Presentation on E-Waste Management

upsetsubduedΔιαχείριση

9 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

78 εμφανίσεις

Page
1

Presentation


on

E
-
Waste Management

By

Prayakarrao

Sukanya

M.Tech

I
st

year

Environmental Engineering


Page
2

Page
3

Page
4


This multi
-
headed e
-
waste monster has many sides.


• Telecommunication Waste: Mobile phones, Telephones,
Telephone exchanges Wireless Equipment cables and
related scrap material

• Electrical Waste: Switches, Relays, Connectors and
related Scrap Material.

• Electronic Waste: Electronic


metal waste, Printed
Circuit Boards, E


Equipment and Machinery, IC, Sockets
Connectors.

• Cable Waste: PVC, Pre Insulated Copper and
Aluminum

Cable waste.

• Chemical Waste: Chemical Sludge and Residue.


Page
5


E
-
waste in India



As per IRG report, India generates about 1,46,180 tons of E
-
waste every year.


This is contributed by both house holds and corporate houses.


E
-
waste in USA


Between

1997

and

2007
,

nearly

500

million

personal

computers

will

be

obsolete
-
almost

two

computers

for

each

person
.


750
,
000

computers

expected

to

end

up

in

landfills

this

year

alone
.

Page
6

Page
7

Page
8

E
-
Waste??


Electronic

products

often

contain

hazardous

and

toxic

materials

that

pose

environmental

risks

if

they

are

land

filled

or

incinerated
.



Televisions,

video

and

computer

monitors

use

cathode

ray

tubes

(CRTs),

which

have

significant

amounts

of

lead
.



Printed

circuit

boards

contain

primarily

plastic

and

copper,

and

most

have

small

amounts

of

chromium,

lead

solder,

nickel,

and

zinc
.



In

addition,

many

electronic

products

have

batteries

that

often

contain

nickel,

cadmium,

and

other

heavy

metals
.

Relays

and

switches

in

electronics,

especially

older

ones,

may

contain

mercury
.



Also,

capacitors

in

some

types

of

older

and

larger

equipment

that

is

now

entering

the

waste

stream

may

contain

polychlorinated

biphenyls

(PCBs)


Electronics

contain

heavy

metals,

and

Cathode

Ray

Tubes

(CRTs)

found

in

computer

monitors

and

televisions

may

contain

up

to

8

lbs

of

hazardous

lead





Page
9


Reuse

is

the

environmentally

preferable

option

by

extending

the

life

of

old

equipments

that

defers

the

pollution

and

resource

consumption

associated

with

in

making

new

products
.


Reuse

provides

opportunity,

to

the

underprivileged

who

cannot

afford

or

have

no

access

to

electronic

equipment,

at

reduced

or

no

cost
.



Electronic

equipments

which

commercially

&

practically

not

good

for

reuse

or

is

broken

beyond

repair,

may

be

sent

for

disassembly

i
.
e
.

salvaging

parts,

and

selling

reclaimed

materials

like

ferrous,

non

ferrous,

plastic,

glass
.


Page
10


Several

electronic

equipment,

such

as

computers,

monitors,

printers,

and

scanners,

contain

materials

suitable

for

reclamation

and

use

in

new

products
.

These

may

include

plastic,

glass,

steel,

aluminum,

copper,

gold,

silver,

and

other

metals
.



Page
11


E
-
waste

management

&

recycling


We

understand

the

process

of

managing

E
-
waste

and

its

recycling



Equipment

refurbishment

and

resale
.


De
-
manufacturing

and

disassembly
.


Recovery

of

valuable

components
.


Hazardous

and

base

metal

recovery
.



Hazardous

component

management

and

environment

friendly

disposal

Page
12


Extensive

manual

dismantling

and

crude

recycling

methods

are

allocated

in

the

informal

sector

in

comparison

to

the

highly

automated

processes

in

well
-
developed

formal

sectors

for

recycling
.


Examples

of

such

crude

techniques

worth

mentioning

are
:


(
1
)

Physical

dismantling

by

using

tools

such

as

hammers,

chisels,

screw

drivers

and

bare

hands

to

separate

different

materials

(Puckett

et

al
.
,

2002
;

Wen

et

al
.
,

2006
)
.


(
2
)

Removing

components

from

printed

circuit

boards

by

heating

over

coal
-
fired

grills

(Puckett

et

al
.
,

2002
)
.


(
3
)

Stripping

of

metals

in

open
-
pit

acid

baths

to

recover

gold

and

other

metals

(Wong

et

al
.
,

2007
)
.

Page
13


(4) Chipping and melting plastics without proper ventilation
(Wong et al., 2007).


(5) Burning cables to recover copper, and burning unwanted
materials in open air (Wong et al., 2007).


(6) Disposing unsalvageable materials in fields and riverbanks
(
Huo

et al., 2007).


(7) Refilling of toner cartridges (Puckett et al., 2002).


Page
14

E
-
Waste Management Flow Chart

Page
15

Recycling scenario



Tests for REUSE?


Takes useful COMPONENTS.


Ferrous metals sold to metal dealers.


Precious metals are recovered in a very dangerous and
hazardous manner


Rest goes to land filling / water filling
-

disturbs
ecological equilibrium


What NEXT?


Page
16

Recycling


workers manually dismantle most
electronic equipment and sort out
valuable commodities that

are sold to various recyclers.

CRTs ready to be
"crushed" for recycling.
HMR accumulates
quantities like this each
week.

Page
17

The CRT crusher is completely
self
-
contained in a transportable
shipping container.

Crushed CRT glass, coated
with lead, ready for processing
by a lead smelter.

Page
18

Other components from
electronics

are separated and sold as
commodities

to various recyclers.

Page
19


Printed Circuit Boards



Circuit boards are sent to ISO 14001 (Environmental Management)
accredited companies. Here they can be processed in specialised smelters to
recover non renewable resources such as copper, gold, silver, palladium
and other precious metals.


Hard Drives



Hard drives, in whole and shredded form, are sent to an aluminium foundry
for processing into aluminium ingots. The majority of aluminium ingots are
used within the automotive industry.


Toner and Ink Cartridges



Toner and Ink cartridges are packaged in a sealed box and returned to
industry recyclers. Some will be remanufactured into new cartridges, and
the remainder that can’t be remanufactured will be separated into plastic
and metal and returned to the recycle chain as raw materials.

Page
20


Batteries



Nickel Cadmium, Nickel Metal Hydride & Lithium Ion batteries are
sent, under our recycling partners

special export permit, to SNAM
(
Société

Nouvelle
D’affinage

Des
Métaux
) a French based company
who meets the European Union’s strict environmental standards.
The material is hulled to remove excess plastic, and then the metals
placed in special smelter pots to recover cobalt, cadmium, nickel
and steel for reuse in a range of areas such as battery production and
stainless steel fabrication.


CD ROMs, Sound & Memory cards


For copyright and security reasons these products are shredded
before being sent to plastic and metal recyclers.



Page
21

Benefits From recycling



100% landfill diversion


Recovery of raw materials from e
-
waste


Use of domestic markets for recycled raw materials


Competitive pricing for recycling services


Arrangements for collection and removal of equipment from
your premises


Advice on how best to package waste for most secure and
economical transportation


On site visit to evaluate customer needs


Assistance with special waste collection days



Page
22

Page
23

Case study:


This

article

is

proposing

an

outsourcing

model

where

equal

participation

of

the

formal

and

non
-
formal

sector

is

ensured

to

make

the

e
-
waste

management

business

a

profitable

one
.


The

main

motivation

for

non
-
formal

operators

is

to

extract

precious

metals

(gold,

silver)

from

printed

circuit

board

(PCB)

using

unscientific

and

unhygienic

methods,

which

are

harmful

to

the

workers

and

the

environment
.


The

95
-
97
%

of

the

e
-
waste

by

weight

contains

metal,

glass

and

plastics,

which

can

easily

be

dissembled

and

segregated

manually

without

damaging

environment
.


Whereas,

the

rest

3
-
5
%

by

weight

of

e
-
waste

actually

consists

of

PCBs/connectors,

need

environmentally

friendly

recycling

techniques

to

manage
.

Page
24

Page
25

Page
26

Results



Page
27


E Cycle Recovery will NOT:

Place your equipment in landfill


Refurbish, sell or give away your items


Ship to where it may be processed under poor health and
safety conditions.



UMICORE
-
Belgium


One of the largest refineries for precious metals



HAMOS
-

Germany


One of the largest machinery suppliers for recycling



RECYCLENET
-

USA


Largest online trading platform for used electronic equipment.


Page
28

References


A report on “Managing Electronics Waste (2007). Dumping old TV, First read the
rule”, The Hindustan Times, New Delhi Edition, , 15 October, p.1
http://www.industelegraph.com/story/2005/9/2/33438/

17285.


S.
Chatterjee

and Krishna Kumar (2009). “Effective electronic waste management
and recycling process involving formal and non
-
formal sectors”


Gao

Z, Li J, Zhang HC (2004). Electronics and the Environment, IEEE
International Symposium pp.234
-
241.



Informal electronic waste recycling: A sector review with special focus on China
Xinwen

Chi
a
,

, Martin
Streicher
-
Porte
b
, Mark Y.L. Wang
a
, Markus A. Reuter
c


Contribution to resource conservation by reuse of electrical and electronic
household appliances Nina
Truttm

nn
, Helmut
Rechberger

.


Science direct


Internet


Google


Page
29




Thank you