History of The Computer - WordPress – www.wordpress.com

typoweheeΗλεκτρονική - Συσκευές

8 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 4 μέρες)

105 εμφανίσεις





The Computer






An article by:

Caroline Jernæs,

Mariama Ndure,

Iben Rak Haugen,

Julie Grønneberg Bech.





Index


What is a computer?
................................
................................
................................
............

3

History of The Computer

................................
................................
................................
....

3

How a computer works

................................
................................
................................
.......

7

Advantages and Disadvantages

................................
................................
...........................

8

Sources:

................................
................................
................................
.............................

10














What is a computer?


A
computer

is a programmable device.The first computers were made in the mid
20th century. Computers today are has developed extremely since then. in our

informative age, computers play a very big role in the society today. A computer is a the
definition for many things such as digital cameras, consumer, electronics, kitchen and
other domestic appliance, hi fi components, cars and other vehicles , medical
devices
such as hearing aids, mobile phones and children´s toys.

What is the history of the computer , how do computers work and what are the
benefits and disadvantage of the computer ?

T
he computer is a big advantage in the working marked today, and is a
t big help
for companies all around the world. The computer has become our way of
communicating,

we use it in the school system
, at home and at work.


History of The Computer


The history of the computer we are well known with today, takes us back to year
2400 BC. The abacus was invented at this point in Babylonia. An abacus is a mechanical
simple aid used for counting and mathematical computations.


500 years BC, the meaning of zero was established in India.


It was first in year 600 that the place
-
value
numeral system was described by an
Indian Mathematician, called Brahmagupta. The Arabic system of numbers and the
concepts of zero, tens, hundreds, thousands etc., were introduced in the eight and ninth
century.


1492 Leonardo da Vinci drew a machine desi
gned to calculate. Leonardo da Vinci
drew a model of a device, which has been interpreted as a mechanical calculator.


In 1617, the logarithms was invented by a Scotsman named John Napier. A
logarithm is defined as any of a series of numbers set out in li
sts which make it possible
to work out problems by adding and subtracting instead of multiplying and dividing.
Napier invented a technology that allowed multiplication to be performed via addition.


In the 1642, Blaise Pascal invented a hand powered mecha
nical calculator, a
mechanical adding machine. It was mainly invented as an aid for his father who was a tax
collector. Pascal later on invented the probability theory, the hydraulic press, and the
syringe.


In the 1670s, shortly before the American Revol
ution, German Gottfried Liebniz
invented a multiplying calculator. This machine could add, subtract, multiply and divide.
Liebniz called this calculator a stepped reckoner. Some years later, Liebniz was the first
to use the binary number system which is fu
ndamental to the operation of modern
computers.



In 1801 Joseph
-
Marie Jacquard invented a loom. This loom had a weave based
upon a pattern, that could be read from punched wooden cards. Its design became an
important precursor to the development of compu
ter programming.


In 1820 the first mass produced calculator was produced, made by Thomas de
Colmar from the Philippines.


The first mechanical computer was invented in 1822, designed by Charles
Baggage. Baggage called it a “Difference Engine”, it was a s
team driven calculating
machine. This machine computed tables of numbers, such as logarithm tables.
Unfortunately Baggage’s machine became an expensive device, and was never finished.


Well
-
known as the “Father of Computer Science”, was George Boole, a Bri
tish
Mathematician. In 1848 he developed binary algebra or Boolean algebra.


In 1890 Herman Hollerith established “The Hollerith Tabulating Company”, this
Tabulating Macine Company is what we today call the IBM. Hollerith used the

mechanical computer Bagg
ag
e had invented ahead of him.


After the 1920s a computer was considered a machine that performed the work of
a human mind.


After the 1940s the term “computer” became common, instead of “computer
machine”. The first programmable electronic computers ca
me at this point. in 1944 the
first programmable digital computer was made in the U.S., built as a partnership between
Harvard and IBM. Konrad Zuse, a German Construction Engineer, invented a
programmable electronic device, called a “Z machine”. This was t
he worlds first
operational computer. It contained binary arithmetic and programmability.


The microelectronics revolution allowed the hand crafted wiring to be mass
produced as integrated circuits.


During the 1980s IBM earned more than $100 billion on th
e IBM 360 which was
introduced in 1964. It was a standard institutional mainframe computer.


Bill Gates took part of the computers history in 1971. He started selling computer
traffic analysis systems. The next year, Intel introduced the first microprocess
or. In 1975
Microcoft is born. Paul Allen and Bill Gates developed “Basic” for the Altair 8800.


By 1980 Apple captured 50% of the computer market. But during the same year
Microsoft was acepted by IBM, and the released the IBM PC in 1981. “Basic” was
deve
loped to the personal computer project. Apple Macintosh was released in 1984.


One invention led to another, and as we can see the inventors took advantage of
each others discoveries. Each discovery has together contributed to the computer
programmes we ar
e familiar with in our time. But, the history of the computer never
seems to end.


How a computer works

For a computer to work it needs the combination of hardware, software and input.
In layman terms the hardware consists of the monitor, the keyboard, pri
nter, mouse and
speakers. Inside the computer you will also find the motherboard where you find the main
processing chip (a small device of electric circuits that can store million bits of
information) that make up the central processing unit
, CPU which yo
u can also refer to as
the brain of the computer
.

The software is programs you install on your computer so you can perform
different types activities, such as games or itunes. The hardware processes the commands it
receives from the software.


Input is w
hen you type a command on the computer, for instance when you turn
the computer on.

Together these devices make the computer work, to make it easier to understand
we can go through a process where we use the terms:

-
First you turn on the computer, this is
an input. When the computer starts, the software
programs tell the CPU to start up certain programs and turn on some hardware devices so
you can provide more inputs. This whole process is called booting up.

-
When the computer has booted up you are ready fo
r your next input and choose a
software, in layman’s term you choose an icon/program and click on it with the mouse. For
instance you can choose to browse the internet, when you have chosen an internet address
(provided an input) the computer will find the

internet address for you using the browser
software. If you would like to print the web page you press the printer icon, again
providing an input, and the computer will use the printer, which is a hardware device, to
print the page.


Advantages and Disadv
antages


Computers can make man’s every day life easier than it has ever been.
It can help
us complete our jobs, with no errors and in half the time we would have completed it by
our self.

It also gives us a great deal of knowledge. In the old days, peopl
e used big books
full of information,

if they wanted information. To
day you can do a search on Google,
and you will most likely find exactly the information you were looking for.
Trough the
ages of ti
me one can see the computers is being

made smaller and s
maller. There are
always promotions about a new tiny comp
uter on the marked, with super

st
orage so that
people can put a lot of information in very little
space
.

This is another benefit about the
computer, loads of information~ in a minimum of storage.


W
ith the computers one does not even have to leave the house.
This helps
children who have to stay home from school to still be able to finish their homework.
This means that sickness does not necessarily have to mean less learnig.
Shopping online
is very n
ormal, and paying your bills from your living room is a luxury in many
households. This saves time and money, when one does not even have to stand in line for
the bank or at the mall.



With advantages follows disadvantages.

The case of the computer is no
t an
exception.
With the new generations growing up

rese
arch shows that youth spends so
many
hours a day in front of the computer

that parents are concerned
.

Interaction with
other kids

is becoming a smaller part of
kids’

routine every day.

Computer games
are the
youth’s first priority are computers
which means their spare time is being used to sit in
front of computers instead of
exercising

and working with a creative mind.



The fact that children are so young when surfing online is something adult
perver
ts on net can take advantage of. Sexual offenders can not only talk sex with
children, but can also

gradually

find information about how they look
,

and where they
live.
Another factor that has made people worrying is that the computer works so well.
When t
he computer can do the man’s job so easily, will the working marked no longer
have

the

need for human beings?

When one needs help with
technical

equipment
, and
dials the number to ask for help, one does not want to speak to another computer. People

want

to

speak to a human being.

Despite the computers disadvantages, the computer to day seems more popular than ever.
This helpful equipment’s
advantages overtop

its disadvantages. Let us

just hope for the
future, that this fact will not change


Sources:


The O
xford Dictionary





What

is a C
omputer


www.wikipedia.org




H
istory of the computer


http://www.computersciencelab.com/ComputerHistory/Hist
ory.htm


http://www.goldenink.com/computersandnetworks.shtml


http://www.pbs.org/nerds/timeline/




H
ow the computer works:

http://www.cs.uri.edu/

29
/09/07




T
he computer
:

advantages and disadvantages

Copyright@indianchild.com

04.09.07

http://hagar.up.ac.za/catts/learner/andres/telemat3.htm

04.09.07