SAN FRANCISCO FIRE DEPARTMENT

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“Meet the DBI Pros”
Summit

October 12, 2007




WELCOME TO THE AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER




‘SUMMIT’ PRESENTED BY THE


SAN FRANCISCO FIRE DEPARTMENT

NFPA 13
-
Installation of Sprinkler
Systems:
Transition from 1999 to 2002 Editions

By: Gerald Zari and Jon Corbett



MEET

THE DBI PROS”


THE SAN FRANCISCO FIRE DEPARTMENT



PRESENTS



Reorganization of the NFPA 13
Standard:


NFPA 13, 2002 Complies with the NFPA Manual of
Style:


First Chapter is “Administration”


Second Chapter is “Reference Publications”
(previously Chapter 13)


Third Chapter is “Definitions”


Changes/additions indicated with a vertical bar



The “Administration” Chapter provides general
guidance for the following aspects of Sprinkler
Systems:


Scope: Minimal design & installation of systems.


Purpose: Reasonable degree of protection


Application: Water Supplies, sprinklers, piping, fittings
and Materials used


Retroactivity Clause: The AHJ can apply this standard
to existing systems where there is an “unacceptable
degree of risk”


Equivalency: Allows the AHJ to accept alternate
approaches, based on engineering judgment, that
meets the intent of the standard


New Technology: Accepts the use of newly developed
sprinkler, fittings, etc…within their listings

























Referenced Publications:


Updated to the most current, applicable
Standards


Directs user to other standards for design of
sprinkler systems not addressed in NFPA 13


New Definitions:


Bathrooms in Dwelling units


Ceilings: Flat, Horizontal, and Sloped


Materials: Non
-
Combustible and Limited
Combustible; consistent with NFPA 220

Chapter 4:

Owners Certificate (4.3)


A new form with information provided by the
Owner or an Authorized Agent


States intended use of building, materials within
and storage heights


Provides a preliminary building plan for design of
the sprinkler system


If applicable, special information about the
water supply and Microbiologically influenced
corrosion (MIC)


SFFD may require this form on the approved
plans


Chapter 6 (1999 Chpt.3): System
Components and Hardware


Specially listed products (6.1.1.1)


Installation must conform to all conditions
required by the listing, this information is
found in the product literature and installation
instructions


Examples: WS sprinklers, extended coverage,
flex heads and residential sprinklers

Chapter 7 (1999 Chpt.4):

System requirements


Gauges are now required above and
below check valves in a Riser, i.e. both
sides


Freezing conditions: areas where
Temperatures are below 40 degrees
Fahrenheit

Chapter 8 (1999 Chpt.5):

Installation Requirements


Sprinkler thermal sensitivity (8.3.3)


Per 8.3.3.3, where Quick Response (QR) sprinklers
are installed, all sprinklers in that room/compartment
are required to be QR ordinary temperature
-
rated
(135
-
170
0
F)


The exception is a circumstance that requires a
higher temperature sprinkler, e.g. a heat source like a
Fire Place Stove or skylight, then use of Standard
sprinklers is permitted


Does
NOT

apply to Residential Sprinklers

Chapter 8, continued:



Sidewall Spray Sprinklers (8.4.2):


Light Hazard: Allows installation of sidewall
sprinklers in smooth, horizontal or sloped ceilings


Deflector Orientation (8.7.4.2.2):


In sloped ceilings: locate sprinkler in highest point of slope
with deflector parallel to slope


Definitions:


Smooth Ceiling: a continuous ceiling free of significant
irregularities


Horizontal Ceiling: 2:12 slope or less (10
o
)


Sloped Ceiling: Greater than a 2:12 slope (>10
o
)


Chapter 8, continued:


Skylights and Similar (Small) Ceiling Pockets
(8.5.7):


Omission of Sprinklers allowed in openings if:


1.
Opening does not exceed 32 ft
2


AND

2.
Edges of openings are horizontally separated by 10
-
feet or more to other openings


Max 32 ft
2

Max 32 ft
2

10 feet or more

4’
-
0

8’
-
0

2’
-
0

16’
-
0

Example:

Chapter 8, continued:


Ceiling Pockets (8.6.7)


Sprinklers required except where ALL of the
conditions listed below are met:

1.
Volume (cubic feet) is 1000 ft
3

or less

2.
Maximum of 36
-
inch deep

3.
Entire floor area below has sprinkler coverage

4.
Adjacent openings are horizontally located 10
-
feet or
more away from any other pockets

5.
Construction is limited/non
-
combustible

6.
Skylights allowed to be plastic if 32 ft
2

or less

7.
Quick Response sprinklers are used in the room


Chapter 9 (1999 Chpt.6):

Hangers, Bracing , and Restraint of
System Piping


Fasteners in Concrete (9.1.3)


Installed in the Horizontal position unless one
of the following conditions is met:


Used in concrete with gravel/crushed stone for
supporting up to 4
-
inch pipe


Alternated with hangers connected to structural
members or sides of concrete beams for 5
-
inch or
larger pipe


Spacing is 10
-
feet or less for 4
-
inch and larger pipe

Chapter 9, continued.


Unsupported Ends of Branch Lines (BL) and
Armovers with static/flow pressures exceeding
100 psi (9.2.3.4.3 and 9.2.3.5.2):



Steel Pipe requires a hanger and vertical restraint
within 12
-
inches of the BL and armover end



Copper Tube requires a hanger and vertical restraint
within 6
-
inches of the BL and armover end

Chapter 9, Continued.


Risers (9.3.5.5)



4
-
way braces required for risers more than 3
-
feet in length.



4
-
way braces not required where riser
penetrates intermediate floors of a multistory
building where clearances required by 9.3.4
are not exceeded.


A QUICK COMPARISON OF


NFPA 13, 13R, AND 13D STANDARDS


REQUIREMENT


NFPA 13


NFPA 13R


NFPA 13D

SPRINKLERS THRU
-
OUT ALL AREAS/ALL OCCUP.


X

SPRINKLERS IN ‘R’ OCCUPANCIES UP TO 4
STORIES


X


X

SPRINKLERS IN ‘R
-
3’
-

1 & 2 FAMILY DWELLINGS


X


X


X

EXTRA STORY

2007 CBC TBL 503


X

NOT ALLOWED

NOT ALLOWED

MORE AREA 2007 CBC TBL 503


X


NOT ALLOWED

NOT ALLOWED

CLOSETS:*

HOTEL/MOTEL CLOSETS 24 sq. ft. or less


N/A

HOTEL/MOTEL CLOSETS greater than 24 sq. ft.


X


X


N/A

CLOTHES/LINEN CLOSETS/PANTRIES (non
-
hotel/motel) 24 sq. ft. or less


X

CLOTHES/LINEN CLOSETS/PANTRIES (non
-
hotel/motel)

Greater than 24 sq. ft.


X


X


X

BATHROOMS:**

BATHROOMS 55 sq. ft. or less

BATHROOMS

greater than 55 sq. ft.


X


X


X

QUICK COMPARISON OF NFPA 13, 13R, AND 13D STANDARDS

DESIGN:


NFPA 13


NFPA 13R


NFPA 13D

RESIDENTIAL @ 0.1GPM/sq. ft. (or listed flow >0.1
gpm, res. Sprinkler)


X

RES. OCC. USE QUICK RESP./ CALC. 1500 sq. ft.


X

RES. OCC. USE RES. SPRKLRS/ CALC. 4 HEADS


X


X

RES. OCC. USE RES. SPRKLRS/ CALC. 2 HEADS
& 1HEAD CALC.


X

NO HOSE ALLOWANCE REQUIRED (must include
domestic use)


X


X

RES. OCC. ADD 100 GPM HOSE ALLOWANCE


X

MUST USE LISTED RESIDENTIAL
SPRINKLERS

QR or RES.


X


X

MINIMUM DENSITY 0.05GPM/sq. ft. (listed
sprinkler flow)


X


X

MINIMUM OPERATING PRSS. OF 7 PSI


X


X


X

MISCELLANEOUS AREAS:


NFPA 13


NFPA 13R


NFPA 13D

GARAGES (requires 250gpmhosedemand)


X

Refer to NFPA 13

Refer to NFPA 13

ATTICS/CRAWL SPACES/CONCEALED SPACES
-
NOT
INTENDED FOR STORAGE OR LIVING
PURPOSES


X




*The least dimension not exceeding 3’.

**The walls and ceilings must be non or limited
-
combustible construction.




4.02 Fire Department Connection Omission





In the past, it was the Fire Department's position to allow the
omission of a Fire Department Connection in buildings with fewer
than 20 sprinkler heads per floor. This was allowed by
N.F.P.A.


13,
as it left the decision up to the Authority Having Jurisdiction.
However, due to Standard changes, the 2002 edition of N.F.P.A. 13
(8.16.2.2) no longer allows the omission of an FDC except in the
following circumstances:




Exception 1.



Buildings located in remote areas that are inaccessible
for fire department support.









Exception 2.



Large
-
capacity deluge systems exceeding the pumping
capacity of the fire department.









Exception 3.



Single
-
story buildings not exceeding 2,000 sq. ft. in
area.





Two additional exceptions for the requirement for FDC's are found in
the 2001
C.B.C.


, Section 904. The first pertains to combination
domestic/fire services. When approved by the Fire Department, the
FDC may be omitted in these systems. The second exception applies
to Group I Occupancies housed in existing single family dwellings
under certain conditions (see 2001


C.B.C.


, section 904.1.2,
exception 4).




It is the Fire Department's position that an FDC will be required
except in the instances outlined above.


4.04 Color Coding of Existing Standpipes



Reference: 2007
C.B.C.


Section 905.4.2




It is the Bureau of Fire Prevention's policy that all standpipe systems
with multiple risers be interconnected at their base. However, existing
systems that were approved and installed without such
interconnection may have their use continued if such standpipe
system is provided with an approved color code. Color code markers
shall be of a permanent material at least one inch wide surrounding
the flange of the standpipe inlet. All outlets supplied by this inlet shall
be equipped with similar marking.


If the standpipe is exposed, the pipe directly above the outlet handle
shall be marked with a color band at least one inch wide which is the
same color as installed at the inlet which supplies such outlet. If the
standpipe is enclosed by construction, such markings shall be
located on the wall directly behind the standpipe outlet. This marking
may be a 3 inch color disk or 3 inch square area and shall be the
same color as the inlet which supplies such outlet.


The Bureau of Fire Prevention will accept five colors which must be
florescent: hospital white, royal blue, canary yellow, fire engine red,
and bright orange.

4.05 Protection of Standpipe Inlets



Reference: 2007
C.F.C.


Section 912, 2003 NFPA 14


Section 12.9


THE SAN FRANCISCO FIRE DEPARTMENT'S
REQUIREMENTS FOR THE PROTECTION OF
STANDPIPE INLET THREADS ARE:



1.

Hose connections for standpipes shall be
equipped with an approved plastic or metal plug
which may be removed and reused.


2.

The use of cast iron caps which are not threaded
shall not be used.



4.06 Design Criteria for Fire Department Connections and Standpipe

Outlet Valves



Reference: 2003
N.F.P.A.


14





Fire Department connections shall be located not less than 18 inches
nor more than 48 inches above the level of the adjoining ground (
NFPA
14 sec.

6.3.6).





Each standpipe shall be equipped with approved outlet valves which
discharge horizontally. They shall be located not less than three feet
nor more than five feet above the floor. NFPA 14 sec. 7.3.1



The recommended height is 42 inches from the finished floor to the
center line of the valve.) It shall be placed to provide a minimum
clearance of six inches on all sides of the handle and 12 inches on all
sides of the threaded outlet. All measurements are to be taken from the
finished surface to the handle or outlet



Connections and outlets shall be placed so that doors or walls do not
interfere with the use of the outlet valve.



Fire Department connections and outlet valves shall have "3" inch
National Standard hose threads.



4.08 Design Criteria for Installation of Underground Piping for Fire

Sprinkler Service


Reference: 2007 C.B.C.


Sec. 903



NFPA


24, 2002 edition, section 10.4.3, requires that the depth of cover for
fire service main pipe be not less than 30 inches or one foot below the
frost line for the locality. Where frost is not a factor, the 30 inch depth of
cover is required to protect the pipe from mechanical damage.



The San Francisco Water Department supplies domestic water meters for
all fire services of two
-
inch and smaller, including combination
fire/domestic services. These meters require that the pipe be installed
less than the 30 inches required by N.F.P.A.


24.



Due to the practical difficulty of compliance with this standard, all two
-
inch and smaller fire services, including combination services, shall be
allowed to be installed following the criteria listed below which will
prevent mechanical damage:

1.

All installation of piping shall comply with San Francisco Plumbing
Code


section 609.1 which requires a minimum depth of cover of 12
inches below finished grade.



2.

A minimum four inches of concrete shall cover the area above the
pipe. The four inch concrete installation shall extend a minimum of 12
inches horizontally on both sides of the pipe.

3.

A minimum of three inches of earth shall be maintained between the
pipe and concrete. Exception: Pipe and joints that have been coated and
wrapped do not have to comply with requirement number 3.
4.09 Removal of Class II Standpipe Hose
Cabinets in Sprinkler
-
Retrofitted Buildings



Section 901.8 of the 2007
C.F.C.

requires written Fire
Marshal approval in order to remove existing fire
appliances. In order to speed the permit process,
buildings subject to the San Francisco High
-
rise
Sprinkler Ordinance will be permitted to remove Class II
Standpipe hose cabinets on individual floors after they
have been fully sprinklered. The applicant shall state his
or her intention to remove the hose cabinets on the
approved sprinkler plans.




Buildings not subject to the ordinance will continue to
require written Fire Marshal approval in order to remove
any fire appliance. These written requests will be
considered on a case
-
by
-
case basis.


4.10 Testing of Fixed Extinguishing Systems


(Standpipes and PRV's)



Reference:
C.A.C.


Title 19, Chapter 5





Title 19,
California Administrative Code


, includes regulations for Automatic
Extinguishing Systems. Chapter 5 contains the criteria and time frames for
maintenance and service inspections for all fixed automatic extinguishing
systems.




Sections 904.2(i) and (j) permit the local Fire Department to require
notification prior to any service inspection and also to be sent a report of the
results.


The San Francisco Fire Department shall be notified at least twenty
-
four (24)
hours prior to any servicing of a system. Also, a report of the results of any
service inspection shall be forwarded to the San Francisco Fire Department
at:


San Francisco Fire Department

Bureau of Fire Prevention

698 Second Street

San Francisco, California 94107


4.10 Testing of Fixed Extinguishing Systems


(Standpipes and PRV's)
-

continued



Pressure Reducing Valves
-
Certification Of


Section 904.4(c)(3) and (d)(3)
-
Service Regulations for Class III and
Combined Standpipe Hose Outlets state that "Each Hose Valve Outlet
shall be inspected in a manner that will indicate the valves are fully
operable."


The primary function of a PRV type hose outlet is to reduce pressures
under both flow and no
-
flow conditions. The only way this pressure
reducing feature can be tested and certified as operational is to flow test
the valve.


All PRV type hose outlets shall be flow tested for certification. The
following test results and information shall be submitted to the Fire
Department for review: valve type or model, valve pressure setting,
reduced static pressure, outlet residual pressure flowing 500 g.p.m. for the
first standpipe and 250 for each additional standpipe with the pump
running at its rated capacity.


PRV hose valves shall be certified as per the design criteria at the time of
their installation.


Hose valve design criteria for new installations require outlet pressures of
100 to 125 psi residual pressure flowing 250 g.p.m. and 75
-
100 psi residual
pressure when flowing 500 g.p.m. from the roof manifold of the
hydraulically remote standpipe and 250 g.p.m. for each additional
standpipe. Maximum static pressure must not exceed 150 psi.


All test results will be reviewed by the San Francisco Fire Department.


4.20 Design of Fire Pump Suction Piping and Fire


Pump Location


Reference:
NFPA


20
-
2003, Section 5.2.4




Design of the fire pump suction pipe must be approved by the
Fire Department. As required by
NFPA


20, fire pump suction
piping from the city main and fire water storage tank to the fire
pump suction flange shall be designed and installed to avoid air
pockets. For this reason, the location of the fire pump will also
be reviewed and approved by the Fire Department before the
Site Permit is approved and issued.




For new building installations, air pockets in the fire pump
suction piping is not allowed. Providing an automatic release
valve for the air pockets instead of avoiding air pockets is not
acceptable.


For existing buildings, design of the fire pump suction piping
must avoid air pockets. If it is impossible to do so, the Fire
Department will review these installations on a case
-
by
-
case
-
basis.


4.23 Combination Fire Services


Reference: 2007
C.B.C.


, Sections 903.3.1.5.2,


NFPA


13
-
2002,


NFPA


13R
-
2002




A.

Combination fire service will be permitted only when the
combined sprinkler system and domestic water demand through the
meter will not exceed the manufacturers' listed maximum,
intermittent delivery rate. The following guidelines will be used to
comply with this policy:


SPRINKLER SYSTEM DESIGN CRITERIA


Sprinkler systems supplied by the combination fire service must be
hydraulically designed in accordance with
NFPA


13D, 13R and/or 13
as required by the


C.B.C.


, the Department of Building Inspection,
and the Fire Department.




The domestic water demand must be included in the sprinkler flow at
the domestic water system point of connection to the combination
fire service line. Domestic water demand shall be at least 5 gpm per
unit for two dwelling units or less. For three or more dwelling units,
the domestic demand shall be as estimated using the Tables in
NFPA


13R.




The maximum delivery rates for combination fire service are:


1 inch service

= 50 gpm

1 1/2
-
inch service = 100 gpm

2 inch service

= 160 gpm




The meter friction losses to be used in the hydraulic
calculations are:








B.

Combination Fire Service Pipe






For all sizes, the service line must be copper (Type K
with brazed joints) from the meter to the sprinkler
connection to minimize problems of tuberculation.


Service
size
\
flow

25 gpm

50 gpm

75 gpm

100 gpm

150 gpm

160 gpm

1 inch

5 psi

9 psi

1.5 inch

1 psi

3 psi

7 psi

12 psi

2 inch

1 psi

1 psi

3 psi

5 psi

8 psi

12 psi


4.24 FDC Requirement for Low
-
Rise Buildings


Reference:
NFPA


13


NFPA


14




The San Francisco Fire Department may require more
than one FDC in a low
-
rise building when:


1)

The building fronts on more than one public way.


2)

It has significant floor area where firefighter response
to the seat of the fire may be delayed.


3)

The adjacent streets or public way characteristics
may hinder firefighting operations.


4)

Deemed necessary for any other reason by the
Fire Department.


FDC locations to be approved by Fire Department.

Some 2007 CBC new requirements:


1. All buildings with a R
-
1 (hotels) and R
-
2
(apartments) fire area must be sprinklered
throughout. Sec. 903.2.7


2. All valves controlling the water supply for
automatic sprinkler system must be electrically
supervised. Sec. 903.4


3. Alarm, supervisory, and trouble signals……


and automatically transmitted to an approved
central station, remote supervising or
proprietary supervising station as defined in
NFPA 72. Sec. 903.4.1


4. Systems with 20 or more sprinklers must be

supervised and monitored by a central

station or equivalent. Sec. 903.4


5. All Group ‘A’ occupancies shall be

sprinklered throughout and all the floors

between the ‘A’ occupancy and the level of

exit discharge. Sec. 903.2.1



SEISMIC BRACING REQUIREMENTSCBC 2007 and NFPA 13
-
2007

CBC Sec. 1613.1



Design of sprinkler supports and attachments shall be in

accordance with ASCE
-
7 (American Society of Civil Engineers).



Some exceptions are allowed based on specific criteria.


ASCE Sec. 11.4



Seismic Ground Motion Values (S
DS or
S
D1
), Occupancy Category

values determined by a California registered Engineer.


ASCE Sec. 13.6.8.2 and 13.6.8.3



Seismic design requirements based on Occupancy Category




Occupancy Category ‘C’ is based on NFPA 13
-
2007




Occupancy Category ‘D’, ‘E’, and ‘F’ are required to comply with ASCE 7


Most buildings in San Francisco appear to fall into the D to F Occupancy
Categories.


Categories D to F: ASCE Section 13.6.8.3




Hangers and Bracing designed in accordance with NFPA 13




Design strength, Force and Displacement calcs. by a Calif. Registered Engineer


The SFFD will issue an Administrative Bulletin concerning the specific
submittal requirements for Fire Sprinkler Seismic Bracing





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