what you see, it is the expressed gene

twoeggfinnishΒιοτεχνολογία

14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 7 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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Evolution of
Biodiversity

Lecture 3.1

Chapter 5
-
day 1

Evolutionary relationships Among
Species


Phylogenetic trees



Use TRAITS to determine how related in a
species to another?


Morphology


Behavior


Genetic similarity


Evolution Creates Biodiversity


I: Microevolution (lecture 3.1)


Create varieties within a species: apples, flowers




II: Macroevolution


(lecture 3.2)


Speciation

Creating Genetic Diversity


Genes/Genotype


(1) MUTATION
(in the copying of DNA)


(2) RECOMBINATION

What type?

The Blueprint


Genotype = what is inside you. Your genes


Phenotype


Phenotype=
what you see, it is the expressed
gene



Examples: Anatomy, physiology, behavior



Influenced by the environment!

Phenotype


Turtles/crocodiles


Daphinia

(Water Fleas)

Types of Microevolution

1.
Artificial Selection
(done by humans)

2.
Natural Selection

3.
Random Process

(1) Artificial Selection

HUMANS DECIDE who breeds with who!


Do You Like to Eat Grass?

(1) Artificial Selection

(1) Artificial Selection


PROBLEMS!


Selecting AGAINST something may be bad


MRSA

The Liger

Want to see more?


Click HERE to see

( scroll down to see)


Wolf dog


Zorse/Zonkey


Cama


Grolar/Pizzly


Leopon


Wolfin


Be sure to look at some the videos too!


(1) Artificial Selection


Genetic engineering


Genetically Modified Organisms (
GMO’s
)


Is it ethical?


Did Nature intend for this to happen?


What would God think?


(2) Natural Selection


The ENVIRONMENT determines which
individuals survive and reproduce!



Wallace & Darwin



Are you fit enough to survive?


Do you have any traits (adaptations) to help
you survive?

(2) Natural Selection

1.
Species produce an overabundance of
offspring

2.
Not all offspring survive

3.
Individuals differ in their traits

4.
(differences in) traits can be passed from
parent to offspring

5.
Differences in traits reflected in the ability to
survive & reproduce


(2) Natural Selection


Fitness


Adaptations



Where are all the short eared bunnies?


Ex: Living in the desert


(3) Random Processes


(1) Mutation


(2) Genetic Drift


(3) Bottleneck Effect


(4) Founder Effect

(1) Mutation

(2) Genetic Drift

Bottlenecks


Human caused:


Habitat loss


Hunting


Changes

to

the

environment

(GC∆)



Natural:


Natural disaster



Outcome


Decreased genetic variation, increased diseases, low
fertility

(3) Bottleneck Effect

(3) Bottleneck Effect

(4) Founder Effect

Natural Selection
, Resistance and
Herbicides


PROBLEMS!


Herbicide resistant weeds


ex:
Boliviana

negra