Elements of Surveying (CEL271)

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Elements of Surveying (CEL271)

Gazala Habib

Dept. of Civil Engg.

Contact:

Room No. 303, Block
-
4

E
-
mail: gazalahabib@gmail.com

Phone: 1192 (Office)

Books


Surveying by S K Duggal, Tata McGraw Hill, Vol 1


Surveying: Theory and practices, S. S Bhavikatti


Surveying and levelling by N. N Basak


Plane surveying A M Chandra


Surveying (Vol
-
1) by B. C. Punmia, Ashok K. Jain and Arun K.
Jain



Laboratory


Lab timing for all group: 2
-
4 pm (Monday
-
Friday)



Room Number: Block IV, 335


Contact: Mr. Rajeev Sharma (Phone: 6442)

Attendance policy


All
students must attend all classes.
Attendance record will be maintained
and will be periodically
uploaded through the UG web
-
site.




Lectures: 70 marks for attendance, surprise quizzes, homework,
assignments and exams



Laboratory: 30 marks for attendance, surprise quizzes, notebook, viva



If
attendance of the student is greater than 90%, result of the best three
quizzes will be considered else average of all quizzes will be considered.



If
a student’s attendance is less than 75%, the student will be awarded one
grade less than the actual grade that he(she) has earned. For
example
, a
student who has got A grade but has attendance less than 75% will be
awarded A
-

grade.

Marks, Exam, Assignment


Lectures

Lab

Minor 1

10

Viva

10

Minor 2

10

Surprise quiz

10

Major

30

Notebook

5

Surprise Quiz

(any number)
+ Assignments +
Homework

10

Attendance >=
90%

5

Attendance (>=90%) + class participation (>=80% of
time) means out of 10 question asked in class at least
8 should be correct

10

Attendance Policy …Contd.


If a student has a valid medical certificate (from IITD hospital or a registered
medical practitioner) because of which he/she has missed an evaluation
component the compensation will be decided and put on notice board.



If a student has missed any of the minors due to medical reasons or family
emergency alternatives will be arranged.
For example if a person misses
minor
-
1 because of health problem he/she should produce the medical
certificate immediately after re
-
joining the class and the re
-
minor will be
conducted last working day of next week after minor
-
1.




If a student misses Major examination he should apply for an I
-
grade or an
extended
-
I grade. HOD will approve I
-
grade based on his/her assessment of
the situation. In that case examination must be conducted within 10 days of
completion of the majors. Dean, UGS will award the extended
-
I grade and in
that case examination must be conducted within the first ten working days of
the next semester.

Marks policy


Full marks will be awarded for correct procedure and correct answer. 3/4 marks for
correct procedure but wrong answer. Zero marks for wrong procedure and correct
answer.




All evaluation components including Minor and Major scripts will be shown to the
students. Within 7
-
15 days after exam along with the model answer.



The date and time for showing script will be displayed in the notice board. The
schedule will be group wise.



Grading of a course will be finalized and displayed after following the process of
moderation.



THEREFORE, NO INFORMATION WILL BE GIVEN ABOUT GRADING BEFORE THE
MODERATION COMMITTEE’S MEETING, AND NO CHANGES WILL BE DONE ONCE
THE GRADE IS DISPLAYED AFTER IMPLEMENTATION OF MODERATION
COMMITTEE’S SUGGESTIONS. [PLEASE DO NOT BEG TO CHANGE THE GRADE
ONCE IT IS FINILIZED AFTER MODERATION COMMITTEE’S MEETING]


Surveying


What is surveying?

Surveying

may

be

defined

as

the

science

of

determining

the

position,

in

three

dimensions,

of

natural

and

man
-
made

features

on

or

beneath

the

surface

of

the

Earth
.

These

features

may

then

be

represented

in

analog

form

as

a

contoured

map,

plan

or

chart,

or

in

digital

form

as

a

three

dimensional

mathematical

model

stored

in

the

computer
.


Objective of course


To understand the basic concept of surveying



Apply the surveying concept and equipments in real life



You should be able to use a set of tools to solve the problems
in an optimal way



You should be able to understand the pitfalls (sources of
error) to avoid them

Application of surveying in civil
Engineering


The planning and design of all Civil Engineering projects such as
construction of highways, bridges, tunnels, dams etc are based upon
surveying measurements.


Project of any magnitude is constructed along the lines and points
established by surveying. Thus, surveying is a basic requirement for all Civil
Engineering projects.


Other principal works in which surveying is primarily utilized are





to fix the national and state boundaries;





to chart coastlines, navigable streams and lakes;





to establish
control points





to execute hydrographic and oceanographic charting and mapping; and





to prepare topographic map of land surface of the earth.


Instruments…

Levelling Staff

Digital level

Tilting Level


Telescope is fixed cannot be tilted

or moved

Dumpy Level


Telescope can be tilted slightly
about its horizontal axis with the
help of tilting screw.


The line of collimation is made
horizontal for each observation
with the help of tilting screw



Instrument can be levelled automatically
within a certain tilt range

Levelling staff


Sewer Projects

1.
Firm under contract

2.
Preliminary studies

1.
General layout map

2.
Buildings located on general layout

3.
Treatment site search

4.
Preliminary paper layout


1.
Make sure every building and potential building site
can be served

2.
Manhole system placed on general layout


Sewer Projects

5.
Preliminary filed work

1.
Preliminary profiles

1.
BM system established

2.
Manholes set

3.
Profiles run

4.
Basement elevations acquired

2.
Design mapping

1.
Final plans

3.
Treatment area

4.
Boundary survey

5.
Complete topo of area

Sewer Projects

3.
Design process

1.
Sewer line design

1.
Preliminary profiles drawn

1.
Basement elevations plotted

2.
Manholes placed on profiles

3.
Slope between manholes computed

4.
Problem areas


alternate service routes selected

1.
Manholes set in field

2.
Profiles run

3.
Revert to 3A

Sewer Projects

2.
Treatment plant design

1.
Topo map prepared

2.
Type system verified

3.
Treatment system sized based on existing and
projected population

4.
System designed

3.
Plans drafted

1.
Sewer plans normally prepared on plan/profile sheets


Sewer Projects

2.
Treatment plant drawn using plan sheets and cross
sections

3.
Quantities computed

4.
Specifications

1.
Written instructions on how every item to be built

2.
Include contract documents and bid proposal

4.
Bidding procedure

1.
Notice of bid advertised on local paper

2.
Pre
-
bid meeting

Sewer Projects

3.
Bidding

1.
Each contractor submits sealed bid

2.
Bids opened and tabulated

3.
Engineer reviews proposals

4.
Engineer recommends which bid to accept

4.
Contract awarded


Sewer Projects

5.
Construction

1.
Surveying

1.
Contractor required to hire surveyor for stakeout

2.
Manholes referenced

3.
Staking methods

1.
Batter board method

2.
Laser method

4.
Measurement of quantities

6.
As Built

Water distribution systems

1.
Put under contract


water district formed

2.
Preliminary studies

1.
General layout prepared

2.
Water district signs up users

3.
Water source located

4.
Waterlines placed on general layout

1.
Hydraulic gradient plotted from USGS topo

Water distribution systems

5.
Pump station and water storage sites

1.
Property acquired by perpetual easement or purchased

2.
Boundary survey performed for each site

3.
Topo each site

3.
Field work

1.
Plan preparation

1.
Normally photogrammetrically

1.
Flight plan sent on general layout

2.
Take photos and post measure horizontal control

3.
Plan sheets marked on photos using template

Water distribution systems

2.
Waterlines placed on plan sheets

2.
Crossings and easements

1.
Every location where waterline crosses paved road,
railroad


has to be topo, cross sectioned, and tied to
nearest stationing or milepost

2.
Crossings plotted and permits applied for


railroads,
state DOT, township and county roads

3.
Easement descriptions prepared


Water distribution systems

4.
Final design

1.
All waterlines and appurtenances on plans,
easements, acquired and in docket form, rock
excavation on plans

1.
Quantities computed

2.
System driven to make sure nothing missed

2.
Tanks and P.S.

1.
Designed and sized

2.
Quantities computed

Water distribution systems

5.
Bidding

6.
Construction

1.
Water distribution system

1.
Waterline stakeout

1.
Each easement plotted on plans

2.
Crossings as permitted staked

2.
Quantities

2.
Tanks and PS

1.
Foundation staked

2.
Must be checked for plumb

7.
As built

Architectural Projects

1.
Firm Under contract

2.
Preliminary fieldwork

1.
Boundary survey

1.
Description provided

2.
Fieldwork

1.
Monument search, traverse site

2.
Compute data and analysis

3.
Final stakeout

3.
Easement and encroachment search

4.
Plat of survey

Architectural Projects

2.
Topo


grid method most common

1.
Grid pattern 25’


100’

2.
BM


USGS

3.
Entire tract topo and adjacent areas to access

4.
Utilities


nearest tied in

5.
Include all objects above, on or below, ground

6.
Prepare topo map

7.
Field check map

Architectural Projects

3.
Construction

1.
Control

1.
If large building


you may want to establish TBM’s on
control Mon.

2.
Stakeout

1.
Convert architects dimensions to engineering

2.
Layout clearing and excavation limits

3.
Layout underground piping

Architectural Projects

4.
Layout footings and foundations

5.
Layout building corners and supports

6.
Locate roads and parking areas

7.
Locate lighting and other project extras

3.
As built

Structure and Terrain Movement


Used to monitor:

1.
Movement of buildings ( x, y, and z)

2.
Movement of bridges

3.
Movement of dams

4.
Landslides and earthquakes

5.
Amusement park rides

Structure and Terrain Movement


Description


error within system must be
less than smallest movement to be observed


2 groups of monuments installed

1.
Reference or control monuments

2.
Deformation or movement monuments


Structure and Terrain Movement


Control


generally concrete pillars extending
3
-
4 feet out of ground with tribrach
permanently attached


Movement monuments


for earthquake or
landslide may be similar deep monuments

Structure and Terrain Movement


Equipment:

1.
GPS

2.
Turned angles

3.
Angle/Distance

4.
Leveling

Classification of surveying: Based on
function


Primary division based on shape of the earth


Geodic survey: if the area surveyed is more than 1000 km
2

geodic
surveying must be employed


Plane survey


Classification based on function of survey


Control surveying: establishing the horizontal and vertical positions of
widely spaced control points using geodic method.


Land surveying: to determine the boundaries and areas of parcel of
land.


City surveying: urban planning


Topographic surveys: depiction of topography of a region. Including
natural and man made features


Engineering survey: for laying out engineering projects.


Route survey: planning designing and execution of highways, railways,
canals, pipelines etc.


Construction surveys: required to establish points lines, grades and for
staking out engineering works after the plans have been prepared and
the structural design has n=been done.

Classification of surveying: Based on
function


Astronomic survey: are conducted for the determination of
latitudes, longitudes, azimuths, local time etc. for various
places by observing heavenly bodies such as suns and stars.


Geological survey: to determine the strata of the earth’s crust
for geological studies.


Archaeological surveys: unearthing relics of antiquity


Mine surveys: exploration of mineral deposits, and to guide
tunnelling and other operations associated with mining.


Satellite surveys: to establish intercontinental, interdatum and
interisland geodic ties over the world by making satellite
observations.


Military surveys: conducted for military purpose.




Classification of surveying: Based on
instruments


Chain survey: only linear measurements are made with chain or tape no angular
measurements are taken


Compass survey: horizontal angles are measured with the help of magnetic
compass


Plane table survey: The map is prepared in the field itself by determining the
directions of various lines making linear measurements, and plotting the details
on paper using a plane table


Levelling survey: this type of survey is used to determine the elevations and
relative heights of the points with the help of instrument known as level.


Theodolite survey: theodolite survey is primarily used in traversing and
triangulation for providing controls. The horizontal and vertical angles are
measured with the help of theodolite.


Tacheometric survey: a special type of theodolite known as tacheometer, is used
to determine horizontal and vertical distances directly.


Photogrammetric survey: measurements are made with help photograph.


EDM Survey: linear measurements are made with the help of EDM instruments.

Principles of surveying


Fixing the points in relation to points already
fixed
http
://nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/Webcourse
-
contents/IIT
-
ROORKEE/SURVEYING/modules/module1/htm
lpage/9.htm#


Principle of surveying


Working from whole to part:


to localize the errors and


to control the accumulation of errors.



Establish primary control points with high precision


Establish secondary and tertiary control points within
the system boundary and form triangle/rectangle may
be with less precision.


This will help in localizing the error and to control the
propagation of error.


Working from whole to part


Errors