Decentralisation and local governance

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9 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Defining a good governance
assessment framework

Decentralisation and
local governance





Shipra Narang Suri

International Consultant, OGC


Stakeholders’ Consultative Workshop

Amman 6
-
8 July 2010

Defining Decentralisation..


Decentralization is primarily a national political,
legislative, institutional and fiscal process. Can
take different forms:


Deconcentration:
Transferring responsibilities to field
and subordinate units of government

(no distinct legal
entity).


Devolution:
Transfer of competencies from the
central state to distinct legal entities

at lower level.
A
cknowledges the importance of local ownership and
the need to adjust planning and resources allocation
to specific local settings or priorities. Has the
potential
for downward accountability & active citizen
engagement.

… and Local Governance


Local governance includes the
processes by which public policy
decisions are made and implemented,
at the local level. Includes dialogue,
negotiation, power relations between
state, civil society and private sector.

Possible focus areas of
any assessment


Decentralisation



Political,
administrative, fiscal decentralisation;
enabling environment (laws, policies) for
decentralisation



Local governance



dimensions and
determinants of governance at the local
level, including (but not limited to) equity,
effectiveness, transparency, participation
etc.

Possible focus areas…
[2]


Local democracy


Political and
representative democracy, both de jure
mechanisms/systems and de facto
experiences



Local government performance



Outputs or results achieved by local
governments in service delivery, income,
expenditure

International agencies
supporting LG assessments


UN
-
HABITAT


Urban Governance Index


UNDP


Methodological Guidelines for Local
Governance Analysis


International IDEA


Local Democracy
Assessment Guide


Tocqueville Research Centre & OSI
-

Indicators
of Local Democratic Governance


Council of Europe


Guide for developing well
-
being/progress indicators with citizens


UNCDF


Assessments informing performance
-
based grant systems

National Initiatives on local/
urban governance assessment


Afghanistan


Bangladesh


Bosnia and
Herzegovina


Canada


Chile


Indonesia


Macedonia


Mongolia


Nigeria


Pakistan


Philippines


Sri Lanka


Sudan


Zambia


Zimbabwe

Urban Governance Index


Effectiveness


Equity


Participation


Accountability


(Security)

Urban Governance Index…
[2]

Sample Indicators included under
Effectiveness



Local Government Revenue per capita


Ratio of actual recurrent and capital budget


Local Government revenue transfers


Ratio of mandates to actual tax collection


Predictability of transfers in local government budget


Published performance standards


Customer satisfaction survey


Existence of a Vision statement

Local Governance Barometer
(LGB)








Effectiveness


Transparency and Rule of Law


Accountability


Participation and civic engagement


Equity

Local Governance Barometer
(LGB)







…[2]

Sample Indicators included under
Transparency and Rule of Law



The existence and application of an
institutional legal framework


Citizen access to justice


The availability and access to information


Corruption incidence

Social Audit of Local
Governance


(Bosnia)

Conducted through household surveys in three parts:


Basic household information


Respondents’ experience of 10 essential public services
(housing conditions, local roads, transport, waste
removal, water supply, sanitation, heating, electricity,
health facilities, education


including pre
-
school
education)


Local governance, focusing on local government
authorities and citizen participation in the municipality.


The questions relate to the technical details of various
services provided, citizens’ access and usage, and
citizens’ satisfaction with service delivery.

GOFORGOLD (Afghanistan)


Provides snapshot of governance at sub
-
national levels


Uses seven ‘good governance’ themes


representation, participation, accountability,
transparency, effectiveness, security, and
equity


25 indicators and 60 operational questions


Can be used to benchmark and monitor sub
-
national government performance, improve
resource allocation


Can also help to identify good local
governance and sustainable development
practices.

Some key issues to
consider


Purpose


Diagnosis & policy
-
setting, or
capacity development & citizen
engagement


Driver


Externally
-
driven or nationally
-
led


“Core” and “satellite” indicators


Type of data


Quantitative or qualitative


Type of results


Narrative “profile”, Scale
or Index


Methodology


Consultant
-
executed or
participatory

Thank you for your attention