A Guest Lecture Prepared for the

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9 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Fisheries Management Systems:

Objectives and Performance

A Guest Lecture Prepared for the

United Nations University Fisheries Training Program

Reykjavik, Iceland


Gunnar Knapp

Professor of Economics

Institute of Social and Economic Research

Anchorage, Alaska USA

Gunnar.Knapp@uaa.alaska.edu


January 2013

One of the major inherent challenges of fisheries management is multiple and
often conflicting objectives.


What do YOU PERSONALLY consider to be the most important objectives of
fisheries management?


(to get reelected)

do
do

things the public approves of . . . (short
time horizon)


Create jobs; maintain employment


Sustain the fishery


Wealth generation


Feed the population


Maximum economic benefit


Environmental/


Effiiency


Here are some fishery management objectives which I consider
important, and which other people also describe as important

Objective

Questions

we could ask to evaluate performance

Resource
protection

How well does the system protect fish resources and the
environment? How effective is it at preventing overfishing? How
well does it promote sustainability of fish and other resources for
current and future generations?

Economic

efficiency

How well does the system promote economic efficiency in the
utilization of fish resources? How well does it keep costs low and the
value of fish products high? How successful is it at generating
economic benefits from fish resources?

Fairness

How “fair” is the management system? To what extent does it
灲p浯瑥 捯浭c湩瑩敳t慮搠捵c瑵牡氠瑲慤楴楯湳n

卩浰汩捩瑹

䡯w 敡獹 楳⁴桥慮慧敭e湴n獹獴敭s瑯⁵t摥牳瑡r搠慮搠瑯d
業i汥浥m琿t 䡯w 浵捨⁤ 敳e楴⁣潳琠瑯⁡t浩m楳瑥爿 䡯w 敦晥捴楶f汹
捡c⁩琠扥⁥ 景牣f搿

How important do YOU consider
resource
protection

as a fisheries management objective?

A.
Very
important

B.
Somewhat
important

C.
Not very
important

Very important
Somewhat important
Not very important
96%
0%
4%
How important do YOU consider
economic
efficiency

as a fisheries management objective?

A.
Very
important

B.
Somewhat
important

C.
Not very
important

Very important
Somewhat important
Not very important
67%
4%
30%
How important do YOU consider
fairness

as a
fisheries management objective?

A.
Very
important

B.
Somewhat
important

C.
Not very
important

Very important
Somewhat important
Not very important
39%
11%
50%
How important do YOU consider
simplicity

as a
fisheries management objective?

A.
Very
important

B.
Somewhat
important

C.
Not very
important

Very important
Somewhat important
Not very important
59%
15%
26%
MY HYPOTHESIS:


There is no “perfect” fishery management system


No system performs “best” with respect to all objectives


Systems that perform well with respect to some objectives may
perform poorly with respect to other objectives

Let’s find out if YOU agree with my hypothesis.


We will describe and discuss (up to) six types of fishery
management systems.


For each management system, I will briefly describe the system


Then I will ask YOU to discuss how well or poorly you think the
system performs with respect to each fishery management objective


Then I will ask YOU to use your clickers to rank the performance of
each system with respect to each management objective


At the end of the lecture, we will review how YOU ranked the
performance of these management systems


Do YOU think any system is “best” for all objectives?


Do YOU think that systems that
perform well with respect to
some objectives
perform
poorly with respect to other
objectives?



Some challenges we face in our discussion . . .


We are talking about a very big set of questions!


You may have limited familiarity with some of these management
systems


For any given type of management system, there is a very wide
range in the specific ways they work and how they perform


The devil in the details


Clearly, we are over
-
generalizing!


We don’t have much time

If we really wish to seriously evaluate the performance of different kinds
of fisheries management systems, we would need to:


Divide management systems into a greater range of types of
systems


Systematically gather evidence about their actual performance


This would be a major and challenging research task

So our discussion today is only a simple exercise to get you to begin to
think about different management systems and how you might evaluate
their performance.

Six broad types of fisheries management systems

I HOPE WE CAN AT LEAST DISCUSS THESE FOUR SYSTEMS



Unregulated open access


Regulated open access


Limited entry


Individual catch shares


IF WE HAVE TIME WE CAN ALSO DISCUSS THESE SYSTEMS:



Group catch shares


Fisheries self
-
governance

Please use a piece of paper to keep a record of your scores

Make a table with 5 rows and 7 columns, like this:


Your name (or alias) ________________________

1

Unregul
-

ated

open
access

2

Regul
-
ated


open

access

3

Limited
entry

4

Individual
catch
shares

5

Group
catch
shares

7

Self
-
govern
-
ance

A. Resource
protection

B.

Economic

efficiency

C. Fairness

D. Simplicity

If you wish you can just label the columns with the numbers and the
rows with the letters.

Unregulated
Open Access

Questions

Answers

Who

can fish?

Anyone

When,

where and
how can they fish?

Any time, anywhere, any way they wish

How much can an
individual fisherman
catch?

As much as he can

What limits the total
catch?

When fishermen stop fishing

which is driven by resource
and economic conditions. Typically, they keep fishing until
LW¶V?QR?ORQJHU?SURILWDEOH?

Real
-
world

fishery
examples?

Notes and
comments?

UNREGULATED OPEN
ACCESS

UNREGULATED OPEN ACCESS


What is good or bad about this fishery management system?

Evaluation

criteria

What

is good or bad about this system?

Resource protection

Shaking head

Formerly

like this in Iceland

Mortality

Depends on the level of technology; depends on
environment

Depends on the species

Devil is in the details!

Economic

efficiency

Poor;

inefficient;

Fairness

Totally fair

equal

for all

Totally unfair

poverty trap

Simplicity

Very simple and easy

OTHER:

UNREGULATED OPEN ACCESS


How good or bad do YOU think this fishery management system is?

For each evaluation criterion, what score would YOU give it?

Evaluation

criteria

1 = very good

2 = somewhat good

3 = somewhat

poor

4 = very poor

Resource protection

Economic

efficiency

Fairness

Simplicity

How would YOU rate this type of management
system with respect to
resource protection
?

A.
Very good

B.
Somewhat good

C.
Somewhat poor

D.
Very poor

Very good
Somewhat good
Somewhat poor
Very poor
4%
81%
4%
12%
Mean = 3.62

How would YOU rate this type of management
system with respect to
economic efficiency
?

A.
Very good

B.
Somewhat good

C.
Somewhat poor

D.
Very poor

Very good
Somewhat good
Somewhat poor
Very poor
4%
62%
27%
8%
Mean = 3.46

How would YOU rate this type of management
system with respect to
fairness
?

A.
Very good

B.
Somewhat good

C.
Somewhat poor

D.
Very poor

Very good
Somewhat good
Somewhat poor
Very poor
31%
27%
15%
27%
Mean = 2.38

How would YOU rate this type of management
system with respect to
simplicity
?

A.
Very good

B.
Somewhat good

C.
Somewhat poor

D.
Very poor

Very good
Somewhat good
Somewhat poor
Very poor
80%
8%
4%
8%
Mean = 1.40

Regulated
Open Access

Questions

Answers

Who

can fish?

Anyone

When,

where and
how can they fish?

Only when, where and how managers allow fishing

How much can an
individual fisherman
catch?

As much as he can, given management regulations

What limits the total
catch?

Area limits, gear limits, season

limits, & other types of
restrictions. Managers may close the fishery after a Total
Allowable Effort (TAE) or Total Allowable Catch (TAC) is
reached.

Real
-
world

fishery
examples?

Notes and
comments?

REGULATED OPEN ACCESS

REGULATED OPEN ACCESS


What is good or bad about this fishery management system?

Evaluation

criteria

What

is good or bad about this system?

Resource protection

Somewhat better; some biological controls,

You can control the timing,

you can protect juveniles;

“system isn’t enforceable”


䕣b湯浩m

敦晩捩f湣n

䙡楲c敳e

卩浰汩捩瑹

OTHER:

Costs higher than benefits, almost all fisheries in
developing countries, they seem not to be very good
at resource

proteciton
, economic efficiency, fairness,
or simplicity: a “disaster”

REGULATED OPEN ACCESS


How good or bad do YOU think this fishery management system is?

For each evaluation criterion, what score would YOU give it?

Evaluation

criteria

1 = very good

2 = somewhat good

3 = somewhat

poor

4 = very poor

Resource protection

Economic

efficiency

Fairness

Simplicity

How would YOU rate this type of management
system with respect to
resource protection
?

A.
Very good

B.
Somewhat good

C.
Somewhat poor

D.
Very poor

Very good
Somewhat good
Somewhat poor
Very poor
19%
8%
31%
42%
Mean = 2.27

How would YOU rate this type of management
system with respect to
economic efficiency
?

A.
Very good

B.
Somewhat good

C.
Somewhat poor

D.
Very poor

Very good
Somewhat good
Somewhat poor
Very poor
5%
40%
55%
0%
Mean = 3.30

How would YOU rate this type of management
system with respect to
fairness
?

A.
Very good

B.
Somewhat good

C.
Somewhat poor

D.
Very poor

Very good
Somewhat good
Somewhat poor
Very poor
15%
4%
23%
58%
Mean = 2.15

How would YOU rate this type of management
system with respect to
simplicity
?

A.
Very good

B.
Somewhat good

C.
Somewhat poor

D.
Very poor

Very good
Somewhat good
Somewhat poor
Very poor
8%
19%
31%
42%
Mean = 2.62

Limited Entry

Questions

Answers

Who

can fish?

Only holders of limited entry permits

When,

where and
how can they fish?

Only when, where and how managers allow fishing

How much can an
individual fisherman
catch?

As much as he can, given management regulations

What limits the total
catch?

Area limits, gear limits, season

limits, & other types of
restrictions. Managers may close the fishery after a Total
Allowable Effort (TAE) or Total Allowable Catch (TAC) is
reached.

Real
-
world

fishery
examples?

Notes and
comments?

LIMITED ENTRY

LIMITED ENTRY


What is good or bad about this fishery management system?

Evaluation

criteria

What

is good or bad about this system?

Resource protection

Economic

efficiency

Fairness

Simplicity

OTHER:

Many

countries have licensing systems; it depends
on the fishery

if it is valuable, it depends on the
value of the fishery;


Can be mixed up between
sysbsistence

and
commercial; may favor commercials; when you
restric

entry, you are looking for those who are fishing as a
busness
, you may turn away from those fishing for
subsistence

LIMITED ENTRY


How good or bad do YOU think this fishery management system is?

For each evaluation criterion, what score would YOU give it?

Evaluation

criteria

1 = very good

2 = somewhat good

3 = somewhat

poor

4 = very poor

Resource protection

Economic

efficiency

Fairness

Simplicity

How would YOU rate this type of management
system with respect to
resource protection
?

A.
Very good

B.
Somewhat good

C.
Somewhat poor

D.
Very poor

Very good
Somewhat good
Somewhat poor
Very poor
30%
0%
4%
65%
Mean = 1.74

How would YOU rate this type of management
system with respect to
economic efficiency
?

A.
Very good

B.
Somewhat good

C.
Somewhat poor

D.
Very poor

Very good
Somewhat good
Somewhat poor
Very poor
8%
4%
32%
56%
Mean = 2.32

How would YOU rate this type of management
system with respect to
fairness
?

A.
Very good

B.
Somewhat good

C.
Somewhat poor

D.
Very poor

Very good
Somewhat good
Somewhat poor
Very poor
0%
20%
48%
32%
Mean = 2.88

How would YOU rate this type of management
system with respect to
simplicity
?

A.
Very good

B.
Somewhat good

C.
Somewhat poor

D.
Very poor

Very good
Somewhat good
Somewhat poor
Very poor
15%
4%
38%
42%
Mean = 2.31

Individual
Catch Shares

Questions

Answers

Who

can fish?

Only holders of catch shares

When,

where and
how can they fish?

Only when, where and how managers allow fishing

How much can an
individual fisherman
catch?

Only as much as his

individual quota (his catch share of
the Total Allowable Catch)

What limits the total
catch?

The Total Allowable Catch (TAC)

Real
-
world

fishery
examples?

Notes and
comments?

INDIVIDUAL CATCH SHARES

INDIVIDUAL CATCH SHARES


What is good or bad about this fishery management system?

Evaluation

criteria

What

is good or bad about this system?

Resource protection

Depends on well
-
defined the stocks are


Economic

efficiency

Fairness

Simplicity

Requires

a high level of monitoring and administration

OTHER:

INDIVIDUAL CATCH SHARES


How good or bad do YOU think this fishery management system is?

For each evaluation criterion, what score would YOU give it?

Evaluation

criteria

1 = very good

2 = somewhat good

3 = somewhat

poor

4 = very poor

Resource protection

Economic

efficiency

Fairness

Simplicity

How would YOU rate this type of management
system with respect to
resource protection
?

A.
Very good

B.
Somewhat good

C.
Somewhat poor

D.
Very poor

Very good
Somewhat good
Somewhat poor
Very poor
79%
0%
4%
17%
Mean = 1.25

How would YOU rate this type of management
system with respect to
economic efficiency
?

A.
Very good

B.
Somewhat good

C.
Somewhat poor

D.
Very poor

Very good
Somewhat good
Somewhat poor
Very poor
56%
0%
0%
44%
Mean = 1.44

How would YOU rate this type of management
system with respect to
fairness
?

A.
Very good

B.
Somewhat good

C.
Somewhat poor

D.
Very poor

Very good
Somewhat good
Somewhat poor
Very poor
12%
36%
40%
12%
Mean = 3.00

How would YOU rate this type of management
system with respect to
simplicity
?

A.
Very good

B.
Somewhat good

C.
Somewhat poor

D.
Very poor

Very good
Somewhat good
Somewhat poor
Very poor
11%
11%
56%
22%
Mean = 2.67

Group Catch
Shares

Questions

Answers

Who

can fish?

Only those authorized by the group

When,

where and
how can they fish?

Only when, where and how managers and the Group
allow fishing

How much can an
individual fisherman
catch?

Only as much as the Group allows

What limits the total
catch?

The Total Allowable Catch (TAC). The

Group enforces (for
its members) the limit on the total catch of the Group to
the Group’s catch share of the TAC.

剥慬
-
w潲汤

晩獨f特
數慭a汥猿

乯瑥猠慮搠
捯浭c湴猿

GROUP CATCH SHARES

GROUP
CATCH SHARES


What is good or bad about this fishery management system?

Evaluation

criteria

What

is good or bad about this system?

Resource protection

Economic

efficiency

Fairness

Simplicity

OTHER:

GROUP CATCH SHARES


How good or bad do YOU think this fishery management system is?

For each evaluation criterion, what score would YOU give it?

Evaluation

criteria

1 = very good

2 = somewhat good

3 = somewhat

poor

4 = very poor

Resource protection

Economic

efficiency

Fairness

Simplicity

How would YOU rate this type of management
system with respect to
resource protection
?

A.
Very good

B.
Somewhat good

C.
Somewhat poor

D.
Very poor

Very good
Somewhat good
Somewhat poor
Very poor
0%
0%
0%
0%
How would YOU rate this type of management
system with respect to
economic efficiency
?

A.
Very good

B.
Somewhat good

C.
Somewhat poor

D.
Very poor

Very good
Somewhat good
Somewhat poor
Very poor
0%
0%
0%
0%
How would YOU rate this type of management
system with respect to
fairness
?

A.
Very good

B.
Somewhat good

C.
Somewhat poor

D.
Very poor

Very good
Somewhat good
Somewhat poor
Very poor
0%
0%
0%
0%
How would YOU rate this type of management
system with respect to
simplicity
?

A.
Very good

B.
Somewhat good

C.
Somewhat poor

D.
Very poor

Very good
Somewhat good
Somewhat poor
Very poor
0%
0%
0%
0%
Self
-

Governance

Questions

Answers

Who

can fish?

Only those authorized by the Group

When,

where and
how can they fish?

Only when, where and how the Group allows

How much can an
individual fisherman
catch?

Only as much as the Group allows

What limits the total
catch?

The Total Allowable Catch (TAC) established by the Group

Real
-
world

fishery
examples?

Notes and
comments?

SELF
-
GOVERNANCE

SELF
-
GOVERNANCE


What is good or bad about this fishery management system?

Evaluation

criteria

What

is good or bad about this system?

Resource protection

Economic

efficiency

Fairness

Simplicity

OTHER:

SELF
-
GOVERNANCE


How good or bad do YOU think this fishery management system is?

For each evaluation criterion, what score would YOU give it?

Evaluation

criteria

1 = very good

2 = somewhat good

3 = somewhat

poor

4 = very poor

Resource protection

Economic

efficiency

Fairness

Simplicity

How would YOU rate this type of management
system with respect to
resource protection
?

A.
Very good

B.
Somewhat good

C.
Somewhat poor

D.
Very poor

Very good
Somewhat good
Somewhat poor
Very poor
0%
0%
0%
0%
How would YOU rate this type of management
system with respect to
economic efficiency
?

A.
Very good

B.
Somewhat good

C.
Somewhat poor

D.
Very poor

Very good
Somewhat good
Somewhat poor
Very poor
0%
0%
0%
0%
How would YOU rate this type of management
system with respect to
fairness
?

A.
Very good

B.
Somewhat good

C.
Somewhat poor

D.
Very poor

Very good
Somewhat good
Somewhat poor
Very poor
0%
0%
0%
0%
How would YOU rate this type of management
system with respect to
simplicity
?

A.
Very good

B.
Somewhat good

C.
Somewhat poor

D.
Very poor

Very good
Somewhat good
Somewhat poor
Very poor
0%
0%
0%
0%
Summary of Mean Scores for Each System

1

Unregul
-

ated

open
access

2

Regul
-
ated


open

access

3

Limited
entry

4

Individual
catch shares

A. Resource
protection

3.62

2.27

1.74

1.25

B.

Economic

efficiency

3.46

3.3

2.32

1.44

C. Fairness

2.83

2.15

2.88

3.0

D. Simplicity

1.4

2.62

2.31

2.67

MY HYPOTHESIS:


There is no “perfect” fishery management system


No system performs “best” with respect to all objectives


Systems that perform well with respect to some objectives may
perform poorly with respect to other objectives

DID YOU AGREE?

My conclusion . . .


For any society, the “best”
fishery management system
depends upon
the
society’s
objectives as well as the
specific circumstances of the
society, the fishery
,
markets
,
and technology.