DTMF BASED CELL PHONE OPERATED LAND

ukrainianlegalΗλεκτρονική - Συσκευές

2 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

66 εμφανίσεις

DTMF BASED
CELL PHONE OPERATED LAND
ROVER



ABSTRACT

You may have seen so many land rover
projects like moon
-
walker and robo
-
vehicle.
Most probably they are remote controlled
(either IR or RF) or they may be automatic
guided vehicles (AGV). This device is also
remote controlled land rover but as a remote
control one can use his cell phone that means
he can move the land rover b
y sending
different commands from his cell phone, not
only that, he can control it from anywhere in
the world (of course where GSM / CDMA
network is available). Also this technology
does not require the vehicle to be limited by
the length of the cable or i
n direct line of sight
with controller (as with infrared set up) and
also well known BLUETOOTH is still
expensive and short range to be commercially
viable. We did a massive field work before
starting this project and we found that this
device provides a n
ice platform to be used in
the field of surveillance, scientific research,
and of course in search and rescue operation.
Our device works with the help of some basic
components like microcontroller (AT89S52), a
DTMF decoder (which decodes dial tones
receiv
ed from the cell phone) and dc power
supply. This device would have also worked
with GPS technology but with the help of
DTMF technology the cost has been cut down
drastically.

Keywords:

GPS technology, DTMF decoder,
GSM / CDMA network.


INTRODUCTION AND
OBJECTIVES


1.1 INTRODUCTION


A robot is a mechanical or virtual intelligent
agent that can perform tasks automatically or
with guidance, typically by remote control. In
practice a robot is usually an electro
-
mechanical machine that is guided by
computer
and electronic programming. Robots
can be autonomous, semi
-
autonomous or
remotely controlled. Robots range from
humanoids such as ASIMO and TOPIO to
Nano robots, Swarm robots, industrial robots,
mobile and servicing robots. By mimicking a
lifelike appeara
nce or automating movements,
a robot may convey a sense that it has intent or
agency of its own. The branch of technology
that deals with robots is robotics.

Robot is fast
gaining popularity in industries for a wide
variety of uses.

1.
General
-
purpose auton
omous robots


General
-
purpose autonomous robots
can perform a variety of functions
independently. General
-
purpose autonomous
robots typically can navigate independently in
known spaces, handle their own re
-
charging
needs, interface with electro
nic doors and
elevators and perform other basic tasks. Like
computers, general
-
purpose robots can link
with networks, software and accessories that
increase their usefulness. They may recognize
people or objects, talk, provide companionship,
monitor enviro
nmental quality, respond to
alarms, pick up supplies and perform other
useful tasks. General
-
purpose robots may
perform a variety of functions simultaneously
or they may take on different roles at different
times of day. Some such robots try to mimic
human

beings and may even resemble people
in appearance; this type of robot is called a
humanoid robot. Humanoid robots are still in a
very limited stage, as no humanoid robot, can,
as of yet, actually navigate around a room that
it has never been in. Thus huma
noid robots are
really quite limited, despite their intelligent
behaviors in their well
-
known environments.

2.
Factory robots

They are used in different areas like:

a).Car production

b).Packaging

c).Automated guided vehicles



3
.

Dirty, d
angerous, dull or

inaccessible
tasks


There are many jobs which humans would

rather leave to robots. The job may be boring,
such as domestic cleaning, or dangerous, such
as exploring inside a volcano. Other jobs are
physically inaccessible
, such as exploring
another planet, cleaning the inside of a long
pipe, or performing laparoscopic surgery.


4.
Military robots


Military robots include the
SWORDS robot which is currently used in
ground
-
based combat. It can use a variety

of
weapons and there is some discussion of giving
it some degree of autonomy in battleground
situations.



5.
Schools


Robotics at school has three main
applications, Robotic kits, Virtual tutors, and
teacher's assistants.


6.

Healthcare


Robots in healthcare have two
main functions. Those

which assist an
individual, such as a sufferer of a

disease like
Multiple Sclerosis, and those which aid in the
overall systems such as pharmacies and hospitals.

1.2 OBJECTIVE



The main objective of our project is
to control the robot by using cell phone and
make it obey using DTMF technology.

The
objective of our project is to control the robot
by mobile phone. In this project, the robot is
controlled by a mobile phone that makes a call
to the mobile phone attached to the robot. In
the course of a call, if any button is pressed, a
tone corres
ponding to the button pressed is
heard at the other end of the call. This tone is
called ‘dual
-
tone multiple frequency’ (DTMF)
tone. The robot perceives this DTMF tone
with the help of the phone stacked in the robot.
The received tone is processed by the
ATmega16 microcontroller with the help of
DTMF decoder MT8870. The decoder decodes
the DTMF tone into its equivalent binary digit
and this binary number is sent to the
microcontroller. The microcontroller is pre
programmed to take a decision for any given
input and outputs its decision to motor drivers
in order to drive the motors for forward or
backward motion or a turn. The mobile that
makes a call to the mobile phone stacked in the
robot acts as a remote. So this simple robotic
project does not require t
he construction of
receiver and transmitter units. DTMF signaling
is used for telephone signaling over the line in
the voice
-
frequency band to the call switching
centre. The version of DTMF used for
telephone tone dialing is known as ‘Touch
-
Tone’. DTMF ass
igns a specific frequency
(consisting of two separate tones) to each key
so that it can easily be identified by the
electronic circuit.



The signal generated by the DTMF
encoder is a direct algebraic summation, in real
time, of the amplitudes of two

sine (cosine)
waves of different frequencies, i.e., pressing
‘5’ will send a tone made by adding 1336 Hz
and 770 Hz to the other end of the mobile
phone.

1.3 ORGANIZATION OF REPORT


The first chapter of the report deals
about robot importance
, its popularity in using
worldwide.


In second chapter we have discussed
about the block diagram of our project and
through this we have tried to elaborate the
working of our project by explaining the
functions of different blocks. we have al
so
explained DTMF technique with the datasheet
attached at the end of the project. The chapter
ends by estimating the cost of project and
explaining about the advantages of the project.


The third chapter deals totally with
the hardware descr
iption of the project. In
these components of the power supply has
been explained with complete circuit diagram.
The microcontroller (ATmega16) which we
have used in project has been completely
described with labeled circuit diagram.

DTMF decoder (cm8870)
which is used in
decoding the multiple dial tone frequency used
by mobile phone is explained properly with
circuit diagram.

At the end of this chapter rectifier circuit has
been explained which is used to convert Ac
voltage to Dc one.


In f
ourth chapter we have dealt with
software description of our project. In this we
have explained the program which is used to
control the microcontroller. For explaining the
program we have taken help of the flow chart
which explains the entire process step

by step.
The procedure to write and execute the
program has been explained briefly.


In fifth and final chapter result and
conclusion has been given and also
bibliography has been given. In this chapter
one can find the name of variou
s books and url
addresses from where the idea of doing this
project has generated.



SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

INTRODUCTION


Radio control (often abbreviated to R/C or
simply RC) is the use of radio signals to
remotely control a device. The term

is sed
frequently to refer to the control of model
vehicles from a hand
-
held radio transmitter.
Industrial, military, and scientific research
organizations make [traffic] use of radio
-
controlled vehicles as well.

A remote control vehicle is defined as any

mobile device that is controlled by a means
that does not restrict its motion with an origin
external to the device. This is often a radio
control device, cable between control and
vehicle, or an infrared controller. A remote
control vehicle (Also called
as RCV) differs
from a robot in that the RCV is always
controlled by a human and takes no positive
action autonomously.

One of the key technologies which underpin
this field is that of remote vehicle control. It is
vital that a vehicle should be capable of

proceeding accurately to a target area;
maneuvering within that area to fulfill its
mission and returning equally accurately and
safely to base
.








2.2BLOCK
DIAGRAM


FIG 2.1: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF CELL
PHONE OPERATED LAND ROVER


2.3
WORKING OF THE PROJECT



The method of project operation is given
below.

Makes call to the mobile phone (as receiver)
attached to the robot. Now after answering the
call, and in the course of the call, if any button
is pressed control corresponding to the button
pressed is heard at the other end of the call.
This tone is called

dual tone multi frequency
tome (DTMF) robot receives this DTMF tone

with the help of phone stacked in the robot.


The received tone isprocessed by the
AT89S52 microcontroller with the help of
DTMF decoder MT8870 the decoder decodes
the DTMF to
ne in to its equivalent binary digit
and this binary number is send to the
microcontroller, the microcontroller is
preprogrammed to take a decision for any give
input and outputs its decision to motor drivers
in order to drive the motors for forward or
bac
kward motion or a turn.


The mobile that makes a call to the
mobile phone stacked in the robot acts as a
remote. So this simple robotic project does
not require the construction of receiver and
transmitter units. DTMF signaling is used for
t
elephone signaling over the line in the voice
frequency band to the call switching center.
The version of DTMF used for telephone
dialing is known as touch tone. DTMF
assigns a specific frequency (consisting of
two separate tones) to each key s that it can

easily be identified by the electronic circuit.
The signal generated by the DTMF encoder
is the direct algebraic submission, in real
time of the amplitudes of two sine (cosine)
waves of different frequencies, i.e pressing 5
will send a tone made by adding

1336 Hz
and 770Hz to the other end of the mobile.

HARDWARE DESCRIPTION

3.1 INTRODUCTION


The present chapter introduces the operation
of power supply circuits built using filters,
rectifiers, and then voltage regulators. Starting
with an ac voltage, a s
teady dc voltage is
obtained by rectifying the ac voltage, then
filtering to a dc level, and finally, regulating to
obtain a desired fixed dc voltage. The
regulation is usually obtained from an IC
voltage regulator unit, which takes a dc voltage
and provid
es a somewhat lower dc voltage,
which remains the same even if the input dc
voltage varies, or the output load connected to
the dc voltage changes.


Voltage regulators
comprise a class of widely used IC
s. Regulator
IC units contain the circuitry for reference
source, comparator amplifier, control device,
and overload protection all in a single IC.
Although the internal construction of the IC is
somewhat different from that described for
discrete voltage
regulator circuits, the external
operation is much the same. IC units provide
regulation of either a fixed positive voltage, a
fixed negative voltage, or an adjustably set
voltage.

A fixed three
-
terminal voltage regulator has an
unregulated dc input volta
ge, Vi, applied to
one input terminal, a regulated dc output
voltage, Vo, from a second terminal, with the
third terminal connected to ground.


3.2 POWER SUPPLY


The ac voltage,
typically 220V rms
, is connected to a
transformer, which steps that ac voltage down
to the level of the desired dc output. A diode
rectifier then provides a full
-
wave rectified
voltage that is initially filtered by a
simple capacitor filter to produce a dc voltage.
This resulting dc voltage usually has some
ripple or ac voltage variation.



A regulator circuit removes the ripples and
also remains the same dc value even if the
input dc voltage varies, or the load co
nnected
to the output dc voltage changes. This voltage
regulation is usually obtained using one of the
popular voltage regulator IC units

\
3.2.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION


A block diagram containing the parts of a
typical power supply and the voltage
at various
points in the unit is shown in figure. The ac
voltage, typically 120 V rms, is connected to a
transformer, which steps that ac voltage down
to the level for the desired dc output.


A diode rectifier
then
provides a full
-
wave rectified voltage that
is initially filtered by a simple capacitor filter
to produce a dc voltage. This resulting dc
voltage usually has some ripple or ac voltage
variation.


A regulator circu
it
can use this dc input to provide a dc voltage
that not only has much less ripple voltage but
also remains the same dc value even if the
input dc voltage varies somewhat, or the load
connected to the output dc voltage changes.
This voltage regulation is
usually obtained
using one of a number of popular voltage
regulator IC units.

3.2.3 WORKING PRINCIPLE

Transformer

The potential transformer will step down the
power supply voltage (0
-
230V) to (0
-
6V) level.
Then the secondary of the potential
transformer wi
ll be connected to the precision
rectifier, which is constructed with the help of
op

amp. The advantages of using precision
rectifier are it will give peak voltage output as
DC, rest of the circuits will give only RMS
output.

Bridge rectifier



When four diodes are
connected as shown in figure, the circuit is

called as bridge rectifier. The input to the
circuit is applied to the diagonally opposite
corners of the network, and the output is taken
from the remaining two corners. Let
us assume
that the transformer is working properly and
there is a positive potential, at point A and a
negative potential at point B. the positive
potential at point A will forward bias D3 and
reverse bias D4. The negative potential at
point B will forwar
d bias D1 and reverse D2.
At this time D3 and D1 are forward biased and
will allow current flow to pass through them;
D4 and D2 are reverse biased and will block
current flow.


The path for current flow is
from point B throug
h D1, up through RL,
through D3, through the secondary of the
transformer back to point B. this path is
indicated by the solid arrows. Waveforms (1)
and (2) can be observed across D1 and D3.
One
-
half cycle later the polarity across the
secondary of the tra
nsformer reverse, forward
biasing D2 and D4 and reverse biasing D1 and
D3.


Current flow will now be
from point A through D4, up through RL,
through D2, through the secondary of T1, and
back to point A. This path is indicate
d by the
broken arrows. Waveforms (3) and (4) can be
observed across D2 and D4.


The current flow through
RL is always in the same direction. In flowing
through RL this current develops a voltage
corresponding to that show
n waveform (5).
Since current flows through the load (RL)
during both half cycles of the applied voltage,
this bridge rectifier is a full
-
wave rectifier.


One advantage of a
bridge rectifier over a conventional full
-
wave
rectifier is that with a given transformer the
bridge rectifier produces a voltage output that
is nearly twice that of the conventional full
-
wave circuit.


This may be shown by
assigning values to some of the components
s
hown in views A and B. assume that the same
transformer is used in both circuits. The peak
voltage developed between points X and y is
1000 volts in both circuits. In the conventional
full
-
wave circuit shown

in view A, the peak
voltage from the center tap
to either X or Y is
500 volts. Since only one diode can conduct at
any instant, the maximum voltage that can be
rectified at any instant is 500 volts. The
maximum voltage that appears across the load
resistor is nearly
-
but never exceeds
-
500 v0lts,
as resul
t of the small voltage drop across the
diode.


In the bridge rectifier

shown in view B, the maximum voltage that
can be rectified is the full secondary voltage,
which is 1000 volts. Therefore, the peak output
voltage
across the load resistor is nearly 1000
volts. With both circuits using the same
transformer, the bridge rectifier circuit
produces a higher output voltage than the
conventional full
-
wave rectifier circuit.


3.2.4 IC VOLTAGE REGULATORS:



Voltage regulators comprise a
class of widely used ICs. Regulator IC units
contain the circuitry for reference source,
comparator amplifier, control device, and
overload protection all in a single IC. Although
the internal construction of the IC is some
what
different from that described for discrete
voltage regulator circuits, the external
operation is much the same. IC units provide
regulation of either a fixed positive voltage, a
fixed negative voltage, or an adjustably set
voltage.



A power supply can be built
using a transformer connected to the ac supply
line to step the ac voltage to a desired
amplitude, then rectifying that ac voltage,
filtering with a capacitor and RC filter, if
desired, and finally regulating the dc voltage
u
sing an IC regulator. The regulators can be
selected for operation with load currents from
hundreds of milli amperes to tens of amperes,
corresponding to power ratings from milliwatts
to tens of watts.



A fixed three
-
terminal voltage
regulator has an unregulated dc input voltage,
Vi, applied to one input terminal, a regulated
dc output voltage, Vo, from a second terminal,
with the third terminal connected to ground.
The series 78 regulators provide fixed positive
regulated voltages fro
m 5 to 24 volts.
Similarly, the series 79 regulators provide
fixed negative regulated voltages from 5 to 24
volts.



For ICs, microcontroller, LCD
---------

5 volts



For alarm circuit, op
-
amp, relay
circuits
----------

12 volts

3.3 MICROCONTROLLER


In our project microcontroller

AT89S52

is used. Whose features and
description is given below.


3.3.1 FEATURES




Compatible with MCS
-
51®
Products



8K Bytes of In
-
System
Programmable (ISP) Flash
Memory



4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range



Fully Static

Operation: 0 Hz to
33 MHz



Three
-
level Program Memory
Lock



256 x 8
-
bit Internal RAM



32 Programmable I/O Lines



Three 16
-
bit Timer/Counters



Eight Interrupt Sources



Full Duplex UART Serial
Channel



Low
-
power Idle and Power
-
down Modes



Interrupt Recovery from Po
wer
-
down Mode



Watchdog Timer



Dual Data Pointer



Power
-
off Flag



3.3.2 PIN DIAGRAM









3.3.3 DE
SCRIPTION



The AT89S52 is a low
-
power, high
-
performance CMOS 8
-
bit microcontroller with
8K bytes of in
-
system programmable Flash
memory. The device is manufactured using
Atmel’s high
-
density nonvolatile memory
technology and is compatible with the
indu
stry
-
standard 80C51 instruction set and pin
out. The on chip Flash allows the program
memory to be reprogrammed in
-
system or by a
conventional nonvolatile memory programmer.




By combining a versatile 8
-
bit CPU
with in
-
system programmable Fla
sh on a
monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89S52 is a
powerful microcontroller which provides a
highly
-
flexible and cost
-
effective solution to
many embedded control applications.



The AT89S52 provides the following
standard features: 8K bytes of Flas
h, 256 bytes
of RAM, 32 I/O lines, Watchdog timer, two
data pointers, three 16
-
bit timer/counters, a six
-
vector two
-
level interrupt architecture, a full
duplex serial port, on
-
chip oscillator, and clock
circuitry. In addition, the AT89S52 is designed
with
static logic for operation down to zero
frequency and supports two software selectable
power saving modes.



The Idle Mode stops the CPU while
allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port,
and interrupt system to continue functioning.
The Po
wer
-
down mode saves the RAM
contents but freezes the oscillator, disabling all
other chip functions until the next interrupt or
hardware reset.



3.4 DTMF DECODER (CM8870):


3.4.1 FEATURES




Less than 35mW power consumption




Industrial temperature
range




Uses quartz crystal or ceramic
resonators




Adjustable acquisition and release
times




18
-
pin DIP, 18
-
pin DIP EIAJ, 18
-
pin
SOIC, 20
-
pin



PLCC



CM8870C



Power down mode



Inhibit mode



Buffered OSC3 output (PLCC package
only)

CM8870C is fully compatible with

CM8870
for 18
-
pinDevices by grounding pins 5 and 6.

.
3.4.2 PIN DIAGRAM



3.5 POSITIVE VOLTAGE REGULATORS
(L7800)



3.5.1 FEATURES:



OUTPUT CURRENT TO 1.5A




OUTPUT VOLTAGES OF 5; 5.2; 6; 8;
8.5; 9;12; 15; 18; 24V




THERMAL OVERLOAD
PROTECTION




SHORT
CIRCUIT PROTECTION




OUTPUT TRANSITION SOA
PROTECTION


3.5.2 DESCRIPTION


The L7800 series of three
-
terminal positive
regulators is available in TO
-
220, TO
-
220FP,TO
-
3 and D2PAK packages and several
fixed output voltages, making it useful in a
wide range of
applications. These regulators
can provide local on
-
card regulation,
eliminating the distribution problems
associated with single point regulation.





Each type employs internal
current limiting, thermal shut
-
dow
n and safe
area protection, making it essentially
indestructible. If adequate heat sinking is
provided, they can deliver over 1A output
current. Although designed primarily as fixed
voltage regulators, these devices can be used
with external components to
obtain adjustable
voltage and currents.

3.6 RECTIFIER (1N4007)


3.6.1 FEATURES




Diffused Junction




High Current Capability and Low
Forward Voltage Drop




Surge Overload Rating to 30A Peak




Low Reverse Leakage Current




Lead Free Finish, RoHS Compliant








FIG.3.6:IN4007






3.7.

APPL
I
CATIONS
:


S
c
i
e
n
t
i
f
i
c:


Remote


co
n
tr
o
l


ve
h
i
c
les

h
a
ve

v
a
rio
u
s

s
c
i
e
n
t
i
f
i
c
uses

i
n
c
l
ud
i
n
g

h
a
z
a
r
d
ous
e
n
v
i
r
o
n
m
e
n
t
s
,

w
or
k
i
n
g

i
n

t
h
e

dee
p
oce
a
n

,

a
n
d

s
p
a
ce

e
x
p
l
o
r
a
t
i
o
n
.

.

T
h
e

ma
jority


of

t
h
e

probes

t
o
t
h
e


o
th
er


p
la
n
ets

in


our

so
la
r


system


h
a
ve


be
e
n

r
e
m
o
t
e
co
n
trol

v
e
h
i
c
l
e
s
,

al
t
h
ough

some of t
h
e more re
c
e
n
t o
n
es

w
e
r
e
p
a
rti
a
lly

a
u
t
o
n
o
m
o
us
.

T
h
e

sop
h
istic
a
tion
of

t
h
ese

devices

h
a
s
fue
l
ed

gre
a
ter
deb
a
te

on

t
h
e

n
eed

f
o
r

m
an
n
ed

sp
a
c
ef
l
ig
h
t

a
n
d e
x
p
l
o
r
a
t
i
o
n
.

T
h
e

V
o
y
a
g
e
r

I

s
p
a
cec
ra
ft

is

t
h
e



first

c
r
a
ft

of

a
n
y
k
i
n
d

to

l
e
a
v
e

t
h
e

so
l
a
r

s
y
s
t
e
m
.


T
h
e

m
a
rti
a
n

exp
l
o
rers

S
p
i
r
i
t
an
d

O
p
portu
n
ity

h
a
ve
provi
d
ed

co
n
t
i
n
uous

d
a
ta
a
b
out

t
h
e
surf
a
ce

of

M
a
rs

si
n
ce

J
a
n
u
a
r
y

3
,

2004
.


Military
and Law

E
n
f
o
r
c
e
m
e
n
t:


Mi
l
it
a
ry

us
a
ge

of

r
e
mote
l
y co
n
tr
o
ll
e
d
m
i
l
i
t
a
r
y ve
h
ic
l
e
s d
a
tes

b
a
ck to

t
h
e first
h
al
f of

20th
c
e
n
t
u
r
y
.

.
S
oviet
R
e
d
Army

u
sed

r
e
mote
l
y

co
n
trolled

Tel
e
t
ank
s
d
uri
n
g

1
930s

in

t
h
e

W
i
n
ter

Wa
r

a
n
d

e
a
r
l
y

st
a
ge

of

W
o
r
l
d

Wa
r

II.

T
h
ere

were

a
l
s
o
remotely

co
n
tro
l
led

cutters

an
d

exper
i
me
n
t
a
l
r
e
m
o
t
e
l
y
co
n
trolled

pl
a
n
es

in

t
h
e

Red

A
r
m
y
.

Remote

control

ve
h
ic
l
es


a
re

used

in

l
a
w
e
n
forc
e
me
n
t

an
d

mi
l
i
t
a
ry

e
n
g
a
gem
e
n
ts
for

some

of

the

s
a
m
e
r
e
a
s
o
n
s
.

T
h
e

e
x
posure

to

h
a
z
a
rds


a
re

mitig
a
ted

to

t
h
e

p
e
r
s
o
n
w
h
o

oper
a
tes
t
h
e

ve
h
ic
l
e

fr
o
m

a

l
o
c
a
tion

of

rel
a
tive

s
a
f
e
t
y
.


Remote



co
n
tro
ll
e
d


ve
h
ic
l
e
s


a
re


used

by


m
an
y

p
o
l
i
c
e dep
a
r
t
me
n
t

bomb
-
squ
a
ds

to

defuse

or

deto
na
te

e
x
p
l
o
s
i
v
es
.
See

D
ra
gon

R
u
nn
e
r
,

Mi
l
it
a
ry

r
o
b
o
t
.
U
n
m
a
n
n
ed

Aeri
a
l

V
e
h
i
c
l
es

(
UAVs)

h
a
v
e
u
n
der
g
o
n
e



a

dr
a
m
a
t
i
c

ev
o
l
ution

in

c
a
p
a
bi
l
ity

in


t
h
e


p
a
s
t
de
c
a
de
.

E
a
r
l
y

U
A
V
!
s

w
ere

c
a
p
a
b
l
e

o
f

reco
n
na
is
s
a
n
ce
m
i
ss
i
o
n
s
al
o
n
e

a
n
d

t
h
en

o
n
l
y

w
ith

a

l
i
mited

r
a
n
g
e
.

Curre
n
t

U
A
V
!
s

c
a
n
h
over

a
rou
n
d

possib
l
e

t
a
r
gets

u
n
til


t
h
ey


a
r
e


p
o
s
i
t
iv
e
l
y id
e
n
tif
i
ed

b
e
f
ore


re
l
e
a
s
i
n
g

t
h
eir

p
a
yl
o
a
d



of


w
e
a
p
o
n
r
y

Ba
c
k
pa
ck

s
i
z
e
d

U
A
V
!
s


w
ill

p
rovi
d
e

grou
n
d

troops

w
i
t
h

o
v
e
r

t
h
e

h
orizon

su
r
veil
l
a
n
c
e

c
a
p
a
b
i
l
i
t
i
es
.


Sear
c
h

and

R
e
s
c
u
e:


UAVs

w
i
l
l

l
i
k
ely

p
la
y

a
n

i
n
cr
e
a
sed

ro
l
e

i
n

s
e
a
r
c
h
an
d

r
e
s
cue

in

t
h
e

U
n
ited

S
t
a
t
es
.

T
h
is

wa
s

d
e
mo
n
str
a
ted

by

t
h
e
successful

use

of

UAVs

duri
n
g

t
h
e

2008

h
urric
a
n
es

t
h
a
t

s
t
r
u
c
k
Louisi
a
n
a

a
n
d

T
e
x
a
s
.



R
ec
r
e
a
t
i
on

a
nd

H
o
bb
y:



See

Ra
dio
-
co
n
tro
ll
ed
m
o
de
l
.

Sm
al
l

s
c
a
le


r
e
m
o
t
e
co
n
trol ve
h
icles
h
a
v
e
l
o
n
g

been

popu
la
r

a
mo
n
g

h
o
bb
y
i
s
t
s
.
T
h
ese

remote

co
n
trolled

ve
hi
c
l
es

s
p
a
n

a

w
i
de

r
a
n
g
e

in

t
e
r
m
s
of pri
c
e
a
n
d

s
o
p
h
i
s
t
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
.

T
h
ere
a
re
m
a
n
y types
o
f
r
a
d
i
o
co
n
trolled

v
e
h
i
c
l
es
.

T
h
ese

i
n
c
l
u
d
e


o
n
-
ro
a
d

c
a
r
s
,

o
f
f
-
r
o
a
d
t
r
u
c
k
s
,


b
o
a
t
s
,


a
i
r
p
l
a
n
es
,


a
n
d

ev
e
n

h
e
l
i
c
o
p
t
e
r
s
.


T
h
e


r
o
b
o
t
s

n
ow

po
pu
la
r

i
n

telev
i
sion

s
h
o
w
s

such

a
s

R
obot

W
a
r
s
,


a
re

a
rece
n
t

exte
n
s
i
on

of

t
h
is

h
ob
b
y

(
t
h
e
s
e

ve
h
i
c
les

do

not

meet

t
h
e
c
la
ss
i
c
a
l

de
f
i
n
i
t
ion

of

a

robot;

t
h
ey

a
re

remote
l
y

c
o
n
tro
ll
ed

b
y

a

h
u
m
a
n
)
.

R
a
d
i
o
-
co
n
tro
ll
e
d

subm
a
ri
n
e

al
so

e
x
i
s
t
.


3.8.
FURTHER

IMPROVEMENTS

&

FUTURE

SCOPE

:


1.

IR

S
e
n
s
o
r
s
:



IR

se
n
s
ors

c
a
n

be

used

to

a
ut
o
m
a
tic
a
lly

detect

&
a
vo
i
d

obst
a
c
l
e
s

if

t
h
e

robot

goes

beyo
n
d

li
n
e

of

s
i
g
h
t
.


T
h
i
s
a
vo
i
ds

d
a
m
a
g
e

to

t
h
e

ve
h
ic
l
e

if

w
e

a
r
e

m
an
e
uveri
n
g
it

from

a
dist
an
t

p
l
a
c
e
.


2.

Password

P
r
o
t
e
c
t
i
on
:



Project

c
a
n
b
e

modif
i
ed

in

o
rder to

p
a
ss
w
o
r
d
protect

t
h
e

robot

so

t
h
a
t

it

c
a
n

b
e

oper
a
t
e
d
o
n
l
y

if

c
o
rr
e
c
t
p
a
ss
w
o
rd
is

e
n
t
e
r
ed
.

Eit
h
er

ce
l
l

ph
o
n
e

s
h
ou
l
d

be

p
a
s
s
w
o
r
d
protected
or

n
eces
sa
ry

modific
a
ti
o
n

s
h
ou
l
d

be

m
a
de

i
n

t
h
e
a
ssemb
l
y

l
a
n
g
u
a
ge

c
o
d
e
.

T
h
is

i
n
trodu
c
es

co
n
d
itio
n
e
d

a
ccess

&
i
n
cr
e
a
s
es

security

to

a

gre
a
t

e
x
t
e
n
t
.



1.
Ala
r
m Ph
o
ne
D
i
a
l
e
r
:


B
y

repl
a
c
i
n
g

DTMF

Dec
o
d
e
r

ICCM8870

by

a

!
D
T
M
F

Tr
an
sc
e
iver

I
C


C
M
8880
,

DTMF

to
n
es

c
a
n

b
e

g
e
n
e
r
a
t
ed



from

t
h
e

r
o
b
o
t
.

So,

a

project

c
a
ll
e
d

!
A
l
a
r
m




P
h
o
n
e

D
i
a
l
e
r
!

c
a
n

b
e
bui
l
t

wh
ich

w
i
l
l


ge
n
e
r
a
te

n
e
c
ess
a
ry

ala
rms

for

somet
h
i
n
g

t
h
a
t
is

de
s
i
r
ed

to

b
e

mo
n
i
t
ored

(
u
su
all
y

b
y

trigg
e
ri
n
g

a

r
e
l
a
y
)
.


F
o
r
e
x
a
m
p
l
e
,

a

h
i
g
h

wa
ter

a
l
a
r
m
,

l
ow

t
e
mper
a
ture

a
l
a
r
m
,

o
p
e
n
i
n
g
of

b
a
ck

w
i
n
d
o
w
,

g
a
r
a
ge

d
o
o
r
,

e
t
c
.

W
h
en


t
h
e


sy
s
tem


is


a
ctiv
a
ted

it


w
ill


c
a
ll


a
n
umber

of

pr
o
gr
a
mmed

n
u
mbers

to

l
et

t
h
e

user

kn
o
w

t
h
e
ala
rm

h
a
s

b
e
en

a
c
t
i
v
a
t
ed
.

T
h
is

w
ou
l
d

be

gr
ea
t

to

g
e
t

a
lerts

of
ala
rm

c
o
n
diti
o
n
s

from

h
ome

w
h
en

user

is

a
t

w
o
r
k
.


2.
A
dd
i
ng

a Camera:





If

t
h
e

c
urre
n
t

project

is

i
n
ter
f
a
ced

wi
th



a

c
a
m
e
r
a
(
e
.
g
.


a

W
eb
ca
m)

robot

c
a
n



be

d
r
i
v
en

b
ey
o
n
d

l
i
n
e
-
of
-
sig
h
t

&


r
an
g
e

b
ecomes

pr
a
cti
c
al
ly
u
n
limited


a
s
GSM

n
et
w
o
r
k
s

h
a
ve
a
very

l
a
r
ge

r
a
n
g
e
.



3.9.
Advantages

& Disadvantages
:

Advantages:






1.
Wireless control



2.
Surveillance System.

3. Vehicle Navigation with use of 3G
technology.

3. Takes in use of the mobile technology which
is

almost available everywhere.

4. This wireless device has no boundation of
range and can be controlled as far as network of
cell phone


Disadvantages:


1.
Cell phone bill.

2. Mobile batteries drain out early so
charging problem.

3. Cost of proj
ect if Cell phone cost
included.

4. Not flexible with all cell phones as
only a particular ,cell phone whose
earpiece is attached can only be used

BIBLIOGRAPHY
:

1.

W
i
k
i
pedia

-

T
h
e

free

e
n
c
y
c
l
o
p
ed
i
a


2.

h
t
t
p
:
//
ww
w
.
8051
p
r
o
j
e
c
t
s
.
i
n
f
o
/





3
.


h
t
t
p
:
//
ww
w
.
i
n
s
t
r
u
c
t
a
b
l
es
.
c
o
m
/


4
.
cell phone operated land rover

E
l
e
c
t
r
o
n
i
c
s


F
o
r

Y
o
u



M
a
g
a
zi
n
e

,

E
d
i
t
i
o
n (july 2008)




5.

“DTMFTester”
,
E
l
e
c
t
r
o
n
i
c
s

F
o
r
Y
o
u





M
a
g
a
zi
n
e

,

E
d
i
t
i
o
n

(
Ju
n
e

2003
),



6.
h
t
t
p
:
//
ww
w
.
a
l l
d
a
t
a
s
h
ee
t
.
c
o
m
/



7.

h
t
t
p
:
//
ww
w
.
d
a
t
a
s
h
ee
t
4u
.
c
o
m
/



8.

h
t
t
p
:
//
ww
w
.
d
a
t
a
s
h
ee
t
c
a
t
a
l
o
g
.
c
o
m
/