The History of Computers

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8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Notes:

The History of Computers






The first man
-
made computer was the abacus, which was invented by
the ancient Chinese thousands of years ago.



The first modern electronic computer was the ENIAC (Electronic
Numerical Integrator and Computer) and was fir
st used in 1946. It
was used by the United States military for weapons research. It was
built using over 18,000 vacuum tubes. These tubes had two major
problems

they consumed great amounts of electricity and they
burned out quickly (were unreliable).



Th
e second
-
generation electronic computer was the UNIVAC
(Universal Automatic Computer), in 1951. This machine was smaller
than the ENIAC and used only about 5000 vacuum tubes. It was
designed for use in commercial businesses, like banks and department
sto
res.



In 1964, IBM (International Business Machines) created the
System/360 Mainframe Computer. This machine used transistors,
which consumed less electricity and were far more reliable than the
vacuum tubes.



In 1977, Radio Shack created the TRS
-
80 compute
r. This was the
first major desktop computer used in homes throughout the United
States. Its base price was around $400 and had only four kilobytes
(4000 bits) of memory. Compare this to our classroom computers,
which have 128 megabytes (128,000,000 bit
s) of memory! The
monitor was monochrome (green), had no graphics capability, and
could not handle lower case letters.



The circuit board is what enables modern computers to be built small
and run fast.



The computer’s “brain” is called the CPU. CPU stands

for Central
Processing Unit.