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15 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Design Study

High Luminosity LHC (HL
-
LHC)

Collaborative Project

FP7
-
INFRASTRUCTURE
-
2010

By Lucio Rossi


CERN

1st Meeting @ CERN 20 July

LHC and EU
Particle

Physics

Lisbona

2006

The European strategy for particle physics



Scientific activities

3. The LHC will be the energy frontier machine for the

foreseeable future, maintaining European leadership in the

field;
the highest priority is to fully exploit the physics potential

of the LHC, resources for completion of the initial
programme

have to be secured such that machine and experiments can operate

optimally at their design performance.
A subsequent major

luminosity upgrade (SLHC), motivated by physics results

and operation experience, will be enabled by
focussed

R&D;

to this end, R&D for machine and detectors has to be vigorously

pursued now and centrally organized towards a luminosity

upgrade by around 2015.



1 y of
delay

in LHC and detector
commissioning



2 y for the incident and for
next

splice

consolidation



2 y more of
operation

to
reach

~500 fb
-
1

(Int.
Lumi

per
year

~ 50 fb
-
1, not 100 !)


Statement

is

perfectly

actual

and
valid

However

the date
must
be

shifted

5
years

20 July 2010

2

L. Rossi
-

HL
-
LHC Design Study

The
baseline

in 2003
-
2006

Radiation damage limit
~700 fb
-
1

Paper of J. Strait et
al. PAC2003

Need

of change in 2013
-
15. Main hardware:



HF
Quadrupole

magnets

for 13
-
15 T

New program (in // to LHC construction)



US
-
LARP in US in 2003 (6 MCHF/y 2006
-
13)


based

on a Nb
3
Sn DOE program 1998
-
2010



FP6
-
CARE : NED JRA to
develop

EU Nb3Sn in
2004
-
08 .
Its

positive
effects

NOW!



FP7
EuCard

IA: WP on HFM 2009
-
2012


In 2007 new


anticipated



scenario :



Nb
3
Sn not
ready

before

2015
-
17



Decision

to
target

a first upgrade in 2012
-
13



Phase 1
based

on Nb
-
Ti
Ø=120 mm


FP7 SLHC
-
PP
launched

for 2008
-
2010

20 July 2010

3

L. Rossi
-

HL
-
LHC Design Study

Updated

LHC
lumi

vs. (end of)
year

0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
-5.1E+19
2.0E+33
4.0E+33
6.0E+33
8.0E+33
1.0E+34
1.2E+34
1.4E+34
1.6E+34
1.8E+34
2.0E+34
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
Integrated luminosity [fb
-
1
]

Luminosity [cm
-
2
s
-
1
]

to nominal - lumi
to ultimate - lumi
hf.2 - lumi
to ultimate
to nominal
hf.2 - int
Courtesy

of M.
Lamont
,
spring

2010

20 July 2010

4

L. Rossi
-

HL
-
LHC Design Study

MTP “Observations from the DG”


Thus, the MTP assumes the feasibility of the energy
upgrade of the PS Booster and does not include the
start of the LP
-
SPL and PS2 construction as of 2013


In order to optimize the strategy towards the
HL
-
LHC,

with the goal of maximizing the integrated luminosity
useful for physics, Management has set up a task force.
A preliminary recommendation from this task force is to
delay the inner triplet replacement to a
single HL
-
LHC
upgrade around 2020.


Now at CERN a project has been set lead by Lucio Rossi
(Oliver Bruning, deputy).


20 July 2010

5

L. Rossi
-

HL
-
LHC Design Study

What needs for average
lumi

5x10
34


New lay
-
out of some part of LHC


Improve some correctors


Commissioning @ 600
-
650 A the lattice
sextupoles


New MQT corrector scheme using existing spare 600 A bus bars


Re
-
commissioning DS quads at higher gradient


Review MSs


Change of New Q5/Q4 (larger aperture), with new stronger
corrector orbit, displacements of few magnets


Larger aperture D2


(may be other actions, more quads in points 6 and 7)


Displacement of Power Converters & DFBs at least of Inner
Triplets but also of OTHER equipment on
surface

by means
of SC links.


Cryo
-
plant for RF in point 4 : 5
-
7 kW @ 4.5 K

20 July 2010

L. Rossi
-

HL
-
LHC Design Study

6

The main ingredient of the upgrade

IR Quads


High Gradient/Large Aperture Quads, with
B
peak

13
-
15 T
.

Higher field quadrupoles translate in
higher gradient/shorter length

or larger
aperture/same length or a mix .
US
-
LARP
engaged to produce proof by 2013. Construction
is 1 year more than
Nb
-
Ti : by 2018

is a prudent
assumption.



as small as 22 cm are possible
with a
factor

㈮2

in luminosity by itself,
if
coupled with

a mechanism to compensate the
geometrical reduction.
If a new way of correcting
chromatic aberration could be found
,



慳獭s汬
as 10
-
12 cm can be eventually envisaged.



20 July 2010

L. Rossi
-

HL
-
LHC Design Study

7

HF Nb
3
Sn Quad


Nb
3
Sn is becoming a reality (first LQ long
-
3.6 m


quad 90 mm)


This year we expect a second LQ
and a 1 m long
-

120 mm

aperture model


In 3 years: 4
-
6 m long magnets, 120 mm ap., G=180
-
200 T/m


20 July 2010

L. Rossi
-

HL
-
LHC Design Study

8

8
9
10
11
12
13
14
0
10
20
30
40
50
Quench number
Current (kA)
TQS01a
TQS02a
TQS03a
LQS01a
4.5 K

~3 K

1.9 K

Note
: LQS01 &
TQS02

use same strand
design

(RRP 54/61)

200 T/m


Crab Cavities
: this is the best candidate for exploiting
small



(for



around nominal only +15%). However
it should be underlined that today Crab Cavities are not
validated for LHC , not even conceptually:
the issue of
machine protection should be addressed with
priority.



Global Scheme. 1 cavity in IP4, Proof on LHC, good for 1 X
-
ing
.


Semi
-
global; it may work!(JP
Koutchouck
)


Local scheme; 1 cavity per IP side.
Maybe local doglegs needed.



Early Separation Scheme
could be an alternative (or a
complement)


Both

scheme
,
Crab

Cavities

and ESS
provide

a simple
mean

to do
levelling

The main ingredient of the upgrade

RF Crab cavities

20 July 2010

9

L. Rossi
-

HL
-
LHC Design Study

Crab Cavities

20 July 2010

L. Rossi
-

HL
-
LHC Design Study

10

q
c

Elliptical 800 MHz not far from being
designed. Require 400 mm beam
-
beam


400 MHz small cavity under conceptual
study, they can (?) fit in 194 mm beam
-
beam. Required for final solution


Ref. : F. Zimmermann, Ed
Ciapala


New
Cryoplants

in IP1 & IP5: for power AND to
make independent Arc
-

IR:

2.8 kW @ 1.8 K scales as 5.2 kW @ 2 K (for 1 set
of cold compressor)


Special

dedicated

collimation system (
also

for
background) and Machine protection


Robotics

for
remote

manipulation


Dismantling

present

Triplet


Installation HL
-
LHC


Maintenance


Dismounting

HL
-
LHC ???


Making the system capable to swallow
2
-
4 kW per IP

20 July 2010

11

L. Rossi
-

HL
-
LHC Design Study

It
is

new
entire

project



we

need

a Design
Study


The
work

od

SLHC
-
PP has been essential to arrive to
thsi

pointz

and
most

of
it

will

be

used


Scope of the HL
-
LHC DS:


Carry out the study to produce a consistent design to
reach 5 10
34

with
levelling
, allow LHC to reach the goal of
1000 fb
-
1

by 2025


Exploring in details all solutions and paths for the upgrade, both
in terms of LHC operational mode and hardware changes


Producing by end 2013 a PDR (Preliminary Design Report)
enabling the CERN Council
, to make a choice about the
configuration of LHC upgrade.


Producing

by end of 2014/
half

2015 a TDR (Technical Design
Report) of the
selected

path

for the upgrade
defining

the
maximum goal for the LHC
luminosity


20 July 2010

12

L. Rossi
-

HL
-
LHC Design Study

New CERN plan

Already

in: new
Cryo

P4

CC in P4


possibly

11 T
dipole

for DS in 2016

20 July 2010

L. Rossi
-

HL
-
LHC Design Study

13

HL
-
LHC
is

well

anchored

in the
program of CERN.

However

the
prgram

may

suffer

from

reduction

of
budget, shift in the
LHC
schedule



But
it

may

be

required

to
compensate

SHORTFALL in LHC…

Resources


10 M


total
cost

over 4
years
: July 2011
-
2015


Reimbursment

by EU


40%
may

be

reimbursed

by EU


CERN
offers

by free the
technical

development
, but
will

be

reimbursed

100% for
management. Exception for
fellow
?


We

need

to use
EuCard

(and
other

program)


Most of
resources

on personnel


Some

hardware,
especially

for
orphan

items


Generate

positive attitude in
other

labs
:


KEK has put (
with

no
engagments

10 MCHF + 50 MCHF for HL
-
LHC
-
Magnets

R&D and construction…)


US
-
LARP
Magnets

R&D
is

perhaps

getting

reinforced




Non EU
labs

can

participate

to
governance

(but no EU
funds
)


The
names

herein

are CERN
coordinators
:
each

of
it

will

be

joined

by a
non
-
CERN
coordinator
.
Except

project

Coordinator
, the
co
-
ordinator

ijn

charge for
two

years
,
nominate

by the
governing

board
.

20 July 2010

14

L. Rossi
-

HL
-
LHC Design Study

WP 1


Management

Lucio Rossi


Main
tasks


General management of the DS and
link

with

other

similar

entities

outside

EU


General plan and
coherence

of the
parameters


Risk

Analysis

and mitigation plans


Coordination
with

the LHC machines performance and planning


LHC INJ
requirements



Coordination
with

Physics

requirement



Link to
outside

partner



Synergy

with

HE
-
LHC design
feature


Outreach

and
dissemination


Radioprotection &
Legal


Enviroment

impact


Participant: CERN

20 July 2010

15

L. Rossi
-

HL
-
LHC Design Study

WP2


Beam

Physics

and Lay
-
out

Oliver Bruning


Topics:


Investigate the parameter space: optics (beta*, beta* aspect ratio) and “moderately” the beam
parameters (beam pattern, bunch charge,
emittance
, bunch length) to establish a baseline
corresponding to a peak luminosity ≥ 5E34 without head
-
on collision tools (crab
-
cavities, D0 or b
-
b
wire) .


Specify, organise and participate to dedicated LHC machine studies to validate some specific
aspects the proposed baseline (e.g. off
-
momentum beta
-
beating correction, two
-
stages squeeze
concept of the low
-
beta IR’s and flat beam optics).


Study and establish a short list of additional ingredients (head
-
on collision tools, more aggressive
beam parameters, e.g. so
-
called LPA scheme) to reach the integrated luminosity goal (5E34 average
lumi

per coast after levelling).


Develop and maintain consistency in the parameters and modelling for any kind of beam dynamics
studies (dynamic aperture, beam
-
beam and dedicated studies in collaboration with the collimation
and crab
-
cavity work
-
packages):


Develop new physical model and numerical tools (e.g. beam
-
beam kick induced by a fully 6D
coupled strong beam for simulations with crab
-
cavities).


Provide a consistent infrastructure (HL
-
LHC sequence, optics, aperture model, model for
magnet field imperfections, Mad
-
X reference jobs).


Interface with WP3 to specify the main parameters and layout of the HL
-
LHC new magnets (IT, D1,
D2, Q4) and additional hardware modifications or tests needed in the LHC Ring (magnet re
-
commissioning at higher than nominal currents, layout modifications in other LHC insertions as IR6
or IR4).


20 July 2010

16

L. Rossi
-

HL
-
LHC Design Study

WP 2
cont
.


Partners


CERN


US LARP


KEK


INFN


CEA
-
CNRS


UK (CKI) ?


German

Universities

KIT ?


ES (Valencia) ?


PSI ? EPFL ?

20 July 2010

L. Rossi
-

HL
-
LHC Design Study

17

WP3
-
Magnet

Design

Ezio Todesco


Main
topics


Magnet

lay
-
out modification (
with

WP2)


NbTi

assesment

and
parameters

for IR and
MSs


New
Magnet

Corrector Design


NbSn

assessment

and
parameters

for IR and DS


Assessment

of new
technology

for IR (HTS for
magnetized

TAS,
etc
…)


Sc

links and PC relocation


Synergy

with

HE
-
LHC
technolgy


Participation


CERN


UniGe


CEA


INFN


Uni
SouthHampton


US
-
LARP


KEK


STCF
-
RAL ?



20 July 2010

18

L. Rossi
-

HL
-
LHC Design Study

WP4: Crab Cavity Design (1/2)

Ed Ciapala


Main cavity topics:


Design optimization for novel schemes (minimum # of peripherals)


Cavity and cryomodule specifications (LHC report)


Simulations (Couplers, tuner, MP, mechanical, thermal, …)


Fabrication and measurements on copper models field profile,
impedance, errors)


Demonstration of field gradients in compact cavities (4 structures)


Q
-
slope, onset of field emission and quench


Performance, decide between 2K and 4K


Coupler and tuner development and testing


Study of mech. resonances,
microphonics


Performance with couplers and horizontal cryostat


Performance with beam (e.g. SPS
-

impedance, collimation)


Interlocks and fast Feedback (other measures like
Qext
)


Common power and cryogenic systems across the IPs (?)


LLRF and controls

20 July 2010

19

L. Rossi
-

HL
-
LHC Design Study

WP4: Crab Cavity Design (2/2)



Main CC with beam topics


RF behavior for cavity quench or turbulent behavior


Tracking simulations for loss maps for fast failure modes (with WP 6 “Machine
protection”)


Beam
-
beam simulations to investigate instabilities, noise issues and DA (with
WP 2 “Beam physics”)


Impedance and growth rate estimates for specific HOMs to specify exact
damping and feedback measures


Effect of non
-
zero dispersion and stable working points (with WP 2 “Beam
physics”)


Crab consistent optics (with WP 2 “Beam physics”)



Potential participants:


CERN


Cockcroft Institute (U
Lanc
)


US
-
LARP


KEK


CEA

20 July 2010

20

L. Rossi
-

HL
-
LHC Design Study

WP5


Collimation & Beam Losses

Ralph Assmann


Topics:


Design of modified IR collimation system for the 2018
-
20 high luminosity
upgrade.


IR loss
-
maps and support for background studies.


Impact of upgrades (e.g. crab cavities, off
-
momentum beta beat) on the
collimation system.


Collimators, absorbers, … for the high luminosity upgrade.


Does not include the high intensity upgrade of the collimation system
presently foreseen for 2014/15.


Participants


CERN


LARP/FNAL (N. Mokhov)


RHUL (G. Blair)


University Valencia (A. Faus
-
Golfe)


20 July 2010

21

L. Rossi
-

HL
-
LHC Design Study

WP6


Machine Protection

Jorg Wenninger


Content


Dump


Kicker


Failure

scenario


Safety

of new
equipment


Interlock mangement


Partecipants
:


CERN


?

20 July 2010

22

L. Rossi
-

HL
-
LHC Design Study

WP7
-
Machine
-
Experiment

Interface

Austin Ball, Marzio Nessi


Content


Strategy
,
operation

mode,
beam

types


L* and Absorber,
aligment


Backgrounds (
with

WP5)


Early

separation

scheme


Integration


Interlocks


Partecipants


CERN


ATLAS & CMS


?

20 July 2010

23

L. Rossi
-

HL
-
LHC Design Study

Milestone



20 July : Meeting
with

our

EU (US
-
J ?)
partners


10 August: second
draft



September

: 2
nd

Meeting


September

:
visit

Brux
.?


1
October
:
near

to final
draft


15
October

last meeting
with

approval

of
docum
.


1
Nov

:
submission


Deadline
is

15
November


Lucio + Oliver + all



Lucio



Lucio & Oliver + all


Lucio & JPK +…


Lucio & Oliver + all



Lucio & Oliver



Lucio


All to
meet

it

!!!

20 July 2010

24

L. Rossi
-

HL
-
LHC Design Study