JNT University::Kakinada
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING
M.
Tech. Power Electronics and Power Systems
Course Structure w.e.f. 2009

2010
Semester
–
I
L
T
P
C
1.
Power System Operation and Control
4


8
2.
Reactive Power
Compensation & Management
4


8
3
Analysis of Power Electronic Converters
4


8
4.
Power Electronic Control of DC Drives
4


8
5.
Elective
–
I
4


8
i)
Micro
Controllers
& Applications
ii)
Special Machines and Controls
iii) Power
Semiconductor Devices & Protection
6.
Elective

II
4


8
i)
Voltage Stability
ii)
Electrical Distribution Systems
iii) Renewable Energy sources
7
Power Electronic
s
and Power System Simulation laboratory


3
8
Semester
–
II
1.
Switched Mode
Power Conversion
4


8
2.
Power Electronics Control of AC Drives
4


8
3.
FACTS Controllers
4


8
4.
Advanced Power System Protection
4


8
5.
Elective

III
4


8
i)
Intelliligent Control
ii)
Digital
Control Systems
iii)
PLC Controllers and its Applications
6.
Elective

IV
4


8
i)
Power System Deregulation
ii)
Real Time Control of Power Systems
iii)
Demand S
ide Energy Management
7.
Power Electronics& Power Systems
Laboratory


3
8
SEMESTER
–
I
1.
POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL
Unit 1 :
Unit commitment problem : Introductions to UCP, thermal & Hydral constraints in Unit
commitment : Priority list scheme method, unit commitment problem solution by priority list
scheme method,
Unit 2
:
Unit commitment problem solutions by Dynamic programming Approach. Introduction,
advantages of DP method over priority list scheme, Back word DP approach, forward DP
approach algorithm and their flow charts solution UCP using Dynamic program metho
d.
Unit 3 :
Load Frequency Control

I : Necessity of keeping frequency constant. Definition of
control area, single area control, Block diagram representation of an isolated Power System,
Steady State analysis, Dynamic response

Uncontrolled case.
Unit 4 :
Proportional plus Integral control of single area and its block diagram representation,
steady state response, load frequency control and Economic dispatch control.
Unit 5 :
Load Frequency Control

II : Load frequency control of 2

area system : uncontrolled
case and controlled case, tie

time bias control.
Unit 6
:
Optimal LF control

steady state representation, performance Index and optimal
parameter adjustment.
Unit 7 :
Generation with limited Energy supply : Take

or

pay fuel supply contract, composite
gene
ration production cost function. Solution by gradient search techniques, Hard limits and
slack variables, Fuel scheduling by linear programming.
Unit 8 :
Interchange Evaluation and Power Pools Economy Interchange, Economy interchange
Evaluation, Interchan
ge Evaluation with unit commitment, Multiple Interchange contracts.
After

the

fact production costing, Transmission Losses in transaction Evaluation, other types of
Interchange, power pools.
Reference Books :
1.
Electrical Energy Systems Theory

by
O.I.Elgerd, Tata Mc Graw

Hill Publishing
Company Ltd, 2
nd
edition.
2.
Power System Analysis by Hadi Saadat
–
Tata Mc Graw Hill Publications
3.
Power Generation, Operation and Control

by A.J.Wood and B.F.Wollenberg,John wiley
& sons Inc. 1984.
4.
Modern Power Syst
em Analysis

by I.J.Nagrath & D.P.Kothari, Tata Mc Graw

Hill
Publishing Company ltd, 2
nd
edition.
2.
REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION AND MANAGEMENT
UNIT I:
Load Compensation
Objectives and specifications
–
reactive power characteristics
–
inductive and
capacitive
approximate biasing
–
Load compensator as a voltage regulator
–
phase balancing and power
factor correction of unsymmetrical loads

examples.
UNIT II: Steady
–
state reactive power compensation in transmission system:
Uncompensated line
–
types
of compensation
–
Passive shunt and series and dynamic shunt
compensation
–
examples
UNIT III:
Transient state reactive power compensation in transmission systems:
Characteristic time periods
–
passive shunt compensation
–
static compensations

series
cap
acitor compensation
–
compensation using synchronous condensers
–
examples
UNIT

IV:
Reactive power coordination:
Objective
–
Mathematical modeling
–
Operation planning
–
transmission benefits
–
Basic
concepts of quality of power supply
–
disturbances

stead
y
–
state variations
–
effects of under
voltages
–
frequency
–
Harmonics, radio frequency and electromagnetic interferences
UNIT

V:
Demand side management:
Load patterns
–
basic methods load shaping
–
power tariffs

KVAR based tariffs penalties for
voltage
flickers and Harmonic voltage levels
UNIT

VI:
Distribution side Reactive power Management
:
System losses
–
loss reduction methods
–
examples
–
Reactive power planning
–
objectives
–
Economics Planning capacitor placement
–
retrofitting of capacitor banks
U
NIT

VII:
User side reactive power management:
KVAR requirements for domestic appliances
–
Purpose of using capacitors
–
selection of
capacitors
–
deciding factors
–
types of available capacitor, characteristics and Limitations
UNIT

VIII: Reactive power man
agement in electric traction systems and are furnaces:
Typical layout of traction systems
–
reactive power control requirements
–
distribution
transformers

Electric arc furnaces
–
basic operations

furnaces transformer
–
filter requirements
–
remedial
measures
–
power factor of an arc furnace
Reference Books:
1. Reactive power control in Electric power systems by T.J.E.Miller, John Wiley and sons, 1982
(Units I to IV)
2. Reactive power Management by D.M.Tagare,Tata McGraw Hill,2004.(Units V toVIII
3.
ANALYSIS OF POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS
Unit

I Single Phase AC voltage Controllers
Single Phase AC Voltage Controllers with RL and RLE loads

ac voltage controller’s with PWM
control

Effects of source and load inductances
–
synchronous tap changers
–
Applica
tion

numerical problems
Unit

II Three Phase AC Voltage Controllers
Three Phase AC Voltage controllers

Analysis of Controllers with star and delta connected
resistive, resistive
–
inductive loads

Effects of source and load inductances
–
Application

numerica
l problems.
Unit
–
III Single phase ac

dc converters
Single phase Half controlled and Fully controlled Converters with RL load
–
Evaluation of input
power factor and harmonic factor

Continuous and Discontinuous load current

Power factor
improvements

Extincti
on angle control

symmetrical angle control

PWM single phase sinusoidal
PWM

Single phase series converters

numerical problems
Unit

IV Three Phase ac

dc Converters
Three Phase ac

dc Converters

Half controlled and fully controlled Converters with RL load
–
E
valuation of input power factor and harmonic factor

Continuous and Discontinuous load
current

three phase dual converters

Power factor improvements

three phase PWM

twelve pulse
converters

numerical problems
Unit

V Power Factor Correction Converters
Single

phase single stage boost power factor corrected rectifier, power circuit principle of
operation, and steady state

analysis, three phase boost PFC converter
Unit
–
VI Single phase PWM Inverters
Principle of operation

Voltage control of single phase invert
ers

sinusoidal PWM
–
modified
PWM
–
phase displacement Control
–
Trapezoidal, staircase, stepped, harmonic injection and
delta modulation
–
numerical problems
Unit VII: Three Phase PWM Inverters
Voltage Control of Three

Phase Inverters

Sinusoidal PWM

60
0
PWM

Third Harmonic PWM

Space Vector Modulation

Comparison of PWM Techniques

current source inverters

Variable
dc link inverter

numerical problems
Unit VIII: Multi level inverters
Introduction, Multilevel Concept, Types of Multilevel Inverters

Diode

Clamped Multilevel
Inverter, Principle of Operation, Features of Diode

Clamped Inverter, Improved Diode

Clamped
Inverter

Flying

Capacitors Multilevel Inverter

Principle of Operation, Features of Flying

Capacitors Inverter

Cascaded Multilevel Inve
rter

Principle of Operation

Features of Cascaded
Inverter

Switching Device Currents

DC

Link Capacitor Voltage Balancing

Features of
Multilevel Inverters

Comparisons of Multilevel Converters
Textbooks
1. Power Electronics

Md.H.Rashid
–
Pearson Education
Third Edition

First Indian
Reprint

2008
2. Power Electronics

Ned Mohan, Tore M.Undelan and William P.Robbins
–
John Wiley & Sons

2
nd
Edition.
4.
POWER ELECTRONIC CONTROL OF DC DRIVES
Unit

I: Speed Torque characteristics of DC
Motors
Separately excited DC motors, Shunt motor, series motor and compound motor
Unit

II: Controlled Bridge Rectifier (1

Ф) with DC Motor Load
Separately excited DC motors with rectified single phase supply

single phase semi converter and single
phase
full converter for continuous and discontinuous modes of operation
–
power and power factor.
Unit

III: Controlled Bridge Rectifier (3

Ф) with DC Motor Load
Three phase semi converter and three phase full converter for continuous and discontinuous modes of
operation
–
power and power factor
–
Addition of
Freewheeling
diode
–
Three phase double converter.
Unit

IV: Three phase naturally commutated bridge circuit as a rectifier or as an inverter
Three phase controlled bridge rectifier with passive load impedanc
e, resistive load and ideal supply
–
Highly inductive load and ideal supply for load side and supply side quantities, shunt capacitor
compensation, three phase controlled bridge rectifier inverter.
Unit

V: Closed loop control of phase controlled DC motor D
rives
Open loop Transfer function of DC Motor drive

Closed loop Transfer function of DC Motor drive
–
Phase

Locked loop control.
Unit

VI: Chopper controlled DC motor drives
Principle of operation of the chopper
–
Four quadrant chopper circuit
–
Chopper for
inversion
–
Chopper
with other power devices
–
model of the chopper
–
input to the chopper
–
Steady state analysis of chopper
controlled DC motor drives
–
rating of the devices.
Unit

VII: Closed loop control of chopper fed DC motor Drives
Speed controlled
drive system
–
current control loop
–
pulse width modulated current controller
–
hysteresis current controller
–
modeling of current controller
–
design of current controller
Unit

VIII: Simulation of DC motor Drives
Dynamic simulations of the speed contro
lled DC motor drives
–
Speed feedback speed controller
–
command current generator
–
current controller.
REFERENCES
1.
Power Electronics and Motor Control
–
Shepherd, Hulley, Liang
–
II Edition, Cambridge
University Press
2.
Power Electronic Circuits, Devices an
d Applications
–
M. H. Rashid
–
PHI.
3.
Electric Motor Drives Modeling, Analysis and Control
–
R. Krishnan, Prentice Hall India.
4.
Fundamentals of Electric Drives
–
G. K. Dubey
–
Narosa Publications
–
1995.
5.
Power Semiconductor drives
–
G. K. Dubey.
5.1 MICRO CONTROLLERS
AND APPLICATIONS
(Elective
–
I)
Unit

I: 8051 Microcontrollers
Introduction to Intel 8 bit &
16 bit Microcontrollers, MCS

51 Architecture, Registers in MCS

51, 8051
Pin Description, 8051 Connections, 8051 Parallel I/O Ports, Memory Organization
Unit II: MCS

51 Addressing Modes and Instructions
8051 Addressing Modes, MCS

51 Instruction Set, 8051
Instructions and Simple Programs, Using Stack
Pointer, 8051 Assembly Language Programming, Development Systems and Tools, Software Simulators
of 8051
Unit

III: MCS

51 Interrupts, Timer/Counters and Serial Communication
Interrupts, Interrupts in MCS

51, T
imers and Counters, Serial Communication, Atmel Microcontrollers
(89CXX and 89C20XX), Architectural Overview of Atmel 89C51 and Atmel 89C2051, Pin Description
of 89C51 and 89C2051, Using Flash Memory Devices Atmel 89CXX and 89C20XX
Unit

IV: Applications
of MCS

51 and Atmel 89C51 and 89C2051 Microcontrollers
Applications of MCS

51 and Atmel 89C51 and 89C2051 Microcontrollers

Square Wave Generation

Rectangular Waves

Pulse Generation

Pulse Width Modulation

Staircase Ramp Generation

Sine Wave
Generation

Pulse Width Measurement

Frequency Counter
Unit

V. PIC Microcontrollers
PIC Microcontrollers: Overview and Features, PIC 16C6X/7X, FSR(File Selection Register) [Indirect
Data Memory Address Pointer], PIC Reset Actions, PIC Oscillator Connections,
PIC Memory
Organizations, PIC PIC 16C6X/7X Instructions, Addressing Modes, I/O Ports, Interrupts in PIC
16C61/71, PIC 16C61/71 Timers, PIC 16C71 Analog

to

Digital Converter (ADC)
Unit

VI. PIC 16F8XX Flash Microcontrollers
Introduction, Pin Diagram of 16F8XX, STATUS Register, OPTION_REG Register, Power Control
Register (PCON), PIC 16F8XX Program Memory, PIC 16F8XX Data Memory, DATA EEPROM and
Flash Program EEPROM, Interrupts in 16F877, I/O Ports, Timers
Unit

VII: Interfac
ing and Microcontroller Applications

Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), Push
Buttons, Relays and Latch Connections, Keyboard Interfacing, Interfacing 7

Segment Displays, LCD
Interfacing, ADC AND DAC Interfacing with 89C51 Microcontrollers
Unit

VIII: Indus
trial Applications of Microcontrollers

Measurement Applications, Automation and
Control Applications
Reference books:
1.
Microcontrollers

Theory and Applications by Ajay V Deshmukh, McGraw Hills
2.
Microcontrollers by Kentrith J ayala, Thomson publishers
3
Micr
oprocessor and Microcontrollers by Prof C.R.Sarma
5.2
SPECIAL MACHINES AND CONTROLS
(Elective

1)
Unit I: Stepper Motors
Constructional features, Principle of operation, Modes of excitation torque production in
Variable
Reluctance (VR) stepping motor
Unit II: Characteristics of Stepper Motors
Dynamic characteristics, Drive systems and circuit for open loop control, closed loop control of stepping
motor.
Unit III: Switched Reluctance Motors
Constructional features, Principle of operation. Torque equatio
n, Characteristics, Control
Techniques
,
Drive Concept.
Unit IV: Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Motors
Commutation in DC motors, Difference between mechanical and electronic commutators,
Hall sensors,
Optical sensors, Multiphase Brushless motor, Square wa
ve permanent
magnet brushless motor drives,
Torque and emf equation, Torque

speed characteristics,
Controllers

Microprocessors based controller.
Unit V: Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors
Principle of operation, EMF,
power input and torque expressions,
Phasor diagram, Power
controllers,
Torque speed characteristics, Self control, Vector control, Current control
schemes.
Unit VI: Servomotors
Servomotor
–
Types
–
Constructional features
–
Principle of Operation
–
Characteristics

Control
–
Microprocessor
based applications.
Unit VII: AC Tachometers
Schematic diagram, Operating principle, numerical problems
Unit VIII: Linear Motors
Linear Motors: Linear Induction Motor (LIM) Classification
–
Construction
–
Principle of operation
–
Concept of Current she
et
–
Goodness factor
–
DC Linear Motor (DCLM) types
–
Circuit equation
–
DCLM control

applications.
References
1. Miller, T.J.E. “Brushless Permanent Magnet and Reluctance Motor Drives”,Clarendon Press, Oxford,
1989.
2. Kenjo, T, “Stepping Motors and t
heir Microprocessor control”, Clarendon Press,
Oxford, 1989.
3. Naser A and Boldea I, “Linear Electric Motors: Theory, Design and Practical
Application”, Prentice
Hall Inc., New Jersey,1987
4. Floyd E Saner,”Servo Motor Applications”, Pittman USA,
1993.
5. Kenjo, T and Naganori, S “Permanent Magnet and brushless DC motors”, Clarendon
Press, Oxford,
1989.
6. Generalized Theory of Electrical Machines
–
P.S.Bimbra

Khanna publications

5
th
edition

1995
5.3 POWER SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES & PROTECTION
(Elective

I)
Unit I: Overview of Power Switching Devices:
Introduction to power switching devices,
classification of devices, controlled and un

controlled devices, i

v characteristics of ideal and
real switching devices,
Unit

II: Power Diodes:
Device str
ucture and i

v characteristics, ratings & specifications,
switching characteristics, reverse recovery, classification of various diodes: Schotky diode, line
frequency diodes, fast recovery diodes,
Unit

III: Power Transistors:
Device structure and i

v chara
cteristics, ratings & specifications,
switching characteristics, ON to OFF and OFF to ON state transitions, ON/OFF transition loss
analysis, driver circuit.
Unit

IV: Power MOSFETs:
Device structure and i

v characteristics, ratings & specifications,
switchi
ng characteristics, ON to OFF and OFF to ON state transitions, ON/OFF transition loss
analysis, driver circuit.
Unit

V: IGBT:
Device structure and i

v characteristics, ratings & specifications, switching
characteristics, ON to OFF and OFF to ON state trans
itions, ON/OFF transition loss analysis,.
Comparison of all the above devices with reference to power handling capability, frequency of
operation, driver circuit, .emerging power switching devices.
Unit

VI: Protection of the Switching Devices:
Device prote
ction against over voltage/currents,
di/dt and dv/dt; safe operating area, design of snubbers for power devices.
Unit

VII:
Thermal Management:
Conduction and transition losses computation, thermal
model of the device, steady

state temperature rise, electri
cal equivalent circuit of thermal model,
sizing of the heat sink.
Unit

VIII: Passive Components:
Magnetic circuit, review of design of line frequency inductors
and transformers, design of high frequency inductors and transformers.
Text book
1.
Power
Electronics Circuits

B. W. Williams
Reference books
1.
Power Electronics Circuits, Devices and Applications
–
M. H. Rashid

PHI

2.
Power Electronics
–
Converters, Applications and Design
–
Mohan and Undeland

John
Wiley & Sons
3.
Power Electronics: L. Umanand
6.1 VOLTAGE STABILITY
(ELECTIVE II)
Unit 1
:
Reactive Power flow and voltage stability in power systems
:
Physical relationship
indicating dependency of voltage on reactive power flow

reactive power transient stability;
Q

V curve; definition of voltage stability, voltage collapse and voltage security. Voltage collapse
phenomenon, Factors of voltage col
lapse, effects of voltage collapse, voltage collapse analysis.
Reasons for aggravation of the problem.
Unit 2
:
Power system loads : Load characteristics that influence voltage stability such as
–
Discharge lighting, Induction motor, Air conditioning an
d heat pumps, Electronic power
supplies, Over Head lines and cables.
Unit 3
:
Reactive Power compensation : Generation and absorption of reactive power
–
Reactive power compensators & voltage controllers :

shunt capacitors, synchronous phase
modifi
er
–
static VAR system
–
on load tap changing transformer, booster transformers.
Unit 4
:
Voltage stability static indices :
Development of voltage collapse index
–
power flow
studies
–
singular value decomposition
–
minimum singular value of voltage collapse
–
condition number as voltage collapse index.
Unit 5
:
V
oltage stability margins & Improvement of voltage stability:
Stability margins,
voltage stability margin of un compensated and compensated power system . Dynamic voltage
stability
–
voltage security , Methods of improving voltage stability and its practical aspects.
References:
1.
Performance operation and control
of EHV power transmission SystemsA chakrabarti,
D.P.Kothari, A.K. Mukhopadhyay, A.H. Wheeler publishing, 1995.
2.
Power system Voltage stability

C.W. Taylor , Mc. Graw Hill, 1994
6
.2
ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
(ELECTIVE

I
I)
Unit 1 :
General : Introduction to Distribution systems, an overview of the role of computers in
distribution system planning

Load modeling and characteristics: definition of basic terms like demand
factor, utilization factor, load factor, plant factor, diversity
factor, coincidence factor, contribution factor
and loss factor

Relationship between the load factor and loss factor

Classification of loads
(Residential, Commercial, Agricultural and Industrial) and their characteristics.
Unit 2 :
Distributio
n Feeders and Substations : Design consideration of Distribution feeders: Radial and
loop types of primary feeders, voltage levels, feeder

loading.
Unit 3 :
Design practice of the secondary distribution system.
Location of
Substations:
Rating of a Distr
ibution Substation, service area with
primary feeders. Benefits derived through optimal location of substations.
Unit 4 :
System analysis : Voltage drop and power loss calculations : Derivation for volt

drop and power
loss in lines, manual methods of solution for radial networks, three

phase balanced primary lines, non

three

phase primary lines.
Unit 5 :
Protective devices a
nd coordination : Objectives of distribution system protection, types of
common faults and procedure for fault calculation.
Unit 6 :
Protective Devices: Principle of operation of fuses, circuit reclosers, line sectionalizer and circuit
breakers. Coordinati
on of protective devices : General coordination procedure.
Unit 7 :
Capacitive compensation for power factor control: Different types of power capacitors, shunt and
series capacitors, effect of shunt capacitors (Fixed and switched ) power factor correction
, capacitor
location. Economic justification. Procedure to determine the best capacitor location.
Unit 8 :
Voltage control : Equipment for voltage control, effect of series capacitors, effect of AVB/AVR,
line drop compensation.
Reference Books :
1.
“Electric
Power Distribution System Engineering “ by Turan Gonen, Mc.Graw

Hill Book
Company,1986.
2.
Electric Power Distribution

by A.S.Pabla, Tata Mc Graw

Hill Publishing Company, 4
th
edition,
1997
6.3
RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES
(Elective
–
II)
Unit

I
Solar Energy

Availability

Solar radiation data and measurement

Estimation of average solar
radiation

Solar water heater types

Heat balance
–
Flat plate collector efficiency
–
Efficiency
of heat removal

Thermo siphon flow calculation

Forced ci
rculation calculation

Evacuated
collectors

Basics of solar concentrators
Unit

II
Solar Energy Applications

Solar air heaters
–
Solar Chimney

Crop driers

Passive solar
system

Active solar systems

Water desalination

Output from solar still
–
Principle of solar
ponds.
Unit

III
Wind Energy
–
Nature of wind
–
Characteristics
–
Variation with height and time
–
Power in
wind
–
Aerodynamics of Wind turbine
–
Momentum theory
–
Basics of aerodynamics
–
Aerofoils
and their characteristics
–
HAWT
–
B
lade element theory
–
Prandtl’s lifting line theory
(prescribed wake analysis) VAWT aerodynamics
–
Wind turbine loads
–
Aerodynamic loads in
steady operation
–
Yawed operation and tower shadow.
Unit

IV
Wind Energy Conversion System
–
Siting
–
Rotor s
election
–
Annual energy output
–
Horizontal
axis wind turbine (HAWT)
–
Vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT)
–
Rotor design considerations
–
Number of blades
–
Solidity

Blade profile
–
Upwind/Downwind
–
Yaw system
–
Tower
–
Braking system

Synchronous and
asynchronous generators and loads
–
Integration of wind
energy converters to electrical networks
–
Inverters
–
Control system
–
Requirement and
strategies
–
Noise
–
Applications of wind energy
Unit

V
Biomass energy

Bio fuel classification
–
Examples of
thermo chemical, Pyrolysis, biochemical
and agrochemical systems
–
Energy farming
–
Direct combustion for heat
–
Process heat and
electricity
–
Ethanol production and use
–
Anaerobic
digestion for biogas
–
Different
digesters
–
Digester sizing
–
Applicat
ions of Biogas

Operation with I.C.Engine
Unit

VI
Ocean Energy

OTEC Principle

Lambert’s law of absorption

Open cycle and closed cycle

heat exchanger calculations
–
Major problems and operational experience.
Unit

VII
Tidal Power

Principles of power generation

components of power plant
–
Single and two
basin systems
–
Turbines for tidal power

Estimation of energy
–
Maximum and minimum
power ranges

tidal powerhouse.
Wave Energy
–
Concept of energy and power fro
m waves
–
Wave characteristics
–
period and
wave velocities

Different wave energy conservation devices (Saltor duck, oscillating water
column and dolphin types)
–
operational experience.
Unit

VIII
Geothermal Energy

Classification

Fundamentals of geop
hysics

Dry rock and hot aquifier
energy analysis

Estimation of thermal power

Extraction techniques

Prime movers.
References:
1.
Renewable Energy Resources / John Twidell and Tony Weir / E & F.N.Spon
2.
Renewable Energy Resources Basic Principles and
Applications / G.N.Tiwari and
M.K.Ghosal / Narosa
3.
Solar Energy

Principles of thermal collection and storage/ S.P. Sukhatme / TMH
4.
Solar Energy Thermal Processes,/Duffie & Beckman
5.
Solar Heating and Cooling / Kreith & Kreider
6.
Wind Energy Handbook / Tony Bur
ton, David Sharpe, Nick Jenkins and Ervin Bossanyi /
WileyWind Electrical Systems / S.N.Bhadra, D.Kastha and S.Banerjee / Oxford
7.
Biogas Technology

A Practical Hand Book / K.Khendelwal & S.S. Mahdi / McGraw

Hill
7. Power
Electronics and Power System Simulation Laboratory
Group
–
A
1.
PSPICE Simulation of Three phase full converter using RL & E Loads.
2.
PSPICE Simulation of single phase AC Voltage controller with PWM control for RL
load.
3.
PSPICE Simulation of Three phase invert
er with Sinusoidal PWM control for R

Load.
4.
PSPICE Simulation of single phase current source inverter with RL Load.
5.
Characteristics of induction machines under balanced and symmetrical conditions for the
following using Matlab/Simulink
.
a. dq
model in synchronous reference frame
.
b. dq model in stator reference frame
.
c. dq model in rotor reference frame
.
6.
Volts/Hz
closed

loop speed control of an induction motor drive using Matlab/Simulink
.
7.
Open

loop Volts/Hz control of a synchro
nous motor drive using Matlab/Simulink
.
8.
Speed control of a permanent magnet synchronous motor using Matlab/Simulink
.
7. Power Electronics and Power System Simulation Laboratory
Group
–
B
1.
Y

Bus Formation.
2.
Gauss
–
Seidel Load Flow Analysis.
3.
Fast
Decoupled Load Flow Analysis
4.
Formation of Z

Bus.
5.
Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical fault analysis using Z

Bus.
6.
Unit Commitment Problem.
7.
Hydro

Thermal scheduling problem.
8.
Transient stability analysis using point by point method.
NB: The students have to do minimum
of
6 experiments from each group.
SEMESTER
–
II
1.
SWITCHED MODE POWER CONVERSION
Unit
–
I Single

switch Isolated converters:
Requirement for isolation in the switch

mode
converters, transformer connection, Forward
and flyback converters, power circuit and steady

state analysis.
Unit

II: Push

Pull Converters:
Power circuit and steady

state analysis, utilization of magnetic
circuits in single switch and push

pull topologies.
Unit

III: Isolated Bridge converters:
Ha
lf bridge and full

bridge converters
,
Power circuit and
steady

state analysis, utilization of magnetic circuits and comparison with previous topologies.
Unit

IV
:
Dynamic Analysis of dc

dc converters:
Formulation of dynamic equation of buck and
boost
converters, averaged circuit models, linearization technique, small

signal model and
converter transfer functions.
Unit

V:
Controller Design
: Review of frequency

domain analysis of linear time

invariant
systems, concept of bode plot, phase and gain margin
s, bandwidth, controller specifications,
proportional(P), proportional plus integral (PI), proportional plus integral plus integral controller
(PID), selection of controller parameters.
Unit

VI: Resonant Converters:
Classification of Resonant converters

B
asic resonant circuits

Series resonant circuit

parallel resonant circuits

Resonant switches.
Unit

VII:
Quasi

Resonant Converters

I: Concept of Zero voltage switching, principle of
operation, analysis of M

type and L

type Buck or boost Converters.
Unit

VIII
: Quasi

Resonant Converters

II: Concept of Zero current switching, principle of
operation, analysis of M

type and L

type Buck or boost Converters.
Text Books:
1.
Fundamentals of Power Electronics
–
Robert Erickson and Dragon Maksivimovic,
Springer Pulblications.
2.
Power Electronics
–
Issa Batarseh

John Wiely
Reference Books:
1. Elements of Power Electronics

Philip T.Krein
–
Oxford University Press
2. Power Electro
nics, L. Umanand, Tata Mc

Graw Hill
2. POWER ELECTRONIC CONTROL OF AC DRIVES
Unit

I
:
Introduction
Review of steady

state operation of Induction motor, Equivalent circuit analysis, torque

speed
characteristics.
Unit II: Voltage Source Inverter Fed
Induction motor drives
Scalar control

Voltage fed Inverter control

Open loop volts/Hz control

Speed control with slip
regulation

Speed control with torque and Flux control

Current controlled voltage fed Inverter
Drive
Unit III Current Source Inverter Fe
d Induction motor drives
Current

Fed Inverter control

Independent current and frequency control

Speed and flux control
in Current

Fed Inverter drive

Volts/Hz control of Current

Fed Inverter drive

Efficiency
optimization control by flux program.
Unit IV Sl
ip power recovery schemes
Slip

power recovery Drives

Static Kramer drive

Phasor diagram

Torque expression

Speed
control of a Kramer drive

Static scherbius drive

Modes of operation
Unit

V: Vector control of Induction Motor:
Principles of vector control,
Direct vector control, derivation of indirect vector control,
implementation
–
block diagram; estimation of flux, flux weakening operation.
Unit

VI: Control of Synchronous motor drives:
Synchronous motor and its characteristics

Control strategies

Consta
nt torque angle control

power factor control, constant flux control, flux weakening operation, Load commutated inverter
fed synchronous motor drive, motoring and regeneration, phasor diagrams.
UNIT

VII: PMSM and BLDC Drives:
Characteristics of permanen
t magnet, synchronous
machines with permanent magnet, vector control of PMSM

Motor model and control scheme.
Modeling of PM brushless dc motor, drive scheme

Three

phase full wave Brushless dc motor

Sinusoidal type of Brushless dc motor

current control
led Brushless dc motor Servo drive
UNIT

VIII Variable Reluctance Motor Drive
Variable Reluctance motor drives

Torque production in the variable reluctance motor

Drive
characteristics and control principles

Current control variable reluctance motor se
rvo drive
Text Book:
1.
Electric Motor Drives Modeling, Analysis & control

R. Krishnan

Pearson Education
Reference Books:
2.
Modern Power Electronics and AC Drives
–
B. K. Bose

Pearson Publications

3.
Power Electronics control of AC motors
–
MD Murphy & FG Turn
Bull Pergman Press

1
st
edition

1998
4.
Fundamentals of Electrical Drives
–
G.K. Dubey
–
Narosa Publications

1995
5.
Power Semiconductor drives

G.K. Dubey

Prentice hall
3.
FACTS CONTROLLERS
Unit 1 :
Transmission interconnections, power flow in an AC System, loading capability limits,
Power flow and Dynamic stability considerations, importance of controllable parameters.
Unit 2 :
Opportunities for FACTS, basic types of FACTS controllers, benefits fro
m FACTS
controllers, Requirements and Characteristics of High Power devices
–
Voltage and Current
rating, losses and speed of switching, parameter trade

off of devices.
Unit 3 :
Basic concept of Voltage source converter, Single phase full wave bridge conv
erter,
Single phase

leg (pole) operation, Square

wave voltage harmonics for a single phase Bridge, 3
Phase full wave bridge converter.
Unit 4 :
Transformer connections for 12 pulse, 24 and 48 pulse operation. Three level voltage
source converter, pulse w
idth modulation converter, basic concept of current source converters,
comparison of current source converters with voltage source converters.
Unit 5 :
Objectives of shunt compensation, midpoint voltage regulation for line segmentation,
End of line voltag
e support to prevent voltage instability, improvement of transient stability,
Power oscillation damping.
Unit 6 :
Methods of controllable var generation: variable impedance type static var generators
–
TCR and TSR, TSC, FC

TCR, TSC

TCR, switching converte
r type var generators, hybrid var
generators.
Unit 7 :
SVC and STATCOM : The regulation and slope transfer function and dynamic
performance, transient stability enhancement and power oscillation damping, operating point
control and summary of compensation control.
Unit 8 :
Static series compensators : Concep
t of series capacitive compensation, improvement of
transient stability, power oscillation damping, functional requirements. GTO thyristor controlled
series capacitor (GSC), thyristor switched series capacitor (TSSC), and thyristor controlled series
capaci
tor (TCSC), control schemes for GSC, TSSC and TCSC.
Reference Book:
1. “Understanding FACTS ” N.G.Hingorani and L.Guygi, IEEE Press.
Indian Edition is available:

Standard Publications, 2001.
1.
“Flexible a c transmission system (FACTS)” Edited by YONG HUE SONG and
ALLAN T JOHNS, Institution of Electrical Engineers, London.
4.
ADVANCED POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION
Unit 1
: STATIC RELAYS CLASSIFICATION AND TOOLS:
Basic construction of
static relays, Classification of static relays, Comparison of Static relays with electromagnetic
relays, Level detectors, Polarity detector, Zero Crossing detector, Thyristor and UJT
triggering circuits, Amplitude comparator, Phase comparator, Princip
le of Duality.
Unit 2
: AMPLITUDE AND PHASE COMPARATORS (2 INPUT):
Generalized equations for amplitude and Phase comparison, Derivation of several Different
characteristics of static relays. Rectifier bridge circulating and opposed Voltage type

Averag
ing

phase splitting type

Sampling type of amplitude Comparison. Block spike type

Phase splitting type

Transistor integrating type

Rectifier bridge type

Vector product type
Phase comparison.
Unit 3
: STATIC OVER CURRENT RELAYS (OC):
Instantaneous

Defi
nite time
–
Inverse time

Directional

IDMT

Very inverse Time

Extremely inverse time over current
relays. Time current characteristics of Over current relays.
Unit 4 :
Over current protective Schemes:
Time graded system

Current graded system

Combination
of time and current graded system. Protection of radial feeder, Protection of
parallel feeders, Protection of loop or Ring circuit.
Unit 5
: DISTANCE RELAYS:
Principle of operation

Classification of distance relays

Protective schemes using Distance rela
ys

Effect of power swings, Fault impedance, load
impedance, Source impedance on the performance of distance relay

Static Impedance relay

Static MHO relay

Static Reactance relay

Selection of distance relays. Distance Protection of
transmission system.
Unit 6 :
CONIC CHARACTERISTICS:
Purpose of conic characteristics

Quadrilateral

Elliptical

Hyperbolic

Parabolic Characteristic Distance relays.
Unit 7
: DIFFERENTIAL RELAYS:
Principle of operation
–
Rectifier bridge single phase
and Three phase Differential Relays

Principle of Phase sequence detectors

Poly phase
Differential relay using Sequence detectors

Unit 8 :
Static differential protection of single phase, three phase
Transformers and Generator
Transformer unit.
Reference Books :
1.Power system protection

by TSM Rao.
2.Power system protection and switch gear

by Badri Ram& DN Vishwakarma.
3.Switch gear and protection

by MV Deshpande.
4.Pro
tective relaying vol

2

by Warrington.
5. Power system protection and switch gear

by Ravindranath & Chandan
5.
1
INTELLIGENT CONTROL
(Elective
–
I
II
)
UNIT I:
Introduction and motivation. Approaches to intelligent control. Architecture for
intelligent control. Symbolic reasoning system, rule

based systems, the AI approach. Knowledge
representation. Expert systems.
UNIT II
Concept of Artificial Neural Networks and its basic mathematical model, McCulloch

Pitts
neuron model, simple perceptron, Adaline and Madaline, Feed

forward Multilayer Perceptron.
Learning and Training the neural network.
UNIT III
Data Pre

Processing: Sca
ling, Fourier transformation, principal

component analysis and wavelet
transformations. Networks: Hopfield network, Self

organizing network and Recurrent network.
Neural Network based controller Case studies: Identification and control of linear and nonlin
ear
dynamic systems using Matlab

Neural Network toolbox.
UNIT IV
Genetic Algorithm: Basic concept of Genetic algorithm and detail algorithmic steps, adjustment
of free parameters. Solution of typical control problems using genetic algorithm.
UNIT V
Con
cept on some other than GA search techniques like tabu search and ant

colony search
techniques for solving optimization problems.
UNIT VI
Introduction to crisp sets and fuzzy sets, basic fuzzy set operation and approximate reasoning.
Introduction to Fuzz
y logic modeling and control of a system. Fuzzification, inference and
defuzzification. Fuzzy knowledge and rule bases.
UNIT VII
Fuzzy modeling and control schemes for nonlinear systems. Self

organizing fuzzy logic control.
Implementation of fuzzy logic
controller using Matlab fuzzy

logic toolbox.
Unit

VIII Fuzzy logic & Neural network applications to Drives
Fuzzy logic applications:
Design of Fuzzy PI controller for speed control of DC motor

Flux
programming efficiency improvement of three phase induction motor

Induction motor speed
control

Slip gain tuning of indirect vector control of induction motor

stator resistance estimation.
Neural network applications:

PWM Controller

Selected harmonic
elimination PWM

Space
vector PWM

Vector controlled drive

feedback signal estimation

speed estimation and flux
estimation of induction motor
Text Books
1.
Neural Networks: A comprehensive Foundation
–
Simon Haykins, Pearson Edition,
2003.
2.
Fuzzy logic with
Fuzzy Applications
–
T.J.Ross
–
Mc Graw Hill Inc, 1997.
3.
Genetic Algorithms

David E Goldberg.
4.
Modern Power Electronics and AC Drives
–
B.K.Bose

Pearson Publications
5.
Artificial Intelligent based Electrical Machines and Drives

Peter Vas, Oxford University
Pr
ess
References
1.
Neural Network Design

M.T.Hagan, H. B. Demuth and M. Beale, Indian reprint, 2008.
2.
Principles of Neurocomputing for science and Engineering,

Fredric M.Ham and Ivica
Kostanic, McGraw Hill, 2001.
3.
Neural Network Fundamentals with Graphs, Algo
rithms and Applications, N.K. Bose and
P.Liang, Mc

Graw Hill, Inc. 1996.
4.
Intelligent System

Modeling, Optimization and Control

Yung C. Shin and Chengying
Xu,CRC Press, 2009.
5.
Soft computing & Intelligent Systems

Theory & Applications
–
N.K.Sinha and Mo
dan
M Gupta. Indian Edition, Elsevier, 2007.
6.
Fuzzy logic Intelligence, Control, and Information

John Yen and Reza Langari, Pearson
Education, Indian Edition, 2003.
7.
Fuzzy Control and Fuzzy Systms, Witold Pedrycz, Overseas Press, Indian Edition, 2008.
5
.2
DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS
(
Elective

III)
Unit 1:
Discrete data and digital Control Systems
–
basic elements, advantages and
disadvantages, examples,

Impulse sampling and data hold
–
transfer functions of Zero order
hold and First order hold.
Reconstructing original signals from sampled signals
–
samp
ling theorem, ideal low pass filter,
frequency response characteristics of the Zero order hold.
Unit 2 :
The Z

transform, Z transforms of some elementary functions, Important properties and
theorems of the Z

transform, The inverse Z

transform, S

transfor
m method for solving
difference equations, the pulse transfer function, realization of digital controllers.
Unit 3:
Mapping between the s

plane and the z

plane, the Jury stability test, stability analysis by
use of the bilinear transformation and Routh st
ability criterion. Liapunov stability analysis of
discrete time systems.
Unit 4:
Transient response specifications, steady state error analysis. Design based on frequency
response method, Analytical design method.
Unit 5:
Concept of the state space meth
od, State space representations of discrete time systems,
solving discrete time state space equations. Discretisation of continuous time state space
equations.
Unit 6:
Controllability, Observability, Principle of Duality, Design via pole placement neces
sary
and sufficient condition. Ackerman’s formula, Dead Beat response.
Unit 7:
State observers
–
necessary and sufficient condition for state observation, full order state
observer, minimum order state observer.
Unit 8:
Microprocessor and DSP control :
Microprocessor control of control systems, single

board controllers with custom

designed chips, DMC
–
105 board, digital signal processors
–
TMS 320 DSPs, development system and support tools. Effects of finite word length and
quantization on controllabi
lity and closed loop pole placement. Effect of quantization
–
least
upper bound on quantization error.
Reference Books :
1.
Discrete

time Control Systems, 2
nd
edition K.OGATA, Pearson Education Asia.
2.
Digital Control Systems : 2
nd
edition, B.C.KUO, Oxford University Press
5.3
PLC CONTROLLERS AND ITS APPLICATIONS
(Elective
–
III)
Unit 1:
PLC Basics: PLC system, I/O modules and interfacing, CPU processor, programming
equipment, programming formats, construction of PLC ladder
diagrams, devices connected to
I/O modules.
Unit 2:
PLC Programming: Input instructions, outputs, operational procedures, programming examples
using contacts and coils. Drill press operation.
Unit 3:
Digital logic gates, programming in the Boolean algebra
system, conversion examples. Ladder
diagrams for process control: Ladder diagrams and sequence listings, ladder diagram
construction and flow chart for spray process system.
Unit 4:
PLC Registers: Characteristics of Registers, module addressing, holding
registers, input registers,
output registers.
Unit 5:
PLC Functions: Timer functions and Industrial applications, counters, counter function industrial
applications, Arithmetic functions, Number comparison functions, number conversion functions.
Unit 6:
Data Handling functions: SKIP, Master control Relay, Jump, Move, FIFO, FAL, ONS, CLR and
Sweep functions and their applications.
Unit 7:
Bit Pattern and changing a bit shift register, sequence functions and applications, controlling of
two axis and three
axis Robots with PLC, Matrix functions.
Unit 8:
Analog PLC operation: Analog modules and systems, Analog signal processing, multi bit data
processing, analog output application examples, PID principles, position indicator with PID
control, PID modules, PID
tuning, PID functions.
Reference Books:
1.
Programmable Logic Controllers
–
Principle and Applications by John W. Webb and
Ronald A. Reiss, Fifth Edition, PHI
2.
Programmable Logic Controllers
–
Programming Method and Applications by JR.
Hackworth
and F.D Hackworth Jr.
–
Pearson, 2004.
6.1 POWER SYSTEM DEREGULATION (Elective
–
IV)
UNIT I
Need and conditions for deregulation. Introduction of Market structure, Market
Architecture,
Spot market, forward markets and settlements. Review of Concepts
marginal
cost of generation,
least

cost operation, incremental cost of generation.
Power System Operation: Old vs. New
UNIT II
Electricity sector structures and Ownership /management, the forms of Ownership and
management. Different structure model like M
onopoly model, Purchasing agency model,
wholesale competition model, Retail competition model.
UNIT III
Framework and methods for the analysis of Bilateral and pool markets, LMP based
markets,
auction models and price formation, price based unit
commitment, country
practices
UNIT IV
Transmission network and market power. Power wheeling transactions and marginal
costing,
transmission costing. Congestion management methods

market splitting,
counter

trading; Effect
of congestion on LMPs

country pr
actices
UNIT V
Ancillary Services and System Security in Deregulation. Classifications and definitions,
AS
management in various markets

country practices. Technical, economic, &
regulatory issues
involved in the deregulation of the power industry.
Refe
rence Books:
1. Power System Economics: Designing markets for electricity

S. Stoft
2. Power generation, operation and control,

J. Wood and B. F. Wollenberg
3. Operation of restructured power systems

K. Bhattacharya, M.H.J. Bollen and
J.E. Daalder
4. M
arket operations in electric power systems

M. Shahidehpour, H. Yamin
and Z. Li
5. Fundamentals of power system economics

S. Kirschen and G. Strbac
6. Optimization principles: Practical Applications to the Operation and Markets
of the Electric Power Ind
ustry

N. S. Rau
7. Competition and Choice in Electricity

Sally Hunt and Graham Shuttleworth
6.2
REAL TIME CONTROL OF POWER SYSTEMS
(Elective

IV)
Unit 1 :
State Estimation : Different types of State Estimations, Theory of WLS state estimation,
sequential and non

sequential methods to process measurements.
Unit 2 :
Bad data Observability, Bad data detection, identification and elimination.
Unit 3 :
Security
and Contingency Evaluation : Security concept, Security Analysis and
monitoring, Contingency Analysis for Generator and line outages by iterative linear power flow
method, Fast Decoupled model, and network sensitivity methods.
Unit 4 :
Computer Control of
Power Systems : Need for real time and computer control of power
systems, operating states of a power system,
Unit 5 :
SCADA

Supervisory control and Data Acquisition systems implementation
considerations, energy control centres, software requirements fo
r implementing the above
functions.
Unit 6 :
Voltage Stability : What is voltage stability, voltage collapse, and voltage security,
relation of voltage stability to rotor angle stability.
Unit 7 :
Voltage stability analysis Introduction to voltage stabilit
y analysis `P

V’ curves and `Q

V’ curves, voltage stability in mature power systems, long

term voltage stability, power flow
analysis for voltage stability, voltage stability static indices and Research Areas
Unit 8 :
Application of AI and ANN in Power Sys
tem : Basic concepts and definitions,
algorithms for load flow, short term load forecasting, fault diagnosis and state estimation.
Reference Books :
1.
John J.Grainger and William D.Stevenson, Jr. : Power System Analysis,
McGraw

Hil
l, 1994, International Edition
2.
Allen J.Wood and Bruce F.Wollenberg : Power Generation operation and control, John
Wiley & Sons, 1984
3.
R.N.Dhar : Computer Aided Power Systems Operation and Analysis, Tata McGraw Hill,
1982
4.
L.P.Singh : Advanced Power System An
alysis and Dynamics, Wiley
Eastern Ltd. 1986
5.
Prabha Kundur : Power System Stability and Control

, McGraw Hill, 1994
6.
P.D.Wasserman : `Neural Computing : Theory and Practice’ Van Nostrand

Feinhold,
New York.
6.3
DEMAND SIDE
MANAGEMENT
(
Elective

IV)
Unit

1
:
Energy Audit : Definitions

Need

concepts

Types of energy audit; Energy index
–
cost
index
–
pieharts
–
Sankey diagrams.
Unit

2 :
Energy Economics: Introduction

Cost benefit risk analysis

Payback period

Straight line
depreciation

Sinking fund depreciation
—
Reducing balance depreciation

Net present value
method

Internal rate of return method

Profitability index for benefit cost ratio.
Unit

3 :
Energy Conservation in Electric utilities and Industry: Electrical load manag
ement:
Energy and load management devices

Conservation strategies; conservation in electric utilities
and industry: Introduction

Energy conservation in utilities by improving load factor

Utility
voltage regulation

Energy conservation in Industries

Power fa
ctor improvement
.
Unit

4 :
Energy
–
efficient electric motors (EEMs) : Energy efficient motors

construction and
technical features

case studies of EEMs with respect to cost effectiveness

performance
characteristics; Economics of EEMs and system life cycle

d
irect savings and payback analysis

efficiency factor or efficiency evaluation factor
Unit

5
:
Electric Lighting: Introduction

Need for an energy management program

Building
analysis

Modification of existing systems

Replacement of existing systems

prioritie
s:
Illumination requirement : Task lighting requirements

lighting levels

system modifications

non
illumination modifications

lighting for non task areas

reflectances

space geometry ;System
elements.
Unit

6 :
Light sources

characteristics of families of lamps

lamp substitution in existing
systems

selection of Higher efficiency lamps for a new system

Luminaries

ballasts

energy
conservation in lighting. White light LED and conducting Polymers.
Unit

7 :
Space
Heating ,Ventilation, Air

Conditioning(HVAC) and Water Heating: Introduction

Heating of buildings

Transfer of Heat

Space heating methods

Ventilation and air

conditioning

Insulation

Cooling load

Electric water heating systems

Energy conservation methods.
Unit

8 :
Co

generation and storage: Combined cycle cogeneration

energy storage: pumped
hydro schemes

compressed air energy storage(CAES)

storage batteries

superconducting
magnetic energy storage (SMES)
References:
1.Energy management Hand book by Wayne C.
Turner,John wiley and sons publications
2.Electric Energy Utilization and Conservation by S C Tripathy,Tata McGraw hill publishing
company ltd.New Delhi
3.Energy efficient electric motors selection and application by John C.Andreas
4.Hand book on Energy Audit and Management by Amit kumar Tyagi,published by TERI(Tata
energy research Institute)
5.Energy management by Paul W.O’ Callaghan McGraw hill book company
6.Energy conversion systems by Rakosh Das Begamudre New age internation
al publishers
1.
Energy Management
–
by W.R.Murphy & G.Mckey Butterworths.
7.
POWER SYSTEM & POWER ELECTRONIC LABORATORY
Group
–
A
1. Operation of 3

phase Full

Converter on R & R

L load.
2. Performance & speed control of D.C. drive using 3

phase full Conv
erter.
3. Performance & Operation of a four quadrant Chopper on D.C. Drive
4. Performance & Operation of a 3

phase A.C. Voltage controller on motor load.
5. Operation of 3

phase IGBT based PWM Inverter on R & R

L load.
6. Performance &
speed control of 3 phase slip ring Induction motor by Static Rotor Resistance
Controller
.
7. PIC Microcontroller based speed control of three phase Induction Motor
.
8. DSP based V/F Control of 3 phase Induction motor
.
7.
POWER SYSTEM & POWER
ELECTRONIC LABORATORY
Group
–
B
1.
Determination of Sub

Transient Reactance of a Salient Pole Machine.
2.
Determination of Sequence Impedances of a Cylindrical Rotor Synchronous Machine.
3.
Fault Analysis of
i)
LG Fault
ii)
LL Fault
iii)
LLG Fault
iv)
LLLG Fault
4.
Power Angle Characteristics of a Salient Pole Synchronous Machine.
5.
Equivalent Circuit of a Three Winding Transformer.
6.
Characteristics of Over Voltage Relay.
i)
Electromagnetic Type
ii)
Microprocessor Type
7.
Characteristics of Percentage
Biased Differential Relay.
i)
Electromagnetic Type
ii)
Static Type
8.
Simulation of 220KV Transmission line model.
i)
Ferranti Effect
ii)
Transmission line parameter
iii)
Surge Impedance loadings
iv)
Voltage control methods
NB: The students have to do minimum
of
6 experiments from each group.
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