Programación Natural Sciences Core Concepts 2º ESO English

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OXFORD CLIL

(CORE CONCEPTS)




NATURAL
SCIENCES



ESO
2







Natural Sciences ESO 2 (Core Concepts)



Oxford CLIL
(Oxford EDUCACIÓN)

1

CONTENTS



1. INTRODUCTION


2

2. METHODOLOGY


4

3. BASIC COMPETENCES


8

4.
ACTIVITIES,
ATTENTION TO
DIVERSITY, ASSESSMENT, AND
ASSESSMENT OF
BASIC
COMPETENCES



15

5. PROGRAMMES

OF STUDY

19


SECTION I.

MATTER AND ENERGY


19

Unit 1. The
material world: atoms

19

Unit 2. Matter and energy

22

Unit 3. Motion

25

Unit 4. Forces and their effects

28


SECTION II.

TRANSFER OF ENERGY


3
1

Unit
5
.
Heat and temperature

3
1

Unit
6
.
Sound

34

Unit
7
.
Light

36


SECTION III.

THE EARTH


3
9

Unit
8
. The Earth
’s internal energy

3
9

Unit
9
. The
E
arth
’s relief

42


SECTION IV.

LIVING THINGS


4
5

Unit
10
.
The functions of living
t
hings (I)

4
5

Unit
11
.
The functions of living things (II)

4
8

Unit 1
2
.
Matter and energy in ecosystems

50

Unit 1
3
.
Diversity in ecosystems

53

Natural Sciences ESO 2 (Core Concepts)



Oxford CLIL
(Oxford EDUCACIÓN)

2

1. INTRODUCTION


This document refers to the
second
-
year ESO

syllabus for
Natural
Sciences

and is
based on the

Royal Decree 1631/2006 of 29 December,

approved by the then
Ministry of Education and Science (MEC), which establishes the minimum syllabus
requirements for Compulsory Secondary Education (ESO) according to

the

Constitutional L
aw on Education (LOE).


According to the LOE, one of the aims of school education is to enable students to
communicate


to understand and express themselves orally and in writing


in one or
more foreign languages. To help further this aim, the same
Royal

Decree

gives local
education authorities the power to authorise schools to teach some curriculum subjects
in a foreign language, as long as the basic curriculum requirements are met.


As a result
, an

increasing number of primary and secondary schools are

offering a
range of curriculum subjects through the medium of a foreign language, especially
English. The aim of this so
-
called ‘bilingual’ education is to develop students’ linguistic
competence in all of the four skills of listening, speaking, reading a
nd writing through
content and language integrated learning (CLIL).
The Oxford CLIL series
has been
conceived and developed

specifically
for the needs of secondary students in bilingual
sections and schools. It covers the curriculum requirements in the sub
ject area
providing students with the necessary subject knowledge, whil
e

at the same time
developing their linguistic skills in both their mother tongue and English.



Another key feature of the LOE is the integration of
basic competences

into the
curriculum. The course objectives, content, methodology and assessment criteria are
now closely linked to these competences, which guide the teaching and learning
process.


In each of the 13 teaching units for this subject and school year, conce
pts, procedures
and attitudes are all interlinked and geared towards the teaching and learning process.
Each one performs a different, yet complementary, role in the students' learning
process. This is also clearly reflected in the assessment criteria and
the basic
competences and subcompetences, which each apply to different content types and
require different approaches in the classroom. Students should always be encouraged
to participate and learn to work independently as well as in a team, in such a way

that
they themselves
construct

their own knowledge, another feature of competence
-
based
education. This is even more essential in a bilingual context. Teaching students the
values of a democratic, free, tolerant and multicultural society continues to be o
ne of
the priorities of the education system, as reflected in the objectives of this stage of
education and in those of this subject in particular. In the different units, students will
develop the skills directly linked to all the basic competences and, i
n addition,
competence in the foreign language.


Each teaching unit starts with an opening section
which presents the unit content

through a series of questions. These can help to remind students of their previous
knowledge of the upcoming contents
.

The s
ubsequent unit contents are presented in a
clear, organised and concise way. The approach to each topic, the vocabulary, the
complexity of the contents have all been adapted to the cognitive abilities of the
students. The language level has been carefully
graded for non
-
native speakers. The
content
is

presented and explained using explanatory boxes and visual support
(photographs, illustrations, etc.), which is a key learning tool, helping students
understand new concepts and language more easily. There is

also a summary chart of
the unit content at the
beginning
of each unit.



Natural Sciences ESO 2 (Core Concepts)



Oxford CLIL
(Oxford EDUCACIÓN)

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As far as possible, classroom learning should be adapted to students’ own day
-
to
-
day
reality and interests. In other words, it should be
meaningful
. As such, whenever
possible, the
content

is

presented through real, familiar examples, so that the students
become both actively and receptively involved in their own learning.


However, the pace at which each student learns varies, depending on his or her
cognitive development and socia
l and family environment. As such, attention to
diversity amongst students and in their learning environment is a fundamental part of
teaching. Many activities (in both the textbook and the teacher's resources) are
designed to meet the needs of an inevitab
ly diverse classroom.


Section 5 of this document (Programmes of study) sets out the contents of each unit,
dividing them into the classic categories of concepts, procedures and attitudes.
Although the contents are not classified as such in the legislation
, they figure in this
form in the school curriculum and can be used to support and document different
teaching and learning strategies. We think that it is important that students continue to
learn concepts, procedures (skills) and attitudes, so that they
can use all of these to
acquire the basic competences.


The cou
rse contents are divided into 13

teaching units. Each is presented here, divided
into a series of sections to demonstrate how the teaching and learning process will take
place:



Unit objectives



Unit contents (concepts, procedures and attitudes)



Assessment criteria



Basic competences/subcompetences linked to the assessment criteria and
learning activities.


The textbook used is
Natural

Sciences
ESO
2
Core concepts

(Oxford

CLIL, Oxford
EDUCACIÓN 201
2
), written by
Jorge Barrio Gómez de Agüero
, M.ª
Luisa Bermúd
ez
Meneses, Alicia Faure López and
M.ª Felisa Gómez Esteban
,

and adapted for CLIL by
Sarah Jackson. Other components for teachers include
the
Teacher's Book,

which
contains the answers to the act
ivities and

a
CD
-
ROM with

Photocopiable
materials
(Laboratory practicals for
reinforcement and extension, T
ests and Assessments

of
basic competences
).


Natural Sciences ESO 2 (Core Concepts)



Oxford CLIL
(Oxford EDUCACIÓN)

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2. METHODOLOGY


At the heart of the methodology employed in the Oxford CLIL series lies

a dual aim: to
cover all of the subject requirements prescribed by the curriculum, while also catering
to the needs of students studying in a foreign language. This is achieved using a

CLIL
-
based approach, the core principles of which are as follows:



The

subject comes first.



Long, dense texts and complex sentences are avoided.



Presentation of content is supported by visual aids: photos, flow charts,
diagrams, tables, and labelled drawings, for example.



Learning is guided and structured.



Comprehension
tasks are used more frequently than in a native language context
to reinforce assimilation and processing of content and provide more language
practice.



Learning is active whenever possible.



Greater emphasis is placed on the process of learning.



The four
skills are crucial for presenting and learning new information.


Despite the fact that the subject is being taught through the medium of a foreign
language, many of the methodological considerations are the same as for mother
tongue instruction. However, t
eachers should be aware that the pace of learning may
be somewhat slower, especially in the initial stages and more time will be spent on
checking understanding and reinforcing linguistic elements. Teachers should address
students in English, and students
should be encouraged and helped to use English as
much as possible, although in the early stages some use of the mother tongue is
inevitable.


The development of s
cientific knowledge in the ESO 2

Natural S
ciences curriculum
covers a range of disciplines,

acquainting students with diverse conceptual and
methodological models, from physics, chemistry, biology and geology (which have in
common a particular way of representing and analysing reality) to other, closely related
areas, such as ecology, meteorolog
y and astronomy. Learning throughout this year will
become more and more specialise
d, and therefore more in
-
depth. However, the
methodology is similar to that used in ESO 1 and will help students overcome any
problems they may have encountered with the tra
nsition from primary to secondary
education. In any case, t
his gradual specialisation
, which will become more
pronounced the following year when the subject is subdivided into Biology and Geology
and Physics and Chemistry,
does not go against the principle

of interdisciplinary study:
scientific knowledge, in general, and a knowledge of natural sciences, in particular,
cannot be studied using a piecemeal approach, and this is reflected in the way in which
the course contents are organised.
Students must be m
ade aware that there are
certain research procedures that are shared by all fields of science
.


One of the key aims of secondary education is to teach students ba
sic scientific literacy
skills,
i.e. to familiarise them with basic scientific ideas. The goal

is to provide students
with instrumental knowledge that enables them to understand many of the problems
affecting the natural world and the environment. This will in turn allow them to
understand their own role in the sustainable development of
the

Earth.


These aims can only be

achieved if the course content

(concepts, facts, theories, laws
,

etc.)
is

taught based on the students' prior knowledge and their own environment. If we
also take into account that, throughout the course of history, scientific adva
nces have
become one of the paradigms of social progress, we can see that these advances are
fundamentally important to students' education, an education which should follow a
Natural Sciences ESO 2 (Core Concepts)



Oxford CLIL
(Oxford EDUCACIÓN)

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rational
,

empirical approach to knowledge. It is also important to emphasise wha
t a
scientific approach can bring to students: strategies and skills for learning any subject
(formulating hypotheses, checking results, research, working in groups, etc.), which are
closely related to some of the basic competences.


So, the study of
Natural Sciences

during this year will:



T
ake into account that knowledge is not always conceptual in character: it also
includes procedures and attitudes. Throughout the course, these three different
types of knowledge are presented in such a way that they encourage students
to interpret their en
vironment and to achieve the basic competences in this
subject, which means employing the scientific method.



A
chieve meaningful, relevant and functional learning, so that students can apply
the course content or knowledge acquired to their own understandi
ng of their
immediate natural surroundings (learning competences) and to the study of
other subjects.



P
romote constructive learning, so that the course contents lead to learning.



C
over basic topics which are appropriate for students' individual cognitive
c
apabilities.



E
ncourage students to work individually and as part of a team.


In order to implement the three
-
pronged approach of concepts, procedures and
attitudes, and to help students acquire certain basic competences, the proposed
methodology must take
into account the fact that new science is constantly being
discovered and received wisdom reviewed. Our scientific knowledge of the world is in a
constant state of flux. The course must both equip students with information and
highlight the active role tha
t they should themselves take in the learning process.
Various strategies can be used to do this:



Teaching some of the most commonly used methods in science and scientific
research, asking students to apply the methods covered in each unit.



Creating appeal
ing, motivating scenarios and contexts which help students to
overcome any resistance they may have to learning science.



Providing practical activities that help students to apply scientific methods and
that motivate them to study.



Using different types of

visual aids which make it easier for students to
understand and learn new concepts quickly, and help them to achieve the
course objectives and the basic competences.


Earlier, we discussed how important it is for students to take an active role in the
gra
dual
acquisition

of their own knowledge. As such, any methodological resource (and
textbooks are still one of the best) should be used in such a way that students continue
to participate in the day
-
to
-
day learning process. However, in today's context, where
the use of inf
ormation and communication technologies (the Internet, digital resources,
etc.) is so widespread,
and digital classrooms (with interactive whiteboards, video
projectors, etc.) are becoming more common due to various national and regional
programmes, inform
ation and communication technologies are a key part of the
teaching and learning process. Not only can they be used to obtain information, they
also help the development of the basic competences included in the curriculum (data
processing and digital compe
tence, learning to learn, etc.) and have proven to be an
effective resource, facilitating learning and thus improving academic results.
We should
also bear in mind the huge possibilities offered by computer simulations of scientific
and natural phenomena.


To summarise, the methodological principles on which the materials are based and
which teachers should bear in mind in the classroom learning process are:


Natural Sciences ESO 2 (Core Concepts)



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(Oxford EDUCACIÓN)

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t
o approach contents in a manner that helps students learn in a meaningful,
significant way.



t
o

introduce concepts in a clear, simple and reasoned way, using language
adapted to the students' level and helping to improve their spoken and written
expression both in the foreign language and their mother tongue (linguistic
competence).



t
o use learning
strategies that encourage students to analyse and understand
facts about science and nature.


Each unit of the Student’s Book has the same structure, and each section aims to meet
the various methodological requirements outlined above:




An
opening page,

wi
th a series of initial questions and an illustration to
introduce the contents, teach some key vocabulary
and raise interest in the
topic,

together with a summary table of the unit contents.




Explanatory pages:

-

Explanatory texts are presented in concise, s
traightforward language, which
makes it easy for students to identify and grasp core concepts. Texts are
accompanied by photos and illustrations which support the content and aid
understanding.

-

Simple experiments are demonstrated visually on the page t
o make it easier
for students to understand concepts and procedures.

-

Additional information is presented in the form of boxes, drawings, data
tables, photographs, etc.





Key words and core language:

-

Key words on each page have been selected
carefully and are highlighted
in blue in the text, with simple definitions provided in a Key word box in the
margin. As well as helping students to understand the material presented,
these boxes also provide students with a useful tool for revising the mai
n
vocabulary of the unit. All the Key words and their definitions are recorded
so that students can listen and repeat the words from a correct model,
which will aid their pronunciation and serve as a useful learning aid for
auditory learners.

-

As well as un
derstanding the subject
-
specific language, students learning
through the medium of English also have to acquire and use the necessary
core language to enable them to express and discuss the concepts in an
appropriate, academic style. Through careful choice

of language in the
texts and the highlighting of this language in selected activities, students
gradually build up their proficiency.




Activity pages:

-

Content pages are interspersed with pages of activities which reinforce the
concepts presented in the
texts whil
e
, at the same time, practising the
language
needed

to express and understand these concepts in English.
Activities are divided into three main types:

1.

Activities which focus primarily on comprehe
nsion of the concepts
presented

2.

Activities which co
mbine work on the concepts with practice of a specific
language area

3.

Activities which highlight a specific area of language difficulty in the unit,
e.g. word stress, false friends, easily

confused words, spelling, irregular
verbs, etc.


Natural Sciences ESO 2 (Core Concepts)



Oxford CLIL
(Oxford EDUCACIÓN)

7

-

In addition, listen
ing activities are included which help to reinforce
vocabulary and pronunciation and develop oral comprehension.




A single page of
Revision activities
at the end of each unit
,

enables students
to apply the knowledge they have acquired and teachers to see if any points
need to be reinforced. The final section of these Revision activities is called
Talking points

and consists of oral activities in small groups or pairs, in which
students describe and explain a process or concept, express and exchange
opinions, have a debate, do a presentation based on their research
,

etc. These
activities are designed to develop oral fluency and communication in the foreign
language.




Assessment o
f basic competences:

-

On

the
CD
-
ROM accompanying the
Teacher’s Book
, there are
Assessments of basic competences

for each
section

of
the book,

designed to evaluate students' basic competences, i.e. their ability to apply
the knowledge a
cquired in real
-
life s
ituations
.



Natural Sciences ESO 2 (Core Concepts)



Oxford CLIL
(Oxford EDUCACIÓN)

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3. BASIC COMPETENCES


The Constitutional Law on Education (LOE) has a new definition of curriculum, which
includes not only the traditional components (objectives, contents, teaching methods
and assessment criteria), but also an important new

component:

basic competences.

These competences are now one of the linchpins of the curriculum as a whole (it is no
coincidence that they are set out in the curriculum before even the objectives). They
therefore guide the entire teaching and learning proc
ess, especially
since this
academic year
students must complete a diagnostic test to demonstrate that they have
acquired certain competences. Regardless of whether or not the mark for that
assessment counts towards the students' grades, the results can be
used as a guide
so that schools can make decisions about students' learning. This gives us some idea
of how the teaching process is affected by this new element, i.e. it becomes much
more practical, providing students with transferable skills, not ones tha
t are only
applicable in the school context. And of course, students will only achieve the ESO
certificate later if they acquire the basic competences at this stage, so these
competences now
form part of the
assessment framework too.


There are many defini
tions of the concept of basic competences (which can be found in
the PISA

reports), but they all stress the same thing: instead of an educational model
that focuses on the acquisition of mostly theoretical, often unconnected, aspects of
knowledge, it is be
tter to acquire competences, leading to the acquisition of essential,
practical and integrated knowledge, which students must then demonstrate that they
have acquired (i.e. it goes beyond functional training). In short, a competence is the
capacity to inte
grate knowledge, skills and attitudes to resolve problems and situations
in various contexts, and students must prove that they have that capacity by putting it
into practice. It has been defined very succinctly as the putting into practice of acquired
kno
wledge, or
knowledge in action
. In other words, it is the
mobilisation

of knowledge
and skills in a specific situation and the
activation
of resources or knowledge acquired
(even if students think that they have forgotten what they have learnt).


There is
one aspect worth highlighting, which we could refer to as the
combined nature

of competences: through what they

know
, students must be able to demonstrate what
they

know how to apply
, but also what they

know how to be
. Each competence is made
up of the com
bination of the different types of content learnt in the classroom
(concepts, procedures and attitudes), each one forming one of the multifaceted skills
that provide students with a well
-
rounded education. We recognise that schools are not
just providing s
tudents with technical and scientific knowledge, but also teaching them
about citizenship, so they must be able to demonstrate a series of civic and intellectual
attitudes that reflect respect for others, a sense of responsibility, teamwork, and so on.


Th
ere is another important aspect, and one which is often not stressed enough: if
students acquire competences, they are then able to deal with the way that knowledge
in any field is constantly being renewed and updated. Students' academic training
within th
e school environment takes place over the course of a limited number of years,
but their need for personal and/or professional development is lifelong. As such,
providing students with the necessary competence in, for example, the use of
information and co
mmunication technologies means that they will be able to use these
tools to gather the information required at any given moment, assessing the quality of
that information they find. Given that it is often impossible to cover all of the curriculum
content i
n great detail over the course of the school year, students need to develop the
competence of
learning to learn.


The textbook includes teaching and learning activities linked to these basic
competences, either implicitly in the explanatory pages, or explicitly in sections like the
Natural Sciences ESO 2 (Core Concepts)



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Assessment of basic competences

provided in the
Teacher’s Book

for each

section of

content.


In the Spanish education system, students must achieve the following basic
competences before they finish compulsory education so that they are prepared for the
challenges that they will face in their personal and professional lives:



Linguistic
competence
.



Mathematical competence
.



Competence in knowledge and interaction with the physical world
.



Data processing and digital competence
.



Social competence and citizenship
.



Cultural and artistic competence
.



Learning to learn
.



Autonomy and personal init
iative
.


But what do these competences really mean? Below is a summary of the key ways in
which each competence influences students' intellectual and personal development,
with reference to the most important parts of the school curriculum:




COMPETENCE IN
KNOWLEDGE AND INTERACTION WITH THE PHYSICAL
WORLD

This competence refers to the skill of interacting with the natural and man
-
made
elements of the physical world, helping students to understand events, predict
consequences and act in a way that contributes

to improving and preserving
their own living conditions and those of other people and living things. It
basically refers to acquiring a scientific, rational way of thinking which enables
one to interpret information and make decisions independently, using

one’s own
initiative, as well as applying ethical values in decision
-
making in personal and
social contexts.




MATHEMATICAL COMPETENCE

First and foremost, this competence consists of the ability to use numbers and
basic numerical operations, symbols and fo
rms of mathematical reasoning and
expression, in order to produce and interpret data, to find out more about
quantitative and spatial aspects of reality, and to resolve problems relating to
day
-
to
-
day life and work. So, acquiring mathematical competence me
ans being
able to use skills and approaches that allow one to reason mathematically,
understand mathematical argumentation, express oneself and communicate in
mathematical language, and use mathematical knowledge in combination with
other types of knowledg
e.




DATA PROCESSING AND DIGITAL COMPETENCE

This is the ability to look for, obtain, process and communicate information and
transform it into knowledge. It includes aspects ranging from accessing and
selecting information, to using it and conveying it in
different formats, including
the use of information and communication technologies as an essential tool for
finding information and communicating. Gaining skills in this area involves using
technological resources to resolve problems efficiently and having

a critical,
reflective attitude when it comes to assessing the information available.




SOCIAL COMPETENCE AND CITIZENSHIP

Once students have acquired this competence, they will be able to live in
society, understand the social reality of the world in which they live, and
exercise civic responsibility in a democratic society which is becoming ever
more multicultural. It concer
ns forms of individual behaviour which allow people
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to live together in one society, get along with others, cooperate, get involved
socially and tackle conflicts. This means that acquiring this competence
translates into being able to empathise with and un
derstand other people’s
position, accept differences, be tolerant and accept the values, beliefs, cultures
and personal and collective histories of others. It means understanding the
social reality in which one lives, tackling conflicts by applying ethical

values, and
exercising civic rights and duties responsibly and in solidarity with others.




LINGUISTIC COMPETENCE

This competence refers to the use of language (in this case especially the
foreign language) as a tool for oral and written communication, lea
rning, and
self
-
regulation of thought, emotions and behaviour. It also helps students to
create a positive personal image and develop constructive relationships with
others and with the environment. So, learning to communicate means forming
links with othe
r people and getting to know other cultures, which we are then
more likely to understand and respect. In short, this competence is absolutely
essential when it comes to resolving conflicts and learning to live alongside
others. Acquiring this competence me
ans acquiring a fluency in oral and written
language in various contexts and being able to use at least one foreign
language.




LEARNING TO LEARN

This competence is made up of two key elements: the first refers to students'
ability to start learning, and th
e second to their ability to continue learning
independently, and seek rational answers. It also involves allowing for various
possible answers to the same problem and motivating students to look for those
answers using different methodological approaches.

It involves managing one’s
own abilities in terms of striving for efficiency and drawing on different
intellectual resources and techniques.




AUTONOMY AND PERSONAL INITIATIVE

This competence refers to students being able to use their own judgement and
hav
e the initiative required to make and pursue individual choices and take
responsibility for them, both in their personal lives and in a social and
professional context. By acquiring this competence, students can become more
creative, innovative, responsibl
e and critical in their approach to individual or
group projects




CULTURAL AND ARTISTIC COMPETENCE

This competence consists of knowing, appreciating, understanding and critically
assessing different forms of cultural and artistic expression, using them as a
source of personal enjoyment and enrichment and viewing them as part of
people's cultural heritag
e. It involves appreciating and enjoying art and other
forms of cultural expression, being open to the variety of different methods of
artistic expression, conserving the shared cultural heritage and fostering
students' own creative capacities.


Competen
ces do not just involve knowledge and skills acquired in a single subject only
or which are used exclusively for that subject. Everything that students learn across
their different subjects (and not just at school) and other educational activities (extra
-
c
urricular activities) combines to form a sort of cultural baggage, a collection of
information that they must be able to use throughout their lives, at the right time and in
different situations. So, any one of these competences can be achieved perhaps not

in
all parts of the curriculum but certainly in most of them, and for the same reason all of
these competences can be used and applied in any topic or subject, regardless of
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where they have been acquired (cross
-
curricular competences). Competence should
g
uarantee that a student has achieved certain learning objectives, but it should also
enable students to achieve other objectives, both at school and afterwards,
guaranteeing continuous learning.


The different elements of the curriculum are obviously interlinked, and we need to be
aware of this so that the curricular materials used in the teaching and learning process
are used correctly. When the unit objectives (expressed as capacities or skills)
are set
out in a teaching programme, they influence the choice of certain contents over others.
Assessment criteria also need to be included to
enable evaluation of whether
students
meet these objectives (or not). The assessment criteria can therefore be d
ivided into
two categories, interpreted in different ways. The first category includes criteria related
to the student's learning
. I
n other words, some criteria will be more or less expressly
linked to concepts, others to procedures (skills) and others to
attitudes. Each of these
content types must be assessed because they have been studied in class. They are
assessed at different points through continuous assessment. The second category
includes assessment criteria that are more directly linked to the basi
c competences.


If we think of the basic competences as the real and practical application of knowledge,
skills and attitudes, the best way to check or assess whether or not the student has
acquired those competences is to reproduce the most realistic sit
uations possible in
which they should be applied. In these situations, students usually
draw on the tapestry
of knowledge (
made up of all sorts of content) they have accumulated over the course
of their schooling, but respond, above all, to practical situa
tions. So when we assess
competences we are assessing procedures and attitudes, first and foremost, but
concepts are an essential basis for them. That is why the competences are linked to
assessment criteria relating mostly to procedures and attitudes.


So

how can each of the basic competences be acquired? The following section
describes the most important aspects of each basic competence for this subject. These
descriptions may need to be adapted to the practical needs of real
-
life teaching.




COMPETENCE IN

KNOWLEDGE AND INTERACTION WITH THE PHYSICAL
WORLD

This is the most important competence in this subject. In order to acquire this
competence, students must gain a sound knowledge of concepts and the inter
-
relationships between them, observe the physical w
orld and natural
phenomena, acquire a knowledge of human impact, multi
-
causal analysis, etc.
However, like other competences, this one requires students to become familiar
with the scientific method as a work method, so that they can act rationally and
ref
lectively in many aspects of their academic, personal and professional lives.




MATHEMATICAL COMPETENCE

By using mathematical language to quantify natural phenomena, analyse cause
and effect, convey data, etc., in short, to understand the quantitative aspec
ts of
natural phenomena and the use of mathematical tools, students become aware
that mathematical knowledge is of real use in many aspects of their own lives.




DATA PROCESSING AND DIGITAL COMPETENCE

To understand physical and natural phenomena, it is esse
ntial that students
know how to work with data (obtaining, selecting, handling, analysing and
presenting it) from various sources (written, audiovisual, etc.), not all of which
are as reliable and objective as others. So information obtained from tradition
al
written sources as well as new technologies must be analysed according to
critical, scientific criteria.

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SOCIAL COMPETENCE AND CITIZENSHIP

This subject develops this competence in two key ways: by preparing students
to participate in decision
-
making as
part of society, for which scientific literacy is
required; and by providing them with a knowledge of how, historically, scientific
advances have played a role in the evolution and progress of society (and of
people), but also that it has had negative repe
rcussions for humanity, and that
the resulting risks to people and the environment must be controlled
(sustainable development).




LINGUISTIC COMPETENCE

This competence is worked on in two key ways: the use of the foreign language
as a communicative tool in

the education process (subject
-
specific vocabulary
that students should incorporate into their day
-
to
-
day vocabulary and general
academic language); and the importance of the way that information is
expressed in all the curriculum contents.




LEARNING TO L
EARN

This competence gives students the skills and strategies that they need to help
them learn throughout their lives, building up and conveying scientific
knowledge. It also allows them to integrate that new knowledge into their
existing knowledge and an
alyse it, drawing on the techniques that make up the
scientific method.




AUTONOMY AND PERSONAL INITIATIVE

This competence equips students to think critically and scientifically, enabling
them to dismiss non
-
scientific dogmas and prejudice. To do this, they

must do
science: in other words, tackle problems, analysing them, suggesting solutions,
assessing consequences, etc.


We have now looked at the basic competences established by the Spanish education
system. These competences are inevitably very generic.

I
f we want to use them as a
point of reference for teaching and to demonstrate the real competence achieved by
students (assessment), we need to make them even more specific, breaking them
down
into
subcompetences

and linking them to the other elements of t
he curriculum.
These subcompetences are statements which have been written after a
comprehensive analysis of the curriculum in order to draw up functional learning
objectives expressed in such a way that they can be identified by any teacher.


Below is a l
ist of the subcompetences for this subject and level. The units in which
each subcompetence is developed are listed on the right.


COMPETENCES/SUBCOMPETENCES

UNITS



Competence in knowledge and
interaction with the physical world


1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,
9, 10, 11, 12 and 13

Recognise what can be investigated
scientifically: differentiate between
scientific and nonscientific problems and
explanations.


1, 4, 5 and 10

Use strategies to look for different types
of scientific information. Understand and
select appropriate information from a
variety of sources.


3, 4, 8 and 11

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Recognise the key features of scientific
investigation: understand variables,
formulate hypotheses, design
experiments, analyse and contrast data,
detect regular patterns, make ca
lculations
and estimates.



4, 5 and 13

Understand basic scientific principles and
concepts and identify the relationships
between them: causal, influential,
qualitative and quantitative.


1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13

Describe and explain processes
scientifically and predict changes.
Use
explanatory models.


1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11

and

12

Apply scientific knowledge to everyday
situations.

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11

and

12

Interpret data and scientific
experiments.
Draw conclusions and communicate them
in different formats in a correct, well
-
organised and coherent manner.


3, 4, 5, 8, 9 and 10

Argue for or against conclusions and
identify the assumptions, proofs, and
reasoning behind them.


4

Consider
the impact of human activity and
scientific and technological advances on
the history of mankind and identify its
impact on the environment today.


2

Take responsibility for oneself, resources
and the environment. Be familiar with
healthy lifestyle habits

based on
advances in scientific knowledge: in the
context of one’s personal life, that of the
community and the environment.
Understand the importance of taking
precautions of mankind and identify its
impact on the environment today





2


Mathematical
competence


1, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7

Use mathematical terms to quantify
natural phenomena.

1, 3, 5 and 6

Use mathematical terms to analyse cause
and effect.

3, 4, 6 and 7

Use mathematical language to convey
data and ideas about nature.

3, 4, 5, 6 and 7


Data processing and digital
competence


1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 13

Use and produce schematic diagrams,
mind maps, reports and papers.

1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 10, 11 and 13

Use information and communication
technologies to communicate, gather
information, give feedback, simulate and
visualise situations, find and process
data.



8

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Social competence and citizenship


7, 8, 11 and 12

Understand and explain socially relevant

issues from a scientific perspective.

7, 8, 11 and 12


Linguistic competence


1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13

Use the correct scientific terminology in
texts and argumentation involving
scientific content.


1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12 and 13

Understand and interpret messages
about natural sciences.

3, 4, 10 and 12


Learning to learn


2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13

Assimilate knowledge of science and
scientific procedures in order to
understand information obtained both
from students’ own experience and
written and audiovisual media.



2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13


Autonomy and personal initiative


2, 3,
4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12 and 13

Develop a critical attitude. Confront
problems and take part in developing
possible solutions.


2 and 3

Develop the capacity to analyse
situations, evaluating the factors that
have influenced them and their possible
consequences.


4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12 and 13



In order to demonstrate that students have achieved the different competences and
subcompetences (and even other, additional ones, not necessarily linked to the ones
listed here), teachers can use the various assessment criteria. In this programme,
these c
riteria are linked to the criteria for the teaching units, not the general ones for
this level, which are too generic.


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4. ACTIVITIES,
ATTENTION TO
DIVERSITY, ASSESSMENT, AND
ASSESSMENT OF
BASIC
COMPETENCES


ACTIVITIES


The
Student’s Book

provides various learning activities for each section of the unit.
There are also Revision Activities at the end of each unit. The
Teacher’s Book

contains
supplementary materials on a CD
-
ROM. These activities have different educational
aims, and are linke
d to both the course content and the basic competences

(in the
Assessments of basic competences).


Teachers can carry out an initial assessment at the start of the school year to assess
the students' starting point

and
a final

assessment at the end of term

to see
whether or
not the general course objectives have been achieved
.
There is a
lso a series of tests
on

the
Teacher’s Book

CD
-
ROM
.


In addition to the
learning
activities
and the activities
for checking knowledge, there is
another essential activity type in this subject: procedures. These are
developed
throughout the
Student's Book
.
They focus on reading, finding information, applying
scientific methods, interpreting data and information, usi
ng materials and instruments
with care, doing laboratory experiments, etc. These are procedures (as well as
attitudes to work) that students
need to become competent in
because they will
cont
inue to use them throughout their
secondary education (what the c
urriculum calls
common contents
) and they will help them to achieve some of the basic competences.


It is important to highlight that the activities in Oxford CLIL
Natural Sciences
Core
Concepts
have been

systematically adapted to the contents studied. Stu
dents
understand and remember what they learn in class by completing the activities. All of
the course materials use different sources of information, from articles from specialist
magazines and newspapers to websites and books. This means that teachers ca
n
decide which materials are best suited to the learning style of their students.



ATTENTION TO DIVERSITY


When a teaching and learning process is centred around identifying students' needs, it
is essential to provide students with as many educational res
ources as possible so that
their learning can be adapted to their own capabilities, in some cases because they are
greater than the group average, and in others because the pace of learning must be
readjusted because a student is having difficulties.


The

Student’s Book

and supplementary materials
cater for a diversity of levels of
knowledge and learning ability,
The
Laboratory practicals
for each unit
are split into two
categories,

extension

and

reinforcement,
and are included
on

the
teacher’s CD
-
ROM
.
T
eachers will
decide when and how these activities should be used, as by their very
nature they are not always appropriate for all students.



ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES AND MARKING CRITERIA


Students' learning must be assessed systematically and periodically,
both to measure
their individual levels of knowledge acquisition (summative assessment at different
points of the year) and to introduce any changes required to the teaching process
(when the students' learning does not meet expectations). In addition to t
his summative
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assessment, which tends to take place at the end of the school year (ordinary exams
and resits, if required), there will be other assessments, like an initial assessment
(marks do not count towards the final grade) and a final assessment, as
well as
continuous assessment, formative tests and activities carried out throughout the
teaching and learning process.


Continuous assessment will be carried out through the systematic observation and
monitoring of students, i.e. everything that they prod
uce, either individually or in
groups, will be taken into consideration: written work, oral presentations and debates,
classwork, research, their attitude to learning, accuracy of expression, self
-
assessment, etc. And for summative assessment: written test
s at the end of each term
and resits (during the term and at the end of the school year, if the student has failed
any of the assessments, and an extraordinary resit final exam, if students do not pass
the first exam). In any case, a variety of assessment
procedures will be used, so the
assessments are flexible. Students can be awarded grades higher than a simple Pass
in the resits, ordinary resits (if they failed one or more of the end
-
of
-
term tests) and the
extraordinary resits. It should be stressed that

students are not expected to produce
perfectly accurate English and they should be rewarded for communicating the
message effectively in English, and not penalised heavily for grammatical or lexical
errors.


In order to provide students with marks for the

three assessments during the year, the
ordinary resits at the end of the course and the extraordinary resits in September, the
written tests will be assigned a weighting of 40%, projects 20%, and classwork and
reading 40%. In other words, the students' wo
rk throughout the school year will always
be taken into account (continuous assessment), except for students who are no longer
entitled to be assessed because they have missed too many classes without
justification. In these cases, the final mark will be b
ased on the written test only. This
multiple weighting method has been designed to assess all sorts of different contents
studied throughout the year (concepts, procedures and attitudes). The students will be
informed of these weightings at the start of th
e year.



ASSESSMENT OF
BASIC
COMPETENCES


The table below shows the basic competences broken down into the subcompetences

for the different parts of the course, to be assessed in the three tests (one per term)
and the final tests (ordinary and extraordinary, if applicable). The assessments will
provide an overview of what the students have learnt as well as the subcompetence
s
they have not yet achieved.


We recommend the following qualitative scale to measure the level of achievement of
these subcompetences, from lowest to highest: 1:

Weak; 2: Borderline; 3: Average;

4: Good; 5: Excellent.



COMPETENCES/SUBCOMPETENCES


TERM
TESTS

FINAL TEST


Competence in knowledge and interaction
with the physical world


1
st


2
nd


3
rd


O


E

Recognise what can be investigated scientifically:
differentiate between scientific and nonscientific
problems and explanations.






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Use strategies

to look for different types of scientific
information. Understand and select appropriate
information from a variety of sources.






Recognise the key features of scientific
investigation: understand variables, formulate
hypotheses, design experiments, a
nalyse and
contrast data, detect regular patterns, make
calculations and estimates.






Understand basic scientific principles and concepts
and identify the relationships between them: causal,
influential, qualitative and quantitative.






Describe and explain processes scientifically and
predict changes.
Use explanatory models.






Apply scientific knowledge to everyday situations.






Interpret data and scientific experiments. Draw
conclusions and communicate them in different
formats
in a correct, well
-
organised and coherent
manner.






Argue for or against conclusions and identify the
assumptions, proofs, and reasoning behind them.






Consider the impact of human activity and scientific
and technological advances on the history
of
mankind and identify its impact on the environment
today.






Take responsibility for oneself, resources and the
environment. Be familiar with healthy lifestyle habits
based on advances in scientific knowledge: in the
context of one’s personal life, t
hat of the community
and the environment. Understand the importance of
taking precautions of mankind and identify its impact
on the environment today






OVERALL







Mathematical competence






Use mathematical terms to quantify natural
phenomena.






Use mathematical terms to analyse cause and
effect.






Use mathematical language to convey data and
ideas about nature.






OVERALL







Data processing and digital competence






Use and produce schematic diagrams, mind maps,
reports and
papers.






Use information and communication technologies to
communicate, gather information, give feedback,
simulate and visualise situations, find and process
data.






OVERALL







Social competence and citizenship






Understand and explain
socially relevant issues from
a scientific perspective.






OVERALL






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Linguistic competence






Use the correct scientific terminology in texts and
argumentation involving scientific content.






Understand and interpret messages about natural

sciences.






OVERALL







Learning to learn






Assimilate knowledge of science and scientific
procedures in order to understand information
obtained both from students’ own experience and
written and audiovisual media.






OVERALL







Autonomy and personal initiative






Develop a critical attitude. Confront problems and
take part in developing possible solutions.






Develop the capacity to analyse

situations,
evaluating the factors that have influenced them and
their possible consequences.






OVERALL








O: Ordinary final assessment

E: Extraordinary final assessment

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5. PROGRAMMES

OF STUDY


The contents of this course have been organised
into 1
3

teaching units, which are
detailed below. The teaching objectives, contents (concepts, procedures and attitudes),
cross
-
curricular content, assessment criteria and basic competences linked to those
assessment criteria are listed for each unit.


DISTRIBUTION OF CONTENTS


It is estimated that the 13 teaching units of the book will be distributed as follows:


First term assessment: Units 1 to 4

Second term assessment: Units 5 to 9

Third term assessment: Units 10 to 13


















OBJECTIVES


1.

Understand the properties of matter.

2.

Understand that mass is a measurement of inertia and that it affects the
gravitational force of matter.

3.

Be able to tell the difference between the mass, weight
and dimension
s

of an
object.

4.

Recognise the basic structure of atoms: a nucleus, which contains protons and
neutrons, and a shell which contains electrons that are continuously moving
around the nucleus.

5.

Recognise that electrons have a negative electric cha
rge and protons have a
positive charge.

6.

Understand that during ionisation electrons are gained or lost.

7.

Be able to tell the difference between an atom and an element.

8.

Understand the difference between a pure substance and an element, and a
simple substance

and a compound.



CONTENTS


Concepts



Properties of matter: mass as a measurement of matter
.



Studying the material world: scientific notation
.

UNI
T

1


THE MATERIAL WORLD: ATOMS


MATTER AND ENERGY

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The atom and the particles that compose it
.



Ionisation
.



Elements, simple substances and compounds
.



Chemical
formulas
.


Procedures



Do simple experiments to understand mass as a measurement of inertia
and to tell the difference between mass and size
.



Carry out research to find out how to apply knowledge of the basic (atomic)
structure of matter
.



Make models to sho
w the atomic structure of matter
.


Attitudes



Have a better understanding of science through research
.



Understand that science and scientific theories are continually changing
.



ASSESSMENT CRITERIA


1.

Learn about the properties of mass and identify mass as a

measurement of
matter.

2.

Be able to tell the difference between mass, weight and size.

3.

Correctly use scientific notation in powers of ten.

4.

Recognise and be able to tell the difference between the different components
of an atom and how they are arranged ins
ide an atom.

5.

Be able to tell the difference between an element and an atom.

6.

Analyse how atoms are grouped in matter.

7.

Be able to tell the difference between ions and atoms.

8.

Use the formula of a substance to deduce if it is a simple substance or a
compound.

9.

Link atoms, molecules, simple substances and compounds.



COMPETENC
E
S
/ ASSESSMENT CRITERIA / ACTIVITIES



COMPETENC
E
S /
SUBCOMPETENC
ES

ASSESSMENT

CRITERIA

ACTIVI
TIES


Competence in knowledge and interaction with the physical world

Recognise what can be
investigated scientifically:
differentiate between
scientific and non
-
scientific
problems and explanations.

1, 2, 8, 9

1, 2, 4, 5

Understand basic scientific
principles and concepts and
identify the relationships
between them: causal,
influential,
qualitative and
quantitative.

8, 9

2

4, 9, 11, 13

15, 17

19, 22,

RA 6, 7

Describe and explain
processes scientifically and
predict changes. Use
explanatory models.

5, 6, 7

13, 19

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Apply scientific knowledge to
everyday situations.

2

4, 5


Mathematical
competence

Use mathematical terms to
quantify natural phenomena.

3

4

7, 12, 16

RA 1, 2


Data processing and digital competence

Use and produce schematic
diagrams, mind maps, reports
and papers.

6, 8, 9

RA 3


Linguistic competence (*)

Use the correct
scientific
terminology in texts and
argumentation involving
scientific content.

1, 2, 9

1, 5, 8, 10, 13, 14, 18, 20, 21

RA 2, 4, 5, 8


RA: Revision activities


*All the subcompetences

detailed in this section are developed using English as the common
language,

which will allow pupils to communicate with an increasing degree of skill in the foreign
language.

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OBJECTIVES


1.

Understand the properties of
matter.

2.

Understand that heat and work are transforming agents.

3.

Understand the importance of the law of energy conservation to explain
numerous daily phenomena.

4.

Recognise the energy transformations that take place in simple phenomena.

5.

Learn about the
different forms of energy.

6.

Be able to tell the difference between the main sources of renewable and non
-
renewable energy, and their advantages and disadvantages.

7.

Recognise the problem created by excessive energy consumption.



CONTENTS


Concepts



Energy
changes
.



Forms of energy
.



Energy sources: renewable and non
-
renewable
.



The energy problem and saving energy
.


Procedures



Do simple experiments to understand the law of energy conservation
.



Describe the energy transformations that take place in some simple
phenomena
.



Carry out some research on sources of energy, how to use them and how
they might cause environmental problems
.


Attitudes



Have a better understanding of science through research
.



Develop positive attitudes towards sources of renewable energy
.



De
velop a critical attitude towards energy waste and a positive attitude
towards reasonable and sustainable energy consumption
.



ASSESSMENT CRITERIA


1.

Define
energy.

2.

Explain
work
and
heat
as transforming agents.

3.

Determine the differences between energy
transformations that take place in
simple phenomena.

4.

Apply the law of energy conservation to simple cases.

5.

Recognise the forms of energy involved in simple everyday phenomena.

6.

Be able to determine the differences between the main sources of renewable
and
non
-
renewable energy.

7.

Analyse the advantages and disadvantages of different sources of renewable
and non
-
renewable energy.

8.

Be aware of the problem created by excessive energy consumption.

UNI
T

2


MATTER AND ENERGY

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COMPETENC
E
S
/ ASSESSMENT CRITERIA / ACTIVITIES



COMPETENC
E
S /
SUBCOMPETENC
ES

ASSESSMENT

CRITERIA

ACTIVI
TIES


Competence in knowledge and interaction with the physical world

Describe and explain
processes scientifically and
predict changes. Use
explanatory models.

1, 2, 3, 4

2

4, 8, 9

RA 4, 7

Argue for or against
conclusions and identify the
assumptions, proofs, and
reasoning behind them.

1, 2, 3, 4

2, 3, 5, 7, 14

RA 4, 7

Consider the impact of
human activity and scientific
and technological advances
on the history of mankind and
identify its impact on the
environ
ment today.

6, 7, 8

2, 12, 13

RA 4, 7

Take responsibility for
oneself, resources and the
environment. Be familiar with
healthy lifestyle habits based
on advances in scientific
knowledge: in the context of
one’s personal life, that of the
community and the

environment. Understand the
importance of taking
precautions.

6, 7, 8

10

15

RA 8, 9


Data processing and digital competence

Use and produce schematic
diagrams, mind maps, reports
and papers.

6, 7, 8

13

RA 6


Linguistic competence (*)

Use the correct
scientific
terminology in texts and
argumentation involving
scientific content.

6, 7, 8

1

6, 9

11, 13, 15

RA 2, 3, 5, 8, 9


Learning to learn

Assimilate knowledge of
science and scientific
procedures in order to
understand information
obtained both from students’
own experience and written
and audiovisual media.

1, 2, 3, 4

RA 8, 9

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Autonomy and personal initiative

Develop a critical
attitude.
Confront problems and take
part in developing possible
solutions.

7, 8

11

15

RA 1


RA: Revision activities


*All the subcompetences detailed in this section are developed using English as the common
language,

which will allow pupils to
communicate with an increasing degree of skill in the foreign
language.

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OBJECTIVES


1.

Understand motion in physics.

2.

Be able to tell the difference between any moving object’s trajectory, distance
travelled and its displacement.

3.

Deduce a moving object’s average speed or instantaneous speed using graphs
and/or numerical data.

4.

Be able to tell the difference between uniform and variable speed.

5.

Understand positive and negative acceleration.

6.

Use graphs or numerical data to deduce a mov
ing object’s acceleration.

7.

Use graphs or numerical data to deduce the speed and distance travelled by an
object that is moving with uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion (UARM).

8.

Learn to draw and interpret uniform rectilinear motion (URM) and UARM
graph
s.

9.

Identify the SI units used to measure distance travelled, speed, time taken and
acceleration.



CONTENTS


Concepts



Motion
.



Average speed, uniform speed and variable speed
.



Uniform rectilinear motion (URM)
.



Acceleration
.



Uniformly accelerated rectilinear

motion (UARM)
.



URM and UARM graphs
.


Procedures



Use simple movements that are familiar to the student to find out the
trajectory, displacement and distance travelled



Use graphs or numerical data to calculate the average speed of a moving
object



Compare th
e motion of constant speed with that of variable speed



Draw and interpret URM and UARM graphs



Observe and analyse examples of movement taken from daily life


Attitudes



Recognise how important it is to be precise when taking notes, and also the
importance o
f clarity and order when writing reports



ASSESSMENT CRITERIA


1.

Explain whether or not an object is in motion by looking at its changes of
position from a specific point of reference.

2.

Represent the positions, trajectories and displacements of objects in
motion.

3.

Recognise whether acceleration is negative or positive.

4.

Recognise the characteristics of UARM.

UNI
T

3


MOTION

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5.

Use SI units to express speed, time taken and acceleration.

6.

Organise quantitative data in tables and graphs, and extract both qualitative and
quantitativ
e conclusions from these data.

7.

Use both URM and UARM equations.

8.

Use other known quantities to calculate an unknown quantity for both URM and
UARM.



COMPETENC
E
S
/ ASSESSMENT CRITERIA / ACTIVITIES



COMPETENC
E
S /
SUBCOMPETENC
ES

ASSESSMENT

CRITERIA

ACTIVI
TIES


Competence in knowledge and interaction with the physical world

Use strategies to look for
different types of scientific
information. Understand and
select appropriate information
from a variety of sources.

1, 3, 4

4, 9

11

RA 1

3, 5, 6

Understand
basic scientific
principles and concepts and
identify the relationships
between them: causal,
influential, qualitative and
quantitative.

6, 7, 8

8, 10

12

RA 1

3, 5, 6

Apply scientific knowledge to
everyday situations.

6, 7, 8

4, 5, 7, 9

RA 1

3, 5, 6

Interpret data and scientific
experiments. Draw
conclusions and
communicate them in
different formats in a correct,
well
-
organised and coherent
manner.

5, 6, 7, 8

4, 5, 7, 13

18

RA 4


Mathematical competence

Use mathematical terms to
quantify natural
phenomena.

5, 7

1, 4

6, 9, 11, 12

RA 1

3

Use mathematical terms to
analyse cause and effect.

2, 4

1, 4

6, 9, 11, 12

RA 5

Use mathematical language
to convey data and ideas
about nature.

5, 7

1, 4

6, 9, 11, 12

RA 1, 6


Data processing and digital
competence

Use and produce schematic
diagrams, mind maps, reports
and papers.

2, 5, 6

5, 7, 13

18

RA 4


Linguistic competence (*)

Use the correct scientific
terminology in texts and
argumentation involving
scientific content.

1, 3, 4, 8

1, 2, 3, 9,
11

13, 15, 17

RA 1, 2, 7

Understand and interpret
messages about natural
sciences.

8

1, 2, 10, 11

RA 7

Natural Sciences ESO 2 (Core Concepts)



Oxford CLIL
(Oxford EDUCACIÓN)

27



Learning to learn

Assimilate knowledge of
science and scientific
procedures in order to
understand information
obtained both from students’
own experience and written
and audiovisual media.

1, 3, 4

12

15

RA 7


Autonomy and personal initiative

Develop a critical attitude.
Confront problems and take
part in developing possible
solutions.

2, 6, 7, 8

6, 10

RA 7


RA: Revision activities


*All the subcompetences detailed in this section are developed using English as the common
language,

which will allow pupils to communicate
with an increasing degree of skill in the foreign
language.

Natural Sciences ESO 2 (Core Concepts)



Oxford CLIL
(Oxford EDUCACIÓN)

28







OBJECTIVES


1.

Understand
force, work
and
energy
in physics.

2.

Learn about the SI units used to measure force and work.

3.

Identify the different types of forces

according to their effects.

4.

Understand what weight is, and be able to tell the difference between weight
and mass and how to quantify weight.

5.

Understand what
upthrust
is.

6.

Learn about Archimedes’ Principle and apply it to calculate densities and to
explain

how bodies float.

7.

Understand the link between the forces applied to an object and how this object
moves.

8.

Be able to determine the difference between the different types of deformations
that forces cause in objects.

9.

Understand the
equilibrium of an object
and link it to the forces that are acting
on the object.

10.

Understand the relationship between doing work and energy changes.

11.

Learn about mechanical forms of energy (kinetic and potential).

12.

Understand how useful simple machines are.



CONTENTS


Concepts



Forces: types of forces.



Mass and weight.



Upthrust and Archimedes’ Principle: buoyancy.



Deformations: deformable and non
-
deformable solids.



Forces and motion.



Work and energy.



Mechanical energy: kinetic and potential.



Simple machines.


Procedures



Analyse
forces and the everyday movements related to them.



Solve problems that differentiate between mass and weight and apply
Archimedes’ Principle.



Observe and analyse buoyancy and equilibrium.



Solve problems to calculate work and mechanical energy.



Observe and
analyse how simple machines work.


Attitudes



Show interest in developing skills to use and make simple instruments.



Appreciate how important learning how to use forces has been in the
development of humanity.



Develop a positive attitudes towards renewable
sources of energy.



UNI
T

4


FORCES AND THEIR EFFECTS

Natural Sciences ESO 2 (Core Concepts)



Oxford CLIL
(Oxford EDUCACIÓN)

29

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA


1.

Define
force
and give examples taken from our surroundings of forces that act
on bodies.

2.

List the forces that act on bodies around us and forces that are involved in
simple movements.

3.

Explain the effects that
forces can have on an object.

4.

Name and convert between the different units of force.

5.

Calculate an object’s weight on different planets and express it in newtons and
kiloponds.

6.

Calculate hydrostatic upthrust using volume, density and gravitational
accelerat
ion.

7.

Calculate a liquid’s density from the upthrust an object experiences.

8.

Calculate a solid’s density from its weight and the upthrust it experiences when
it is immersed in a liquid.

9.

Explain why bodies float.

10.

Apply Newton’s First Law to calculate the diff
erent quantities that are involved in
motion.

11.

Explain what causes deformation and equilibrium of bodies.

12.

Explain the difference between the term
work
in physics and how it is used in
everyday language.

13.

Calculate the work done by an object to which a force
is applied.

14.

Name the SI units used to measure work and energy.

15.

Solve everyday problems related to mechanical forms of energy.

16.

Describe how simple machines work.



COMPETENC
E
S
/ ASSESSMENT CRITERIA / ACTIVITIES



COMPETENC
E
S /
SUBCOMPETENC
ES

ASSESSMENT

CRITERIA

ACTIVI
TIES


Competence in knowledge and interaction with the physical world

Recognise what can be
investigated scientifically

16

4

6, 8, 14, 15, 17,

20, 24, 26, 27

RA 1, 4, 6, 7

Use strategies to look for
different types of scientific
information. Understand and
select appropriate information
from a variety of sources.

3, 4, 11, 12, 16

4, 6, 8, 12, 13, 18, 19

RA 1, 4, 6, 7

Recognise the key features of
scientific investigation:
understand variables,
formulate hypotheses, design
experim
ents, analyse and
contrast data, detect regular
patterns, make calculations
and estimates.

3, 11, 15

4, 6, 8, 20, 21

RA 1, 4, 6, 7

Understand basic scientific
principles and concepts and
identify the relationships
between them: causal,
influential, qualit
ative and
quantitative.

1, 3, 9, 11, 12

4

6, 8, 12, 13, 18, 20, 22, 25

RA 1, 4, 6, 7

Natural Sciences ESO 2 (Core Concepts)



Oxford CLIL
(Oxford EDUCACIÓN)

30


Apply scientific knowledge to
everyday situations.

1, 2, 9

4

6, 8, 12, 13, 16, 22

Interpret data and scientific
experiments. Draw
conclusions and
communicate them in
different formats in a correct,
well
-
organised and coherent
manner.

5

4, 6, 8, 16, 18

Argue for or against
conclusions and identify the
assumptions, proofs, and
reasoning behind them.

9, 11, 12

4, 6, 8, 16, 22

RA 9


Mathematical competence

Use
mathematical terms to
analyse cause and effect.

4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 13, 15

2, 4, 19

RA 1, 2

Use mathematical language
to convey data and ideas
about nature.

4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 13, 15

2, 4

RA 1, 2


Data processing and digital competence

Use and produce
schematic
diagrams, mind maps, reports
and papers.

11, 12, 16

RA 3


Linguistic competence (*)

Use the correct scientific
terminology in texts and
argumentation involving
scientific content.

1, 14, 15

1, 6, 9, 16, 17, 22

24

RA 1, 6, 7, 9

Understand and
interpret
messages about natural
sciences.

2, 4, 9

5, 6, 9, 10, 12, 16, 17, 20, 22,
26

RA 1, 6, 8, 9


Autonomy and personal initiative

Develop the capacity to
analyse situations, evaluating
the factors that have
influenced them and their
possible
consequences.

16

4, 11, 12, 20

RA 8, 9


RA: Revision activities


*All the subcompetences detailed in this section are developed using English as the common
language,

which will allow pupils to communicate with an increasing degree of skill in the foreign
language.

Natural Sciences ESO 2 (Core Concepts)



Oxford CLIL
(Oxford EDUCACIÓN)

31















OBJECTIVES


1.

Understand that heat is a transfer of thermal energy between two bodies that
are in thermal disequilibrium, but that heat is not contained in bodies.

2.

Link temperature to thermal movement or to the average kinetic movement of
particles. Discard the incorrect idea that temperature is a measurement of heat.

3.

Learn about the Celsius and Kelvin scales of temperature and how they are
linked.

4.

Learn how thermo
meters work.

5.

Learn the main units used to measure heat.

6.

Be able to determine the difference between the ways in which heat is
transmitted.



CONTENTS


Concepts



Thermal energy.



Temperature and its measurement: thermometers.



Celsius or centigrade and Kelvin

temperature scales.



Heat and thermal equilibrium: units of measurement of heat.



Heat transfer: conduction, convection and radiation.


Procedures



Carry out activities that involve transformations between temperature
scales.



Obtain a heating curve that
shows a stage transition.



Carry out simple research on the different ways in which heat is
transmitted.


Attitudes



Show interest in physical explanations of natural phenomena.



Have a better understanding of science through simple research.



Take care when
working with energy and sources of heat.



ASSESSMENT CRITERIA


1.

Determine the difference between heat and temperature.

2.

Determine the difference between thermal energy (contained by bodies) and
heat (as a means of transmitting thermal energy).

UNI
T

5


HEAT AND TEMPERATURE


TRANSFER OF ENERGY

Natural Sciences ESO 2 (Core Concepts)



Oxford CLIL
(Oxford EDUCACIÓN)

32

3.

Use the Cel
sius and Kelvin temperature scales.

4.

Carry out temperature conversions.

5.

Explain how a thermometer works in terms of physics.

6.

Use different units of heat.

7.

Determine the difference between the different ways in which heat is
transmitted.



COMPETENC
E
S
/
ASSESSMENT CRITERIA / ACTIVITIES



COMPETENC
E
S /
SUBCOMPETENC
ES

ASSESSMENT

CRITERIA

ACTIVI
TIES


Competence in knowledge and interaction with the physical world

Recognise what can be
investigated scientifically:
differentiate between
scientific and
non
-
scientific
problems and explanations.

1, 2, 5

2, 5, 8, 9, 12

RA 3, 4

Recognise the key features of
scientific investigation:
understand variables,
formulate hypotheses, design
experiments, analyse and
contrast data, detect regular
patterns, make
calculations
and estimates.

3, 5

11, 14

16

RA 3

Understand basic scientific
principles and concepts and
identify the relationships
between them: causal,
influential, qualitative and
quantitative.

1, 2, 5, 6, 7

5, 14

RA 6, 7,

Describe and explain
processes scientifically and
predict changes. Use
explanatory models.

5

14

16

RA 4

Apply scientific knowledge to
everyday situations.

3, 4, 5

5, 15, 16, 18

RA 1, 7

Interpret data and scientific
experiments. Draw
conclusions and
communicate them in
different formats in a correct,
well
-
organised and coherent
manner.

4

11

RA 5