Presentation 2 - Daxi Environmental

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9 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
Influent BOD
7
load kg/day
FWD installation started
Biochemical oxygen demand
a big part of treatment load

Surahammar

influent BOD load

FWD installation started
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
Influent N load kg/day
Total nitrogen
another part of treatment load

Surahammar

influent nitrogen load


y = 12.456x
-
24519
R² = 0.6996
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
1995
1997
1999
2001
2003
2005
2007
2009
Average annual biogas m
3
/day
FWD installation
started

Surahammar

biogas

Flow m
3
/d

kgBOD
7
/d

kgCOD/d

kgN/d

kgNH
4
/d

kgP/d

BOD
7
:N

m
3

biogas/d

Mean pre FWD

120 weeks 11/01/95
-
30/04/97

4706

408

1084

113.6

74.0

18.0

3.50

331

Variance

3034123

46620

394192

979

405

49.9

1.695

1036

Mean post FWD

120 weeks 13/12/06
-
01/04/09

4678

331

892

107

71

13.3

3.11

484

Variance

5675190

17138

167426

548

282

12.7

1.191

3147

Difference

(post
120
-
pre)

-
0.59%

-
19.0%

-
17.7%

-
6.1%

-
3.9%

-
26.1%

-
11.1%

+46%

P
(1
-
tail T
-
test)

0.50

0.06

0.09

0.18

0.28

0.002

0.11

0.01

Surahammar

influent

monitoring data


Compares 0% FWD with 50% FWD

6

Sewer
atmosphere

Bulk
water/wastewater

Sewer “wet” biofilm

Sewer “dry” biofilm

Sewers

“intertidal” biofilm

Aerobic e.g.
Nitrosomonas

NH
4
+


NO
2
-

+ H
+


Anaerobic e.g.
anammox

NO
2
-

+ NH
4
+

→ N
2

Both conveyance

system and
ecosystem

treatment starts in
sewers


FOG
(fat oil and grease)





Great biogas potential


Saponification in sewer

converts to blockage


elevated pH implicated;


strength related to calcium;


forms 100
-
200m downstream of FSE;


No evidence of FWD output in FOG samples around USA

Northumbrian Water

world class AD


Teesside and Tyneside


4.7 MW electricity each


Renewable
baseload



100% of NW sludge treated by
Cambi

AD



Biosolids

recycled to agriculture


Completing nutrient cycles and conserving soil
organic matter



Reduces NW’s CO
2
e by 50,000 t/year

Sewage sludge

The use of Sewage sludge on land according to the Sludge
(use in agriculture) Regulations



Extensive scientific literature


Concentrations


Fate and transport


Agronomy



Sophisticated controls and monitoring system



>35 years’ operational experience



Hazardous substances legislation has banned the most
dangerous

Metals

Dioxins and furans

Conclusions


“one size” will not fit all;


home composting fits some, kerbside collection fits others and FWD fit others,
especially (but not exclusively) people in flatted properties.



Exclusive emphasis on kerbside collection of source segregated biowaste has been
mistaken.



FWD do not stress infrastructure or increase water company costs



AD, biogas, CHP and electricity export at WwTW are well established


Use of biosolids to conserve soil organic matter and complete nutrient cycles is ‘safe’



The evidence all shows use of FWD is a good option



CIWEM P.P.S. February 2011

“One size most definitely does not fit all……exclusive emphasis on segregating
and collecting biodegradable waste from households has been a mistake.”
CIWEM 18 Feb. 2011






Policies and strategies should be evidence based.





Diversity of options for the disposal of food

make
recycling valuable waste easier .





FWDs could provide an opportunity for cost

saving to
society as a whole.



www.ciwem.org/policy
-
and
-
international/policy
-
position
-
statements/food
-
waste
-
disposers.aspx






Next steps?


We would like to work with each of you:


Understand your challenges


Increase your knowledge of our technology


Secure your endorsement


Some of our ideas are:


Briefings like this one


Study tours


Pilot projects


We’d like to hear yours ............


More information:
www.food
-
waste
-
disposer.org.uk







More information:
www.food
-
waste
-
disposer.org.uk

References


Nilsson
, P.;
Lilja
, G.;
Hallin
, P.
-
O.;
Petersson
, B. A.; Johansson, J.;
Pettersson
, J.;
Karlen
, L. (1990) Waste
management at the source utilizing food waste disposers in the home; a case study in the town of
Staffanstorp
.
Dept. Environmental Engineering, University of Lund.

Diggelmann
, Carol and Ham, Robert K. (1998) “Life
-
Cycle Comparison of Five Engineered Systems for
Managing Food Waste.” Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Wisconsin. January
1998.

Kegebein
,
Jörg
; Hoffmann, Erhard; and Hahn, Herman H. (2001) Co
-
Transport and Co
-
Reuse. An Alternative to
Separate Bio
-
Waste Collection?
Wasser
-
Abwasser

GWF 142 (2001) Nr. 6 429
-
434

Parfitt
, J. (2002) Analysis of household waste composition and factors driving waste increases. WRAP

Report on Social Experiment of Garbage Grinder Introduction. Technical note of National Institute for Land and
Infrastructure Management, Japan. No. 226 March 2005

Evans, T.D. (2007) Environmental Impact Study of Food Waste Disposers: a report for The County Surveyors’
Society & Herefordshire Council and Worcestershire County Council, published by Worcestershire County
Council.

Battistoni
, P.;
Fatone
, F.;
Passacantando
, D.;
Bolzonella
, D. (2007) Application of food waste disposers and
alternate cycles process in small
-
decentralized towns: A case study. Water Research 41 893


903

Evans, T.D.:
Andersson
, P.:
Wievegg
, A.:
Carlsson
, I. (2010) Surahammar


a case study of the impacts of
installing food waste disposers in fifty
percent

of households. Water Environ. J. 24:309
-
319

CIWEM (2010) Wastewater
Biosolids

-

Treatment and Use
-

policy position statement. Chartered Institute of
Water and Environmental Management

CIWEM (2011) Food waste disposers


policy position statement.

CIWEM (2012) Phosphorus: wastewater's role in stewardship of a vital resource
-

policy position statement.

Evans, T. D. (2012) Domestic food waste, the options compared (particularly food waste disposers) and their
carbon and financial costs. Municipal Engineer 165 3
-
10


Available
from:

http://www.food
-
waste
-
disposer.org.uk/the
-
science



www.timevansenvironment.com



http://www.ciwem.org/policy
-
and
-
international/policy
-
position
-
statements.aspx