Cognitive Method

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Topic: Theoretical Bases for Cognitive Method



Objectives



Trainees will be able to give reasons for the design and procedures of the Cognitive Method.



Lesson One

Giving Reasons for the Cognitive method



Pre
-
task activities



Step One: discussing
the language theories underlying the method.



Step Two: discussing the language learning theories underlying the method.



While
-
task activities



Step Three: group work to give reasons for the method.



Post
-
task activities



Step Seven: group speaker reporting
to the class.



The Cognitive Approach


Theory of language.



Transformational generative linguistics:

Chomsky assumes that children are born with a language acquisition device( LAD). This LAD is made up
of a set of general principles called universal gra
mmar. These general principles can be applied to all the
languages in the world. There are a finite number of rules that all native speakers know and with these
rules it is possible to create an infinite number of sentences.


Linguistic competence refers t
o the internalized knowledge of the language that a native speaker of
that language possesses. It is this language competence that allows the child to be creative as a
language user.

Linguistic performance refers to the actual utterances produced by the na
tive speakers



Theory of Language Learning



Cognitive psychology



They maintain that all the relationships among stimuli, responses and consequences are learned
and are integrated into the animal’s knowledge. That is to say, the animal under study makes a
res
ponse simply because it has the knowledge or belief that in a particular situation.



Assimilation refers to the process by which new items are added to a concept or schema



Accommodation refers to the process by which the existing concept or schema is chang
ed on
the basis of new information.



Transformational generative linguistics



Contribution of Noam Chomsky(

姆斯基)



Language acquisition device



Linguistic competence and linguistic performance



Goal of transformational generative linguistics



Approach taken by
Chomsky



Contribution of Noam Chomsky(

姆斯基)



The year 1957 saw the publication of Noam Chomsky’s book Syntactic Structures, which started
a revolution in the linguistic world and ushered in a new school
---

the transformational
generative linguistics



Language

acquisition device

Chomsky assumes that children are born with a language acquisition device( LAD). This LAD is made up
of a set of general principles called universal grammar. These general principles can be applied to all the
languages in the world.



Lin
guistic competence and linguistic performance

Linguistic competence refers to the internalized knowledge of the language that a native speaker of that
language possesses.

Linguistic performance refers to the actual utterances produced by the native speaker
s.



Goal of transformational generative linguistics

Chomsky holds the position that linguists should study the linguistic competence, not the performance,
of the native speaker and try to set up a system of rules that will generate an infinite number of
gra
mmatical sentences of the language and none of ungrammatical ones, will demonstrate and explain
the various kinds of relations including ambiguity among sentences, and will be able to characterize the
creative property of language.



Approach taken by Chomsk
y

A deductive, hypothesis
-
testing approach is taken by Chomsky.



Cognitive psychology



Definition of cognitive psychology



Computer technology



Work of Jean Piaget



Work of Noam Chomsky



Theory of cognitive psychology



Acquisition of knowledge



Schemas and conce
pts



Assimilation and accommodation



Definition of cognitive psychology


Cognitive psychology can be defined as the study of people’s ability to acquire, organize, remember
and use knowledge to guide their behaviour.



Computer technology


A computer receives coded information, processes it and then sends it to the output system. All this
is analogous to what the brain does.The brain receives information through senses, processes it and
sends it out as behavioral actions.



Work of Jea
n Piaget




Switzerland, 1896



Based on the data collected in his experiments with children, Piaget claimed that while the child
grows up, his capacity of reasoning would become more and more developed through different
stages.



He described the development

of children’s reasoning abilities at each stage in terms of
hypothetical mental constructs which he called schemes



Work of Noam Chomsky(1928
-

)



Noam Chomsky’s publication of Syntactic Structures in 1957 not only started a revolution in
linguistics, but al
so had an enormous impact on psychology.



He argued that language should be viewed as a system of mental rules which are in part wired
into the brain as a result of evolution.



Theory of cognitive psychology



All of cognitive psychologists want to explain o
bservable behaviour by reference to hypothetical
mental structures.



They maintain that all the relationships among stimuli, responses and consequences are learned
and are integrated into the animal’s knowledge. That is to say, the animal under study makes
a
response simply because it has the knowledge or belief that in a particular situation.



Acquisition of knowledge



As for the acquisition of knowledge, some cognitive psychologists like Piaget describe it in terms
of cognitive structures. According to Piag
et, there are two principal types of cognitive structures
which he called schemas and concepts.



Schema and concept



Concept: a concept is a mental




representation of a category, which




allows a person to sort stimuli into





instances and noninstances



Schema: a schema is a mental




representation of a set of related




categories.



Assimilation
同化

and accommodation





Assimilation refers to the process by which new items are added to a concep
t or schema



Accommodation refers to the process by which the existing concept or schema is changed on
the basis of new information.



ASSIMILATION
:)


EXAMPLE: A child who knows what a dog is sees another four
-
legged animal that she or he has never
befor
e encountered, such as a cow, and not recognizing it, uses previous
schema

to call it a dog.



ACCOMMODATION
:


EXAMPLE: After the child calls the cow a dog, his or her mother tells him or her that this new four
-
legged creature is a cow. The next time the child sees a cow he or she identifies it as a cow, indicating
that the child’s previous
schema

of four legg
ed creatures had been expanded to include cows.



The hypothesis of linguistic universals



Two approaches to the study of linguistic universals



Core grammar and peripheral grammar



Two approaches to the study of linguistic universals

One is taken by Noam Chom
sky, who is making a detailed study of a particular language in order to
reveal the universals of language;

the other is taken by Joseph H. Greenberg, who studies and compares different languages in an effort to
determine the linguistic universals.



Core
grammar and peripheral grammar


The core grammar of a natural language agrees with the inborn set of general principles while the
peripheral grammar can not be governed by the language acquisition device.




The core grammar of the learner’s

mother tongue will facilitate the development of the
learner’s interlanguage and will exert a positive influence on the acquisition of the target
language.



The cognitive theory

Automaticity and restructuring

Automatic processing of information and

contro
lled processing of information

Restructuring

Functions of automaticity and restructuring



Automaticity and restructuring

In the cognitive theory, automaticity and restructuring are the most important notions.



Automatic processing of information and

control
led processing of information


Automatic processing of information needs less time and energy than controlled processing.




Teaching and practice will help the learner to acquire the automatic processing capacity.



Restructuring

When the existing

internal representation cannot be used to account for the new information, then it is
necessary for us to restructure the internal representation.



Functions of automaticity and restructuring


Language learning at the beginning stage involves more

of the process of automaticity while
language learning at the advanced stage usually involves more of the process of restructuring.