinforced
polymers. Work is under way on accelerated ageing tests and durability studies for such
materials in structural situations, in collaboration with Dr. Mottram. The S
chool has a strong
tradition in the use of ultrasonics as a diagnostic tool, in particular the work of Prof. D. A.
Hutchins (Electrical and Electronics Division). Ultrasonics has long been used to diagnose
defects in concrete structures, but little radical

development in testing methodology and
equipment has occurred in the last few years. Dr Purnell and Prof. Hutchins are working on a
number of radical new diagnostic instruments for concrete that use state
-
of
-
the
-
art ultrasonic
transducers to supply next
-
g
eneration accuracy and ease of use.


Dr Purnell is the local organiser for the 24
th

Cement and Concrete Science Conference to be
held in Sept. 2004 for the first time at Warwick University.



For further information on Dr Purnell's research activities, p
lease see his web site at:

http://www.eng.warwick.ac.uk/staff/pp/


Selected Publications

N. R. Short, A. M. G. Seneviratne, P. PURNELL and C. L. Page, 2002. 'Dimensional stability of super
-
critically
ca
rbonated glass
-
fibre reinforced concrete.'
Cement and Concrete Research,

32,
1639
-
1644.


P. PURNELL, N. R. Short, C. L. Page, 2001. 'Supercritical carbonation of glass
-
fibre reinforced cement Part I:
Mechanical testing and chemical analysis,'
Composites A
,
32,

1777
-
1787.


N. R. Short, P. PURNELL, C. L. Page, 2001. 'Preliminary investigations into supercritical carbonation of cement
pastes,'
J. Mater. Sci.

36,

2001, 35
-
41.



4

P. PURNELL, N. R. Short, C. L. Page, 2001. 'A static fatigue model for the durabil
ity of glass fibre reinforced
cement,'
J. Mater Sci.
,
36,

2001, 5385
-
5390.



Emeritus Professors D. Anderson and R. P. Johnson

Staff members play an active role in the full range of academic, scientific, and professional
activities, attaining high regard

for their involvement with the Institutions of Civil Engineers
and Structural Engineers, and notably the work carried out by Professors Anderson and
Johnson on the Eurocode for Composite Structures.


Professor Anderson's work concerns the behaviour and de
sign of steel and composite steel
-
concrete structures. Recently this has been related to steel frames with semi
-
continuous
connections and to composite joints. That research has formed input to Eurocode 4 for
Composite Structures, where Professor Anderson
leads the CEN Project Team for buildings.
His work has also formed the basis for design recommendations published by the European
Convention for Constructional Steelwork and the Steel Construction Institute. As a nominee
for the UK, he is a member of two E
CCS Technical Committees and is a member of the BSI
committee for composite structures for buildings. He has provided support to Dr Mottram's
polymer composite research regarding the design and analysis of frame structures.



Professor Johnson's work conce
rns the behaviour and design of steel and composite steel
-
concrete for buildings and bridges. Recently, he has worked on statistical calibration of partial
safety factors for structural design and the resistance of shear stud connectors.


Selected Papers


J. T. Mottram, N. D. Brown, and D. ANDERSON, 2003. ‘Buckling characteristics of pultruded glass fibre
reinforced plastic columns under moment gradient’,
Thin
-
Walled Structures,
41
7, 619
-
638.


N. D. Brown, and D. ANDERSON, 2001. 'Structural properties of c
omposite major axis end plate connections,'
J.
Constructional Steel Research
,
57

3, 327
-
349.


R. P. JOHNSON, and D. ANDERSON, 2001. 'EN 1994 Eurocode 4 Design of composite steel and concrete
structures,
Proc. Inst. Civil Engrs. Civil Engineering
,
144
, 33
-
38. Paper 12630


R. P. JOHNSON, 2003. 'Cracking in concrete flanges of composite T
-
beams
-

Tests and Eurocode 4,' Structural

Engineer
,
81

4, 29
-
34.


R. P. JOHNSON, 2001.

'Local effects of concentrated longitudinal shear in composite bridge beams
,
'
Structu
ral
Engineer
, 79 5, 19
-
23.


R. P. JOHNSON, 2000. 'Resistance of stud shear connectors to fatigue,'
J. Constructional Steel Research
,
56
, 101
-
116.



Dr D. J. Petley

He specialises in the behaviour of soils and, in particular, how they behave in slopes, e.g
. in
dams, railway embankments or shorelines. This is a safety
-
critical area, as slope instability
leads not only to landslides with obvious catastrophic effects, but also foundation subsidence
and building movement. His studies include the effects of eart
hquakes, climatic changes and
freeze
-
thaw cycles on slope stability. He has acted as a consultant to many prestigious
organisations including the UN.


Selected Publications

D. J. PETLEY, M. W. Stevenson, 2002. 'The Franklands Village Landslide, West Sussex
.' In
Instability planning
and management: Seeking sustainable solutions to ground movement problems.
Edited by R. G. McInnes, J.
Jakeways. Thomas Telford. ISBN 0 7277 3132 7.


D.J. PETLEY 2001. 'Triaxial testing of soils and the measurement of residual st
rength.' In
Geomorphological
Techniques 3rd Edition

edited by A.S. Goudie. Unwin Hyman/BGRG: 181
-
185.


5


M.R. Cooper, E.N. Bromhead, D.J. PETLEY, et al. 2000.' The Selborne Cutting stability experiment,'
Geotechnique

50

(3): 313
-
314.



Fluid Dynamics Researc
h Centre

The Fluid Dynamics Research Centre provides a focus for the research activities in fluid
dynamics and related topics. The Centre formalizes the existing collaboration between
engineers, mathematicians and physicists in this area of research. The

aim is to undertake a
broad range of research on fluid dynamics and related topics that involve experimental,
engineering
-
design, computational and theoretical work. A careful balance between
fundamental and more industrially
-
related research is maintain
ed. To this end emphasis is
currently being placed on developing further links with industry. Scientific Computing is a
major strategic development for both the School of Engineering and the wider university.
The Fluid Dynamics Research Centre has alway
s been in the forefront of these developments.
For example, it took the lead within the University on a 1998 JREI grant for the University’s
first high
-
performance computing system (worth c. £800,000) which was managed by
Engineering who also provided the

support staff. This system has been superseded by the
shared
-
memory computer system described above in the section on Computing Facilities.


The FDRC’s activities have been strengthened by the recent appointments of Professor R.M.
Kerr, Dr. Y.M. Chung (a
s Lecturer) and Dr. A.J. Cooper (as Royal Society Fellow).


Brief descriptions of the research activities of the academic staff are given below together
with selected papers (full information on publications are available on individual web
-
sites or
on the
Divisional web
-
site:


Professor P.W. Carpenter

Much of his research involves flow control in one form or another, including the development
and application of computational methods for its numerical simulation. For example, the
velocity
-
vorticity method (
Davies & Carpenter 2001). This highly efficient approach to direct
numerical simulation has been applied to flow control by means of compliant walls, i.e.
artificial dolphin skins, (see Davies & Carpenter 2001 and Carpenter
et al.
2000) and flow
control b
y use of MEMS jet
-
type actuators (see Lockerby
et al
. 2002). The research
programme with Dr. P.J. Thomas on flow control by means of compliant walls also includes
experimental and theoretical work. The research programme on MEMS control is carried out
in
collaboration with BAE Systems, Dassault Aviation, Cardiff University (Dr. C. Davies)
and other universities. There is also ongoing work on flow control by passive porous walls
(Carpenter & Porter 2002) and recent work on the aerodynamics and aeroacoustic
s of
supersonic Coanda flows.


Other work involves:



Numerical
-
simulation study (with Dr. C. Davies of Cardiff) of the global behaviour
resulting from the absolute instability in the 3D boundary layer over a rotating disc.
(Davies & Carpenter 2003)



Numerica
l simulation (in collaboration with Dr. P.J. Thomas) of the development of a
vortex ring in a rotating fluid environment using a novel discrete
-
vortex method.



Biomechanics, for example, the development of a theoretical model for pressure
propagation in the

human intraspinal cerebrospinalfluid (CSF) system, and the
dynamics of the soft palate.



The development (in collaboration with Prof. D.A. Hutchins of the Division of
Electronic and Electrical Engineering) of a novel system for simultaneous whole
-
field
mea
surements of vorticity and temperature based on tomographic reconstruction of
ultrasound signals.



6


Selected Publications


P.W. CARPENTER, C. Davies & A.D. Lucey 2000 The hydrodynamics of compliant walls: Does the dolphin
have a secret? Invited paper to ho
nour Professor Satish Dhawan in
Current Science.
79
(6), 758
-
765.


P.W. CARPENTER & L.J. Porter 2001 The effects of passive porous walls on boundary
-
layer instability.
AIAA J.
39
(4), 597
-
604.


C. Davies & P.W. CARPENTER 2001 A novel velocity
-
vorticity for
mulation of the Navier
-
Stokes equations with
applications to boundary layer disturbance evolution.
J. Computational Physics
172
, 119
-
165.


D.A. Lockerby, P.W. CARPENTER & C. Davies 2002 Numerical simulation of the interaction of MEMS
actuators and boundary

layers.
AIAA J.
40
(1), 67
-
73.


C. Davies & P.W. CARPENTER 2003 Global behaviour associated with the absolute instability of the
rotating
-
disk boundary layer.
J. Fluid Mech.
486
, 287
-
329.


Dr. Y.M. Chung

His main research interests are in engineering comp
utational fluid dynamics, particularly
involving:



Unsteady turbulent flow and heat transfer;



Complex flows, e.g. Turbomachinery flows , 3D jets, and electronics cooling
systems.



Large Eddy Simulation and Direct Numerical Simulation of turbulent flows



Flow
control


CHUNG, Y.M., TUCKER, PG & Roychowdhury, DG 2002 Unsteady laminar flow and convective
heat transfer in a sharp 180 degrees bend.
Int J. Heat Fluid Flow

24
, 67
-
76.


CHUNG, Y.M & Kai, KH 2002 Unsteady heat transfer analysis of an impinging jet.
ASM
E J. Heat
Transfer
124
, 1039
-
1048.


CHUNG, Y.M, Kai, KH & Sandham, ND 2002 Direct numerical simulation of an impinging jet.
Int J.
Heat Fluid Flow

23
, 592
-
600.


CHUNG, Y.M, Sung, HJ & Krogstadt, P.
-
A. 2002 Modulation of near
-
wall turbulence structure with

wall blowing and suction.
AIAA Journal
40
, 1529
-
1535.


CHUNG, Y.M & Sung, HJ 2001 Initial relaxation of spatially evolving turbulent channel flow with
blowing and suction.
AIAA Journal
39
, 2091
-
2099.


Dr A.J. Cooper

One of her main areas of research is
concerned with the aeroacoustics and unsteady fluid
dynamics of aero
-
engine turbo
-
machinery. Much of the work involves the development and
validation of analytical models with the aim of extracting physical mechanisms and
constructing efficient prediction

schemes. This area of research is in collaboration with
Rolls
-
Royce and Cambridge University (Dr N. Peake).


Specifically, techniques in modern mathematical analysis and wave theory have been applied
to model resonant phenomena in aero
-
engine intakes (se
e Cooper & Peake 2000). This
supports experimental evidence of a link between intake acoustics and fan instability.


Ongoing work is in the development of an analytical prediction scheme for fan noise. This
involves modelling fan
-
blade wakes which subsequ
ently interact with downstream vanes
producing noise. The analytically
-
based nature of the models will

be exploited to provide

7

important information on the mechanisms of noise generation and ultimately be used to
identify noise reduction techniques.


Much

of the research on turbo
-
machinery flows involves swirling flow and there is a general
interest in aspects of the stability and acoustics of both open (see Cooper & Peake 2002) and
closed duct (see Cooper & Peake 2001) flows.


Other work involves fluid
-
st
ructure instability problems (see Cooper & Carpenter 1997) and
global instability theory (see Cooper & Crighton 2000).


Selected Publications

COOPER, A.J. & Carpenter, P.W. 1997 The stability of rotating
-
disc boundary
-
layer flow over a compliant wall.
Part

2. Absolute instability,
J. Fluid Mech
,
350
, 261
-
270.


COOPER, A.J. & Crighton, D.G. 2000 Global modes and superdirective acoustic radiation in low
-
speed
axisymmetric jets.
Eur. J. Mech. B/Fluids

19
, 559
-
575.


COOPER, A.J. & Peake, N. 2000 Trapped acou
stic modes in aeroengine intakes with swirling flow.
J. Fluid

Mech.

419
, 151
-
175.


COOPER, A.J. & Peake, N. 2001 Propagation of unsteady disturbances in a slowly
-
varying duct with mean
swirling flow.
J. Fluid Mech.

445
, 207
-
234.


COOPER, A.J. & Peake, N
. 2002 The stability of a slowly diverging swirling jet.
J. Fluid Mech.
473
, 389
-
411.


Dr. R.E. Critoph

Dr. Robert Critoph (Ph.D., M.Inst.E., C.Eng., Associate Member of International Institute of
Refrigeration) is a Reader in the School of Engineering a
t the University of Warwick. He
has published 51 papers, two book chapters and has managed research contracts for industry,
national government and EU totalling £1,500,000. Industrial clients have included British
Gas (now Advantica), Searle, and Unilv
er. He is on the UK National team of the IEA Heat
Pump Programme and is an associate editor of Applied Thermal Engineering and Renewable
Energy. He has been on the scientific committees of numerous international conferences
including the World Renewab
le Energy Congresses, The Heat Powered Cycle series, and
Sorption 2002 in Shanghai (where he delivered a Plenary presentation) and has given invited
lectures in the USA, China, Malaysia, Poland, Sharjah, Belarus, Bahrain and Iran. He has
contributed t
o the International Institute of Refrigeration’s submission to the UNEP World
Summit of Sustainable Development in 2002. He has worked on sorption systems since
1982 and has three patents in the field. He has also worked in solar thermal systems and
co
mpact heat exchangers.


Selected Publications:

Z. Tamainot
-
Telto & R.E. CRITOPH 2003 Advanced solid sorption air conditioning modules using monolithic
carbon
-
ammonia pair.
Applied Thermal Engineering

23
, 659
-
674.


R.E. CRITOPH 2002 Multiple bed regener
ative adsorption cycle using the monolithic carbon
-
ammonia pair.
Applied Thermal Engineering

22
, 667
-
677.


R.E. CRITOPH 2001 Simulation of a continuous multiple
-
bed regenerative adsorption cycle.
Int. J. Refrigeration

24
, 5, 428
-
437.


R.E. CRITOPH, Z. T
amainot
-
Telto 2001 Monolithic carbon for sorption refrigeration and heat pump applications.
Applied Thermal Engineering

21
,1, 37
-
52.


R.E. CRITOPH 1999 Forced convection adsorption cycle with packed bed heat regeneration.
Int. J.
Refrigeration
,
22,

38
-
46.



8

Professor R.M. Kerr

Robert Kerr has recently taken up a joint professorship in the Mathematics Department and
School of Engineering. Previously he was at the National Center for Atmospheric Research
at Boulder, Colorado and the University of Arizona
. His professorship is held in association
with the Centre for Scientific Computing


He is a leading authority in the study of fundamental turbulence using simple non
-
linear
models and full three
-
dimensional direct numerical simulations. One of his goals

in moving
to Warwick is to advance the application of this approach to other non
-
linear and geophysical
systems. This would include transport properties of the oceans, atmospheric flow and
precipitation over complex terrain, and magnetohydrodynamics. In

particular, we hope to
develop a new programme in Environmental Engineering. One aspect of this would be
numerical simulation of fine
-
scale atmospheric flows where the small
-
scale atmospheric
effects of the largest length scales influenced by turbulence
are neither directly simulated nor
modelled. Numerical methods using new advection schemes along with sophisticated
adaptive
-

and nested
-
mesh methods would be integral to this approach. This work will take
advantage of the massively parallel systems bein
g developed in the Centre for Scientific
Computing. The ability to do such simulations is very recent. New funding opportunities
exist and to carry out this programme properly will require new expertise in the development
and use of such algorithms.


We
are now capable of simulating the effects of the largest scales of turbulence, but need to
continue to seek improvements in our understanding of the small
-
scale turbulence and of the
modelling of subgrid
-
scale turbulence. Professor Kerr was one of the fir
st to demonstrate
clearly that vortex tubes dominate the structure of small
-
scale turbulence. He has led the
search for how these configurations arise, how their interactions might be the origin of the
classical energy cascade, statistical properties asso
ciated with it, and hence how to improve
existing models of nonlinear subgrid effects. This work is strongly tied to the strengths of the
Mathematics department in nonlinear dynamical systems.


For further information on Professor Kerr’s research, please
see his web site at:
http://www.mmm.ucar.edu/csm/kerr.html
.


Selected Publications

KERR, R.M. and Brandenburg, A. 1999: Evidence for a singularity in ideal magnetohydrodynamics: implications
for fast reconnection
. Phys. Rev. Lett
.
83
, 1155
--
1158.


Clark,
T.L., Hall, W.D., KERR, R.M., Middleton, D., Radke, L., Ralph, F.M., and Neiman, P.J., Levinson, D.
2000: On the origins of aircraft damaging clear
-
air turbulence during the 9 December 1992 Colorado downslope
windstorm: Numerical simulations and comparison

with observations.
J. Atmos. Sci.

57
, 1105
--
1131.


KERR, R.M. and Herring, J. 2000: Prandtl number dependence of Nusselt number in DNS.
J. Fluid Mech.

419
,
325
--
344.


Holm, D.D. and KERR, R.M. 2002: Transient vortex events in the initial value problem for

turbulence.
Phys. Rev.
Lett.

88
, 244501.


Dr G.P. King

Much of his research involves the application of nonlinear dynamics (chaos theory) to
transport and mixing in Navier
-
Stokes flows. The long
-
range transport and mixing of
material tracers in fluid flo
ws can occur either through vigorous local instabilities and
turbulence, or because long
-
term trajectories of advected parcels of fluid are chaotic, even
when the basic flow pattern may be smooth and regular. Such chaotic advection processes
can be observ
ed in nature (atmosphere and oceans) and studied on a laboratory scale using
experimental systems and numerical models. Theoretical arguments (Yannacopoulos
et al
.
1998) suggest that certain symmetries in the flow field can lead to a quantification of the


9

mixing due to chaotic advection. These ideas were applied to numerically simulated fields of
wavy Taylor vortex flow (King
et al. 2002
) where a near
-
perfect correlation between suitably
averaged Lagrangian and Eulerian quantities was found. A theoretic
al justification for the
agreement has been published in Yannacopoulos
et al
. 2002.


Dr King is also starting a research programme to study the interaction of climate and health.
The work (with Dr G. Gomes of Gulbenkian Institute in Lisbon, Prof J.
-
F. Gue
gan of
C.N.R.S.
-
I.R.D. in Montpellier, and Prof D.G. Dritschel of St. Andrews) will integrate the
analysis of climate data extracted from satellite measurements with geophysical fluid
dynamics and models of infectious diseases.


Other work involves:




Exper
imental studies of pattern formation in two
-
phase flows (with Dr. P.J. Thomas).



Investigation of spatio
-
temporal structures in flow past a cylinder (with Dr. N.G.
Stocks).



Investigation of transition to turbulence in Taylor
-
Couette flows using ultrasound
d
oppler methods (with Prof Y. Takeda of Hokkaido).



Selected Publications

A.N. Yannacopoulos, G. Rowlands, and G.P. KING. 2002 A Melnikov function for the break
-
up of closed
streamlines in steady Navier
-
Stokes flows.
Phys. Fluids
14
, 1572
-

1579.

G.P. KIN
G, G. Rowlands, M. Rudman & A.N. Yannacopoulos. 2001 Predicting chaotic dispersion with Eulerian
symmetry measures: wavy Taylor
-
vortex flow.
Phys. Fluids
13,

2522
-

2528.

P. J. Thomas, G. D. Riddell, S. Kooner &
G. P.
KING 2001 Fine structure of granula
r banding in two
-
phase
rimming flow.
Phys. Fluids
13,

2720
-

2724.

N.G. Stocks, C.T. Shaw, and G.P. KING 1999 Energy distribution in modes in the wake of a finite
-
length cylinder
before and after transition.
J. Fluids and Structures

13,

143
--
152.

A.N.
Yannacopoulos, I. Mezic, G. Rowlands and G.P. KING 1998 An Eulerian diagnostic for Lagrangian chaos in
three dimensional Navier
-
Stokes flows.
Phys. Rev. E

57,

482
-
490.




Dr S C Li

Much of his research involves cavitation in one form or another, includin
g the study of
fundamental phenomena, and its application in hydraulic machinery. For example, the
cavitation phenomenon associated with low
-
frequency fluctuations in flow systems was
firstly identified as Cavitation Resonance by his studies jointly with P
rof. F.G. Hammitt and
Prof. Zhang Y J in the Venturi Cavitating Flows at University of Michigan (Li, Zhang &
Hammitt, 1986). And, this is also recognised as an important phenomenon in hydraulic
machinery systems which affects the operation significantly (
Li, 1992). This phenomenon
was cited and further analysed in §3.7.3 (Li) and §7.4 (P Henry) of Li (2000a). The stochastic
nature of cavitation has been studied since early 1980 jointly with Prof. F.G. Hammitt and
Prof. Zhang Y J at University of Michigan (
e.g. Zhang, Li and Hammitt, 1986). And recently
an EPSRC
-
funded cavitation tunnel was specially designed and built for studying the
stochastic bubble behavious near a compliant wall, jointly with Prof. P Carpenter (Li &
Carpenter, 1999). A Markov Stochast
ic Model has been proposed to describe the random
behaviour of bubbles (Li & Carpenter, 2000).


Other work involves:



The surface tension effect on cavitation erosion intensity is also being studied jointly with
Prof. Y Iwai (Fukui University, Japan). The

initial findings show an interesting effect of
bubble instability on the cavity pattern and in turn the erosion intensity (Iwai & Li 2002)


10



Anti
-
erosion turbine technology development (with Prof. P Carpenter), involving
Cambridge, Nortingham University, Al
stom Hydro (UK
-
France), and Chinese Yellow
River Committee, Shanghai Jiao Tong University and Mitsubishi Heavy Industrial Ltd
(Japan) etc (Li & Carpenter, 2002).



Novel hydraulic turbine development. The recently developed L
-
1 turbine is a low
-
cost,
low
-
ma
intenance and extremely high
-
performance turbine specially used for small hydro
schemes. Its performances is comparable with the corresponding large turbines. The first
prototype has been operated non
-
stop since it was commissioned in March 2000 in Peru
without traceable damage at all. Such a performance hits the world record of ITC history
and now is in great demand and has been applied to other schemes in various countries
(Li, 2000b).


Selected Publications


S C LI 2000a (editor & co
-
author)
Cavitation

of Hydraulic Machinery
, Imperial College Press, London


S C LI 2000b Developing Low Head, Low Cost and Low Maintenance Turbines,
International Water Power &
Dam Construction
, Nov, 32
-
33.


S. C. LI and P W Carpenter 2000 Note on an Envisaged Markov Model
for Cavitation Bubble(s) near Compliant
Walls,
Proceedings of 2000 ASME Fluids Engineering Conference
, June 11
-
15, 2000, Boston, USA


Y Iwai and S. C. LI 2003 Cavitation Erosion in Waters Having Different Surface Tensions.
Wear
254
, 1
-
9
.


S. C. LI and P.
W. Carpenter 2002 Anti
-
Erosion Turbine: Cavitation and Silt Synergetic Erosion. Invited Keynote
Speech,
Proceedings of 9th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating
Machinery
, Honolulu, Hawaii, February 10
-
14. Paper No: DD110


Dr N. G. Stocks

Dr Stocks' research interests are in the application and theory of stochastic nonlinear systems.
These systems can be used to model a wide variety of physical systems and current research
interests range from the modelling of neural acti
vity in sensory neurones (Stocks 2001, 2000)
to the study of laminar
-
turbulent transition in cylinder wakes (Stocks, Shaw & King
1999,1996a,1996b). In the context of fluid dynamics, his interests are in the effect of free
-
stream turbulence on wake instab
ility (in particular the secondary laminar
-
turbulent wake
instability), the processes governing the generation of large
-
scale vortex
-
dislocations and the
role of boundary conditions on wake instability.


Selected Publications

N G STOCKS 2001, "Generic nois
e
-
enhanced coding in neuronal arrays",
Phys. Rev E

64
, 030902.


N G STOCKS 2000, "Suprathreshold stochastic resonance in multilevel threshold systems",
Phys. Rev. Lett
.
84
,
2310
-
2314.


N G STOCKS, C T Shaw and G P King 1999 "Energy distribution of modes
in the wake of a finite
-

aspect
-
ratio
cylinder before and after transition",
J. Fluids and Struct
.
13
, 143
-
152.


N G STOCKS 1996a, C T Shaw and G P King, "Dynamical Characterisation of the spatiotemporal structures in
the wake of a bluff body",
J. Fluid an
d Structures

10
, 21
-
28.



N G STOCKS, C T Shaw and G P King 1996b "An experimental study of the laminar
-
turbulent transition in an
open flow system", in
Experimental Chaos
, Ed. by R G Harrison et al, pp177
-

181 (World Scientific, Singapore,)



Dr P. J. Th
omas


He is an experimental physicist working in fluid dynamics. Many of his research projects
involve the investigation of influences of background rotation on fluid flows. Some particular
research interests include laboratory simulations of oceanographic

flows (Thomas & Linden
1996, Thomas & Linden 1998), solid
-
liquid two
-
phase flows (Thomas 1994, Boote &

11

Thomas 1999, Thomas et al. 2001, Zoueshtiagh & Thomas 2000) and vortex stability
(Thomas & Auerbach 1994).


In collaboration with Prof. Carpenter he is

presently initiating a new joint experimental and
computational investigation of the influence of background rotation on the dynamics and the
stability of vortex rings. A further collaboration with Prof. Carpenter is the research program
studying the effe
cts of wall compliance on laminar
-
turbulent transition (Colley
et al.

1999).
As part of this program Thomas and Carpenter maintain an active international collaboration
with the I.R.P.H.E. at the University of Marseille (Cros
et al.

2002).


Selected public
ations


THOMAS, P.J., Riddell, G.D., Kooner, S. King, G.P. 2001 The Fine Structure of Granular Banding in Two
-
Phase
Rimming Flow,
Phys. Fluids
13
,

2720
-
2723


Boote, O., THOMAS, P.J. 1999 Effects of granular additives transition boundaries between flow sta
tes of rimming
flows,
Phys. Fluids
.
11
, 2020
-
2029.


Colley, A.J. , THOMAS, P.J., Carpenter, P.W., Cooper, A.J. 1999 An experimental study of boundary
-
layer
transition over a rotating, compliant disc,
Phys. Fluids
.
11
, 3340
-
3352.


Zoueshtiagh, F., THOMAS,

P.J. 2000 Wavelength scaling of spiral patterns formed by granular media underneath
a rotating fluid,
Phys. Rev.
E
61
, 5588
-
5592.


Zoueshtiagh, F., THOMAS, P.J. 2003 Universal scaling for ripple formation in granular media.
Phys. Rev.
E
67,
art no. 031301
.


Dr P. G. Tucker

Much of his research is carried out on numerical modelling of industrially related flows. In
this CFD work special emphasis is placed on modelling unsteady flows. This is because real
industrial flows are almost always unsteady. Tucker’s

interest in modelling unsteady flows is
reflected in his recent monograph ‘Computation of Unsteady Internal Flows’ (see Tucker
2001a). Numerical model development work is carried out in the following areas:



∙ Multigrid Methods

∙ Different
ial Equation Based Wall Distance Algorithms

∙ Particle Transport Modelling

∙ Large Eddy Simulation

∙ Zonal Large Eddy Simulation/Detached Eddy Simulation (DES)

∙ Novel non
-
linear eddy viscosity models

∙ Solution adaptive
time stepping

∙ Moving boundary problems

∙ Complex geometry modelling including trimmed cell techniques

. Computational Aero Acoustics



Examples of the solution
-
adaptive time
-
stepping work and multigrid convergence
acceleration can be

found in Tucker (2002a). Particle transport modelling for unsteady flow
is discussed in Tucker (2001b). This work mostly features RANS modelling. However, his
current particle
-
transport work focuses strongly on LES. Recent zonal LES research can be
fou
nd in Tucker and Davidson (2003). Some recent zonal LES and Computational Aero
Acoustics research has recently been carried out in association with Boeing through a Royal
Academy of Engineering Foresight award.



Special emphasis is placed on industrial a
pplications. Past and present research applications
have involved modelling unsteady flows for:

∙ Turbomachinery


12

∙ Aeroplanes (The application of DES to wings and also jet noise)

∙ Electro
-
mechanical systems and


∙ Room ventila
tion.


The turbomachinery interest is mostly motivated by modelling needs for unsteady flow in
high
-
pressure compressor drums (see Tucker (2002b)) in modern aero engines.


Selected Publications

TUCKER P.G. 2001a.
Computation of unsteady internal flows
, Klu
wer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.


TUCKER P.G. 2002b. Temporal behaviour of flow in rotating cavities,
Numerical Heat Transfer
41
, No. 6
-
7, 611
-
627.


TUCKER P.G.

2002a. Novel multigrid orientated solution adaptive time
-
step approaches,
Int. J. for Numeri
cal
Methods in Fluids
40
, 507
-
519.


TUCKER P.G. 2001b. Computation of particle and scalar transport for complex geometry turbulent flows,
ASME
J. of Fluids Engineering.
123
,
372
-
381
.


TUCKER, P.G
.

and Pan Z. 2001. URANS Computations for a complex internal
isothermal flow,
Comp. Meths in
Applied Mechanics and Engineering
190
, 2893
-
2907.


Precision Engineering and Materials

Initiated nearly 25 years ago by Professor David Whitehouse, this research area is currently
led by Professor Derek Chetwynd. Its princi
pal interests are: the design and use of novel
instrument systems, especially for short
-
range displacement measurement, surface metrology
and sub
-
surface characterization; mechanisms of sub
-
micrometre precision and micro
-
mechatronics; and mechanical proper
ties and metrology applied to MEMS (micro
-
electro
-
mechanical systems). All are regarded as ‘enabling technologies’ for applications in many
other fields (e.g. bio
-
medicine, fluidics). The Group has been highly active in metrology
related to National and
International Standards, regularly collaborating with the National
Physical Laboratory. It has been at the forefront of developing x
-
ray interferometry as a
secondary standard of length and has designed and built several special instruments for NPL.
A ma
jor European Union collaboration to investigate new calibration standards for surface
metrology has recently ended. Currently, MEMS
-
related research (supported by EPSRC) is
concentrating on the mechanical properties of conducting
-
polymer thin films and on

wall
-
roughness effects in small
-
scale fluid flow. Other current research projects can be
summarized as: nanotribology; contact behaviour of mechanical probes; mechanics of
orthopaedic fixations; machine kinematics; micro
-

and nano
-
metrology. Most work i
s
supported by EPSRC or other external sponsors. Recent or current collaborators include AG
Electro
-
Optics, Bayer, Canon, CSEM, Druck, NPL and Taylor Hobson as well as universities
in Europe, USA and the Far East.

The Group is a major contributor to the m
ulti
-
disciplinary Centre for Nanotechnology
and Microengineering and was predominant in the Centre being honoured as ‘Champions of
Metrology’ (Centre of Excellence) at the 1997 Metrology for World Class Manufacturing
Awards. The following year Professor W
hitehouse received the personal award in this
category and in 2001 Dr X Liu was highly commended at the same event for her novel multi
-
function tribological probe microscope. Following several years of collaboration with,
especially, Professor Whitehouse
on research into the dynamics of machines, Professor Tian
Huang has recently been appointed to a Professorship. He now has joint appointments with
Tianjing University (China) and Warwick.


Professor D.G. Chetwynd

Derek Chetwynd leads the Research Group an
d is a former Director of the Warwick Centre
for Nanotechnology and Microengineering. After an early career in industry introducing
practical computer
-
aided
-
metrology techniques, he came to Warwick in 1979 at the
foundation of the Centre. His interests e
ncompass a wide range of design issues in high

13

precision mechatronics, instrumentation and Microsystems. With Professor Bowen, he has
pioneered the use of x
-
ray interferometry for nanometrology, both displacement and angular.
In recent years he has concen
trated research somewhat towards the mechanics of MEMS,
devising and using methods for mechanical characterization: the properties of polymers are a
particular interest. However, he continues also to work on mechanisms and, often in
collaboration with Nati
onal Physical Laboratory, on formal metrology and standards. Keen to
promote proper understanding and practice of metrology, he is a member of: the Council of
eu
spen
; the Advisory Board for the Institute of Nanotechnology; and the Steering Group for
the U
K Dimensional Metrology Awareness Club. He is Editor
-
in
-
Chief, Europe, for
Precision Engineering, the joint journal of the American, European and Japanese Societies.
In 2002 he was appointed Advisory Professor at Harbin Institute of Technology, a Chinese

National Centre of Excellence in Precision Engineering and Instrumentation, and was recently
invited to be a founding overseas member of the
Centre for Intelligent Nanometrology in
Tohoku University, Japan.


Selected Publications

S T Smith & D G
CHETWYND

1992

Foundations of Ultra
-
precision Mechanism Design

London: Gordon &
Breach.


D G C
HETWYND
, N O Krylova, P J B
RYANSTON
-
Cross & Z Wang 1998 Applications of x
-
ray interferometer
generated moiré patterns.

Nanotechnology
,
9
, 125
-
132.


X L
IU
, D G C
HETWYND
, J W

Gardner, P N Bartlett & C Beriet 1998 Measurements of tribological properties of
poly(pyrrole) thin film bearings

Tribology International
,
31
, 313
-
323, 1998


M Mizuno & D G C
HETWYND

2003 Investigation of a resonance microgenerator.

J.

Micromech. Microeng.
,
13

(2), 209
-
216


T H
UANG
, C M Gosselin, D J Whitehouse & D G C
HETWYND

2003 Analytical approach for optimal design of
a type of spherical parallel manipulator using dextrous performance indices.

Proc. Instn. Mech. Engrs., Part C: J.
Mechanical Science

217

447
-
455


Q Fang, D G C
HETWYND
, J W Gardner, C
-
S Toh & P N Bartlett 2003 A preliminary study of conducting
polymers as microvalve seals.

Mat. Sci. Eng.
,
A355
, 62
-
67.



Professor T. Huang

Tian Huang holds full professorships at Warwick and at Tianjin Univer
sity, where he is also
Dean of Mechanical Engineering. Currently he is spending one term per year at Warwick.
He is a specialist in precision machine design and he is internationally recognized for his
research on kinematic and kinetic analysis and synth
esis of parallel kinematic mechanisms.
Much of his work focuses on the design of low
-
cost industrial robots but he is also interested
in smaller mechanisms of exceptional precision.


Selected Publications

D J WHITEHOUSE & T HUANG 1997 The use of graph th
eory to formulate the linear dynamic characteristics of
rigid body systems.
Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond
.
A453

1299
-
1310


T HUANG & D J WHITEHOUSE 2000 A simple yet effective approach for error compensation of a tripod
-
based
parallel kinematic machine.
CIRP Annals

49

285
-
288.


T HUANG & X Y Zhao 2001 Determination of servo motor parameter of a tripod
-
based parallel kinematic
machine.
Progress in Natural Science

12

612
-
621


T H
UANG
, D J W
HITEHOUSE

& D G C
HETWYND

2002 A unified error model for tolerance design, assem
bly
and error compensation of 3
-
DOF parallel kinematic machines with parallelogram struts.

Annals C.I.R.P
.,
52
(1),
297
-
301.


T H
UANG
, C M Gosselin, D J W
HITEHOUSE

& D G C
HETWYND

2003 Analytical approach for optimal
design of a type of spherical parallel ma
nipulator using dextrous performance indices.

Proc. Instn. Mech. Engrs.,
Part C: J. Mechanical Science
,
217
, 447
-
455.


14



Dr X. Liu

Previously a Research Fellow here, ‘Ping’ Liu returned to Warwick as Lecturer in 2000. She
has interests in both the mechanic
s and electronics of precision instrument design, especially
for materials characterization, surface metrology and micro
-
friction. Her research has
included studies of special variants of electron tunnelling and atomic force probes, the
dynamical control
of stylus profilometers to maximize their fidelity, and the tribology of thin
-
film polymers. She also runs projects in industrial metrology, incorporating rigorous classical
approaches into systems robust and ‘simple’ enough to characterize complex shapes

on the
factory floor. In recent years she has been especially concerned with a novel multi
-
function
surface characterization instrument, which she calls the Tribological Probe Microscope. She
is a Visiting Professor at Harbin Institute of Technology. Sh
e has published around 40 papers
in journals and at major international conferences.


Selected Publications

D G C
HETWYND
, X L
IU

& S T Smith 1996 A controlled force stylus displacement probe.

Precision
Engineering
,
19
, 105
-
111.


X LIU, D G CHETWYND & J W
Gardner 1998 Surface characterisation of electroactive thin polymer film
bearings.
Int. J. Mach. Tools and Manuf.,

38

(5/6), 669
-
675.


X LIU 2002 A four
-
in
-
one tribological probe microscope for characterising surface properties at the micro and
nanometre
level. (Invited paper)
Proceedings of the Royal Microscopical Society,
37/4
, 215
-
223


X L
IU
, T Bell, D G C
HETWYND

& X Y Li 2003 Characterisation of engineered surfaces by a novel four
-
in
-
one
tribological probe microscope.

Wear
,
255
, 385
-
394.


X LIU 2003 Ma
pping surface properties at micro/nanometre levels
-
by a novel multi
-
function Tribological Probe
Microscope (TPM),
keynote speech
, 31
st

Scottish Microscopy Group Symposium, West Park Conference Centre,
Dundee, 12 Nov. 2003.



Emeritus Professors D.K. Bowen
and D.J. Whitehouse

Keith Bowen and David Whitehouse are both former leaders of this research group and
former Directors of the Centre for Nanotechnology and Microengineering. Both are leaders
in their academic fields who now concentrate their efforts els
ewhere, but still retain regular
contact with the group. Keith Bowen is widely known for developing materials
characterization techniques, especially x
-
ray ones, and in designing novel instruments to
exploit them. He has also worked in nanometrology, wit
h major contributions to x
-
ray
interferometry. For the last several years he has been a full
-
time Director of Bede Scientific
Instruments Ltd, mainly running their USA operation. In David Whitehouse was awarded the
2002 Lifetime Achievement Award of the
American Society for Precision Engineering, which
cited him as ‘the father of digital metrology’. While his theoretical and practical work has
indeed been critical there, his research covers a wider scope. He is fascinated by the
application of analytic
mathematics and statistics to the modelling of surface structure, small
-
scale contact phenomena and other problems in dynamics.


Selected Recent Publications


M Wormington, I Pape, T P A Hase, B K Tanner & D K BOWEN 1996 Evidence for grading at polished su
rfaces
from grazing
-
incidence X
-
ray scattering.
Phil Mag Lett

74

211
-
216


D J WHITEHOUSE 1999 Identification of two functionally different classes of maxima in random waveforms.
Proc. Instn. Mech. Engrs
.
213

303
-
306


M Wormington, C Panaccione, K M Matney

& D K BOWEN 1999 Characterization of structures from X
-
ray
scattering data using genetic algorithms.
Philos T Roy Soc

A357

2827
-
2848.



15

D J WHITEHOUSE 2000 Stylus damage prevention index.

Proc. Instn. Mech. Engrs
.
214

975
-
980.


D J WHITEHOUSE 2001 Fractal
or fiction.
Wear

249

345
-
353.


D J WHITEHOUSE 2002
Surfaces and their Measurement
. London: Hermes Penton Science.


D J WHITEHOUSE 2002
Handbook of Surface and Nanotechnology
. Bristol: Adam Hilger.


D K BOWEN, M Wormington & P Feichtinger 2003 A novel digit
al x
-
ray topography system.
J Phys D Appl Phys

36

A17
-
A33



Development Technology Unit (DTU)


Technologies appropriate to the needs of poor tropical countries have been a long
-
standing
research and teaching interest of the School that was initiated and co
ntinues under the
leadership of Dr. T.H. Thomas. Current main fields of DTU interest are domestic water
supply (especially roofwater harvesting, water lifting and arid
-
zone agriculture), low
-
cost
building materials, rural transport, humanitarian mine clear
ance and the role of design in
‘bottom
-
up’ industrialisation. Work continues at a lower level on energy from biomass,
hydro
-
power and solar refrigeration. Strong links are maintained with institutions and NGOs
in S Asia and Africa, often facilitated by pla
cements of students following the EDAT
undergraduate programme. Fuller details of DTU programmes and publications may be
viewed at www.eng.warwick.ac.uk/dtu


Dr T.H.Thomas

Following the execution of large EU and DFID research contracts (1998
-
2003) concerni
ng
roofwater harvesting (RWH) in the humid tropics, Dr Thomas is involved in ongoing East
African studies of this growing technology, is a Board member of the International Rainwater
Collection Systems Association and supervises three related PhD students.

(Mr Brett
Martinson, Teaching Fellow is also part of this RWH team.) Dr Thomas’s studies of soil
-
cement interactions and their application to
inter alia

the design of block
-
making machines,
which started in 1995, continue in collaboration with Dr Purnell
(Civil Engineering Research
Group) and research students. Former DTU research into humanitarian demining (HD)
technologies has led to the establishment of a charity, under the directorship of Drs Thomas
and Oram, now building specialist HD machines in Camb
odia for use in Asia, Europe and
Africa.


Dr C.E.Oram

Engineering design issues of accessibility, maintenance and repair are the underlying
theme of Dr Oram’s research. Work has included collaborative studies, with NGOs
such as KENDAT and ATNESA in East A
frica, of non
-
motorised transport provision
and use, both from macro and the practical levels. Detailed study of animal cart and
harness design & manufacture has been supported by DFID and animal welfare
charity contracts and Dr Oram is regularly invited
to international colloquia on non
-
motorised transport. Other significant accessibility technologies include water
-
pumping devices using novel materials and concepts, welding in remote areas and
humanitarian demining equipment.


Dr P.A Davies

Dr Davies has
been working for some years on technology to enable horticulture to take place
on desert coasts using only seawater and a modest energy input. Having been awarded a
Royal Society Industrial Fellowship, he will be researching the design of ‘seawater
greenho
uses’, and the use of renewable energy sources to power them, at Warwick University
during 2003
-
5.



16

Optical Engineering

The Optical Engineering Laboratory is led by Professor Bryanston
-
Cross. Their research
activities are amongst the most successful in th
e Division in terms of international
collaborations with industry and other research centres (e.g. MIT, NASA, Rover, Rolls
-
Royce, Cambridge University). Much of their work is aimed at state
-
of
-
the
-
art optical
measurements of the complex fluid flows met i
n challenging industrial applications. For
example, the first application of Particle
-
Imaging Velocimetry (PIV), using state
-
of
-
the
-
art
image intensification, to measure transonic flows in gas
-
turbines in collaboration with NASA,
MIT, Pratt & Whitney, and

Boeing. Professor Bryanston
-
Cross is programme manager for
£1,200,000 EPSRC/DTI Intersect Faraday Partnership Project on
The Multi
-
Sensored Engine
in partnership with Rolls
-
Royce, DERA Pyestock, DERA Malvern, Corus, NPL and the
Universities of Manchester

and Oxford. The aim is to create a new combustion diagnostic
based on novel technology and data
-
fusion techniques; a low
-
cost spectral flame diagnostic
for Corus and the concept of the transparent spark plug have been developed recently.

Recently, with
the support of two EC research grants, the Optical Engineering Group have set
up a new laboratory and initiated a major research programme on the application of optical
techniques, including lasers, in ophthalmic surgery.