Green Economy and BRICS

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9 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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Green
Economy and
BRICS

Olga
Ponizova
,

Eco
-
Accord, Russia

oponizova@rambler.ru

Topics:


To share

thoughts on green economy
and its importance for BRICS;


To share

thoughts on
climate change
process and
BRICS
;



To suggests ways of cooperation among
BRICS countries on Green Economy, in
particular on Climate Change and Low
-
Carbon Economy.

Brazil, Russia, India, China and
South Africa = BRICS


Rapid economic development


Geographical and demographic importance


Old civilisations


Necessity for development and poverty
eradication


Rich natures



BRICS and global stability:













Sourse
;
Bobylev
, MSU

Россия 9,60%
Бразилия
7,06%
Австралия
6,52%
Канада 5,25%
США 5,22%
Китай 4,93%
Остальные
страны
61,42%
Green Economy:

No officially agreed definition;

UNEP:

Green
economy
as one that results in
improved human well
-
being and social
equity, while significantly reducing
environmental risks and ecological
scarcities. In its simplest
expression.


Features:

*
low
-
carbon
energy
(especially renewable energy and
resource of energy efficient technologies);

• sustainable water supply systems, water and sanitation,
and waste management;


sustainable production of food
(organic, biodynamic
farming and sustainable practices for livestock)

• the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity;


sustainable

transport system, with an emphasis on public
transport, planting the automotive industry;



sustainable tourism
;


green
jobs
, sustainable lifestyles and livelihoods that
provide social justice and equality and establish concrete
measures in order to progress and prosperity;


Reforming International Environmental Governance:
global
p
olicy
and
economic
nstitutions

Tools:




-

Appropriate pricing
,
including
phase
-
out
of inefficient
subsidy, assessment of natural resources in monetary terms
and the introduction of taxes that harm the environment;



-

Public procurement policies

that encourage the
production of environmentally friendly products and use of
the principles of sustainable production methods;



-

Reforming the system of "environmental" tax
, involving a
shift from taxes on labor to taxes on pollution;



-

Increase public investment
s
in infrastructure, based on SD
principles (including
public transport, renewable energy,
energy
-
efficient buildings) and natural capital to restore,
maintain and, where possible, increase the volume of
natural capital;



-

Targeted
government support for research and
development

related to the creation of environmentally
sound technologies;



-

Social policies
to ensure consistency between the goals in
the social field and the existing or proposed economic
policies.


International Context:

• February, 2009.
-

25th Session of the UNEP Governing
Council / Global Ministerial Environment Forum
-

green
economy report.

• April, 2009.
-
UN
Communique
on nine joint initiatives
to tackle the crisis, one of which was the initiative of
the green economy.

• June, 2009.


Green Growth Declaration (OECD
).

• June, 2009.
-

More than 20 UN Agencies mentioned
green economy
at the UN Conference on Global
Economic and Financial Crisis and Development

• September, 2009.
-

UNEP report to G20 in
Pittsburg

• December, 2009. UN GA decision on Rio +
20

* 2010


G20 in Toronto

• 2010
-

ESCAP meeting

• 2011
-

UN ECE
meeting

* 2012


Rio+20


BRICS
Leaders Meeting
Declaration

Sanya, China
, 14 April 2011




III.
New proposals to explore


3. Explore the feasibility to cooperate in
the field of green economy.


Green Economy Benefits, UNEP:


stimulate
economic progress


new
jobs


at
the same time reducing the risks of global
threats such as climate change, loss of
ecosystem services and water scarcity.


In
the short term "green economy" is able to
provide GDP growth, increasing per capita
income and employment in the same or even
higher rates than the traditional "brown"
economy.


In the medium to long term "green economy"
will overtake "brown" and also give much
greater benefits for the environment and
reduce social inequality.

Green Economy: financing



For the
2012
-
2050 years.
only
2% of global
GDP
should be invested in
ten key sectors:
agriculture, housing and utilities, energy,
fisheries, forestry, industry, tourism,
transport, disposal and recycling of waste
and water management.


Wise financial policy

Green Economy risks/concerns


Green protectionism (wind power,
aviation, carbon taxes);


Lack of Social Inclusiveness (e.g. no new
jobs or “dirty” jobs;


The concept will be used as pure
environmental;


The same approach for different countries,
without specific situation.



Good practice:


Renewable Energy in
China


Sustainable urban planning in
Brazil


Rural
ecological infrastructure in
India


http://www.unep.org/greeneconomy/Su
ccessStories/tabid/29863/Default.aspx

Green Economy: Obstacles


Lack of awareness on the GE concept;


Lack of proper understanding of


Lack of capacity to implement the
concept in full;


Difficulties to


International economic rules don’t often
promote GE concept (WTO)

Possibilities of cooperation:


Common actions again green
-
protectionism;


Common position at the international
fora

(WTO etc.);


Research on cost
and benefit
of GE for BRICS
and “
feasibility
to cooperate in the field of
green
economy”


new BRICS TERN initiative
?


Exchange of experience, among different
stakeholders
-

governments, civil society
groups, farmers, business(BRICS Green
Economy Forum?)


Technological cooperation.





Share of Countries in CO2
emissions

Under UNFCC:

Only Russia is included in Annex 1.

China

-

will endeavor to lower its carbon dioxide emissions
per unit of GDP by 40
-
45% by 2020 compared to the 2005
level, increase the share of non
-
fossil fuels in primary
energy consumption to around 15% by 2020 and increase
forest coverage by 40 million hectares and forest stock
volume by 1.3 billion cubic meters by 2020 from the 2005
levels.

South Africa


34% below BAU 2020; conditional 42% BAU
by 2020

I
ndia

-

will
endeavour

to reduce the emissions intensity of its
GOP by 20
-
25% by 2020 in comparison to the 2005 level.

Brazil

-
36.1
-
38.9% of projected emissions by 2020

Russia

-

15
-
25 %/1990/2020, the range of the GHG
emission reductions will depend on the following conditions:

-

Appropriate accounting of the potential of Russia’s forestry
in frame of contribution in meeting the obligations of the
anthropogenic emissions reduction;

-

Undertaking by all major emitters the legally binding
obligations to reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions.


Some developments in India and Brazil
:

Brazil

has

established

a
stock

exchange

for

voluntary

carbon


units

which

may

precede

a

domestic


t
rading

scheme
;



Rio

de

Janeiro
,
Brazil’s

second

richest

state
,
recently



announced

to

launch

an

ETS
for

its

largest

emitters

between


2013
and

2015.



India

has

not

shown

much

propensity

for

a
domestic


ETS
due

both

to

political

and

institutional

reasons
;



However
,
trading

schemes

for

energy

efficiency

and


renewable

energy

are

already

in

place
.


Some development in China:


China

has

made

concrete

steps

towards

the

creation

of

regional

ETS
in

various

cities

and

provinces
.
Newer

announcements

even

envisage

the

creation

of

a
national

system

by

2015.




However
,
these

plans

are

still

at

early

stages
,
and

differ

widely

in

their

institutional

designs
.

For

example
,

-

Guangdong

is

likely

to

put

in

place

a
trading

system

based

on

absolute

e
mission

caps
,

-

Tianjin

and

Beijing

have

indicated

that

their

trading

schemes

might

be


based

on

energy

saving

credits
.




However
,
the

implementation

pathway

is

as

yet

unclear
.
The

question

is

in

particular

how

the

very

diverse

design

choices

of

the

envisaged

pilot

schemes

are

to

be

aligned

to

form

a
convergent

system

on

such

short

notice
.


Possible cooperation
on carbon
market
-
based

mechanisms development


-
exchange
of experience;

-

joint research and analytical work;


-

capacity
building
;

-

seminars and conferences.



The project could contribute to the new global CC
agreement and reduce risks for “carbon protectionism”
from EU and other countries with ETS
.


BRICS Leaders Meeting Declaration

Sanya, China, 14 April 2011


22.
We support the Cancun Agreements

and are ready to make
concerted efforts with the rest of the international community to
bring a successful conclusion to the negotiations at the Durban
Conference applying the mandate of the Bali Roadmap and in
line with the principle of equity and common but differentiated
responsibilities.
We commit ourselves to work
towards a
comprehensive, balanced and binding outcome to
strengthen
the implementation of the UNFCC and its Kyoto Protocol.

The
BRICS will intensify cooperation on the Durban conference. We
will enhance our practical cooperation in adapting our economy
and society to climate change.


8. We support the development and use of renewable energy
resources.
..We
are convinced of the importance of cooperation
and information exchange in the field of development of
renewable energy resources.


Possible BRICS cooperation:


Common position on climate change
negotiations reflecting reality and SD
approach;


Research,
e.g.economic

scnario

of
emissions
reduction;


Exchange of experience of different
stakeholders;


Technology cooperation;


Concrete projects (carbon
market
-
based

mechanisms
development)