in Coastal Communities

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9 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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Stakeholders’ Attitudes towards
Sustainable Tourism Development
in Coastal Communities



Whitney Knollenberg


Thesis Committee

Dr. Joseph
Fridgen
, Associate Director for Academic Programs
,


Center for Sustainable Tourism (Committee Chair)

Dr.
Huili

Hao
, Research Director, Center for Sustainable Tourism

Dr. Tom Crawford, Associate Professor, Geography


Overview


What is sustainable tourism development?


Why do we care what residents think?


Description of theory


Study
location


Purpose


Method


Analysis


Results


Conclusions


Applications


Future Research

Sustainable Tourism Development

“…achieving sustainable forms of tourism is the
responsibility of all stakeholders involved
,
including government at all levels, international
organizations, the private sector, environmental
groups
and citizens
both in tourism destination
countries and countries of origin.”



The Berlin Declaration On


Biological Diversity and Sustainable Tourism, 1997

Sustainable Tourism Development

Actions that contribute to a balanced and
healthy economy by generating tourism
-
related
jobs, revenues, and taxes while protecting and
enhancing the destination's socio
-
cultural,
historical, natural and built resources for the
enjoyment and well
-
being of both residents
and visitors.


Center for Sustainable Tourism

Importance of Residents’ Attitudes


Many studies have been conducted examining
resident’s attitudes towards tourism


“…without community support, it is difficult to
develop a sustainable tourism industry in a
community.”
-

Andereck

and Vogt, 2000 (p. 27)


New research is focusing on resident’s
attitudes towards sustainable tourism
development (
Choi

and
Sirakaya
, 2005 and
2006 )

Stakeholder Theory


Stakeholder Theory


A stakeholder is, “any group or individual who can affect or is
affected by the achievement of the organization’s
objectives.”







-

Freeman, 1984 (p. 46)



Translating Stakeholder Theory to tourism


“Freeman’s concepts requires the tourism planner(s) to have
a full appreciation of all the persons or groups who have
interests in the planning, process(
es
), delivery and/or
outcomes of the tourism service.”






-

Sautter

and
Leisen
, 1999 (p. 315)



Not all members of a stakeholder group may
feel the same way

Location


The fragile nature of coastal environments
requires local decision
-
makers to consider how
their actions may impact the resources that
attract tourists, such as the ocean and beaches



Coastal communities have large numbers of
second homes, which introduces a new group
impacted by tourism

Study Areas


Three coastal counties


Brunswick, Currituck, Pender Counties, NC

Counties selected due to:

High percentage of 2nd Homes

Different tiers of economic development

Proximity to fragile coastal resources

Purpose

This study aims to further enable resident
involvement in tourism planning by identifying
groups of property owners based upon their
attitudes towards sustainable development.



Research Question 1: Among coastal community property
owners, are there different stakeholder groups based on
their perceptions of sustainable actions in tourism
development?



Research Question 2: How do these stakeholder groups
compare in terms of
sociodemographic

characteristics?

Methods


Questionnaire development


pilot tests,
focus groups, literature review



Population


Property tax payers (both
permanent residents and second
homeowners)



Sample

Total of 14,587 members were
randomly selected from property tax records



Questionnaire available online, over the
phone, or on paper

Subsample Selection


Prior to the completion of data collection a
subsample was chosen for this study



Online surveys only



Random selection of 300 cases


Analysis


Similar to the analysis used by Williams and Lawson (2001)
and
Sirakaya
-
Turk, Ingram and
Harrill

(2009) exploratory factor
analysis and cluster analysis will be used to analyze the data.



Exploratory factor analysis


Used to identify the underlying dimensions of variables designed to
measure respondent’s perceptions on the importance of sustainable
actions in tourism development



TwoStep

Cluster analysis


Determines groups of respondents based upon the dimensions of
responses to the variables resulting from factor analysis



Descriptive analysis


Used to create profile of each group based upon their
sociodemographic

characteristics


Measured on a scale of 1 (Not at All Important)


5 (Very Important)


These actions were adapted from Sustainable Travel International's 12
categories of sustainability




















These actions were identified through a literature review




Sustainable Actions


Reducing and managing greenhouse
gas emissions


M慮慧楮本 r敤畣e湧n慮搠r散e捬c湧n
獯汩搠w慳ae


R敤畣e湧n捯湳畭灴p潮映晲敳桷慴敲


Managing wastewater


Being energy efficient


䍯湳敲v楮朠瑨g 湡瑵r慬 敮v楲潮浥湴


偲ot散瑩湧n慩r q畡l楴y


偲ot散瑩湧nw慴敲 q畡l楴y


R敤畣e湧n湯n獥


偲P獥sv楮朠捵c瑵r攠慮搠桥物瑡来g


偲ov楤i湧n散潮潭楣⁢敮敦楴猠晲潭o
t潵o楳洠t漠l潣慬s


Purchasing from companies with
certified green practices


Tr慩湩湧n慮搠敤畣e瑩湧n敭灬oy敥猠慮搠
捬c敮瑳t潮⁳畳瑡楮慢楬楴礠灲慣a楣敳


Protecting our community’s natural
environment for future generations


Full access for everyone in the
community to participation in tourism
development decisions

Results


Factor Analysis


Fifteen variables used to measure property owners’
attitudes towards sustainable actions in tourism
development


Cronbach’s

alpha = .935


Principal component analysis (PCA) extraction used

Variable

Factor 1

Reducing and managing greenhouse gas emissions

.751

Managing, reducing and recycling solid waste

.812

Reducing freshwater consumption

.761

Managing wastewater

.702

Being energy efficient

.873

Conserving the natural environment

.819

Protecting our community's natural environment for future generations

.810

Protecting air quality

.795

Protecting water quality

.765

Reducing noise

.613

Preserving culture and heritage

.579

Providing economic benefits from tourism to locals

.489

Purchasing from companies with certified green practices

.782

Training and educating employees and clients on sustainability practices

.802

Full access for everyone in the community to participation in tourism
development decisions

.565

Eigen Value = 8.13

Variance Explained = 54.16%

Results


Cluster Analysis


The 15 variables were used to create a mean factor
score


This score was used in
TwoStep

cluster analysis to
determine the groups of property owners


Three groups were discovered and an ANOVA test
confirmed their mean factor scores were
significantly different

Cluster

Name

n

% of Sample

Average Mean Factor
Score

1

Skeptics

35

11.7%

2.85

2

Supporters

159

53.0%

3.95

3

Advocates

106

35.3%

4.71

Sustainable Action in Tourism Development


Skeptics

Supporters

Advocates

Being energy efficient

Conserving the natural environment

Full access for everyone in the community to
participate in tourism development decisions

Managing wastewater

Managing, reducing and recycling solid waste

Preserving culture and heritage

Protecting air quality

Protecting natural environment for future
generations

Protecting water quality

Providing economic benefits from tourism to locals

Purchasing from companies with green practices

Reducing and managing greenhouse gas

Reducing freshwater consumption

Reducing noise

Training and educating employees on
sustainability practices

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Results


Sociodemographic

Profiles

Skeptics

Supporters

Advocates

Property Owner


PR


2HO


60.0%

40.0%


48.4%

51.6%


50.0%

50.0%

Length of Residency


PR


2HO


17.14 years

16.27 years


14.97 years

13.30 years


13.83 years

11.94 years

Gender *


Male


Female


74.3%

25.7%


56.6%

43.3%


38.7%

61.3%

Education

4


Year College
40.0%

4


Year College
32.1%

Post Graduate
40.6%

Employment in Tourism

14.3%

8.8%

6.6%

Income

<
$
50,000

(31.4%)

$100,000
-

$199,999 (35.8%)

$50,000
-

$99,999 (38.7%)

*
Significant at .05

Additional Characteristics


Attitudes towards current levels of tourism
development



Advocates had the most members (15.1%) who
felt tourism had reached a point where they
wished they purchase property elsewhere



Satisfaction with quality of life



Moderate satisfaction with healthcare, housing,
recreational opportunities and water quality

Conclusions


Research Question 1: Among coastal
community property owners, are there
different stakeholder groups based on their
perceptions of sustainable actions in tourism
development?


Within the population of property owners there
are three attitude
-
specific stakeholder groups:
Skeptics, Supporters and Advocates



Differing attitudes on what actions are important

Environ

ment

Activist

Groups

Public

Land

Managers

Competing

Destinations

Coastal

Zone

Mangers

Business

Groups

Employees

Historians/

Preservation

Groups

Local

Businesses

Tourists

Tourism

Planners

Local

Policy

Makers

Developers

Skeptics

Supporters

Advocates

Property

Owners

Adapted from
Sautter
, E. T. and
Leisen
, B. (1999). Managing stakeholders: A tourism planning model.
Annals of Tourism
Research,
26(2), 312


328.

Conclusions


Research Question 2: How do these
stakeholder groups compare in terms of
sociodemographic

characteristics?


There are few
sociodemographic

features which
distinguish the members of each group



Adds to the challenge of identifying all
stakeholder groups


Applications


A change in tourism development would
require input from property owners



Planners should be aware there is potential
for conflict among property owners



These findings support the need for further
public involvement in the tourism planning
process

Future Research


Apply data collection methods to larger
population



Further exploration of relationship between
support for general tourism development
and attitudes towards sustainable actions



Explore other predictors of attitudes towards
sustainable actions

References


Andereck
, K.L. and Vogt, C.A. (2000). The relationship between residents’ attitudes toward

tourism and tourism development options.

Journal of Travel Research
, 39, 27


36.

Berlin Declaration (1997).
The Berlin declaration on biological diversity and sustainable

tourism.
International Conference of Environment Ministers on Biodiversity and Tourism.

March 6

8. Berlin, Germany: United Nations.


Center for Sustainable Tourism (
n.d
.) What is Sustainable Tourism? Retrieved from

www.sustainabletourism.org


Choi
, H.C. and
Sirakaya
, E. (2005). Measuring residents’ attitude toward sustainable tourism:

Development of sustainable tourism attitude scale.
Journal of Travel Research
, 43 (3),

380


394

Choi
, H.C. and
Sirakaya
, E. (2006). Sustainability indicators for managing community tourism.

Tourism Management
, 27, 1274


1289

Freeman, R. E. (1984).
Strategic management: A stakeholder approach
. Boston, MA: Pitman.

Sautter
, E. T. and
Leisen
, B. (1999). Managing stakeholders: A tourism planning model.

Annals of Tourism Research,
26(2), 312


328

Sirakaya
-
Turk, E., Ingram, L, and
Harrill
, R. (2009). Resident typologies within the integrative

paradigm of
sustaincentric

tourism development.
Tourism Analysis
, 13, 531


544

Williams, J. and Lawson, R. (2001).
Comuity

Issues and Residents Opinions of Tourism.

Annals of Tourism Research,
28(2), 269
-

290

Questions?