Use of Phytoremediation to Mitigate Mercury Pollution Caused

twoeggfinnishΒιοτεχνολογία

14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 7 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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Daren Many & Natalie Gordon

BZ 572

The World’s Worst Pollution Problems


The Top Ten of the Toxic Twenty (2008)


Indoor Air Pollution


Urban Air Quality


Untreated Sewage


Groundwater
Contamination


Contaminated Surface
Water


Artisanal Gold Mining



Industrial Mining Activities


Metals smelting and
processing


Radioactive Waste and
Uranium Mining


Used Lead Acid Battery
Recycling

Source: BlacksmithInstitute.org

Photo credit:

David Cleary


Amalgamation


Separation


Decomposition


Gold Melting

Amalgamation



Spillage


Separation




Residual Hg Discharge


Decomposition



Release of vapors


Gold Melting



Release of vapors

What is Mercury (Hg)


Three forms:



Elemental mercury (Hg(0))


liquid or vapor


form


Ionic Salts


mercurous

(I) or mercuric (II) states


Organometallic

compound
-

methylmercury




Elemental Hg converted to Methyl Mercury through oxidation
and methylation.


Hg (0)

Hg (II)

Methyl
Hg

Biggest challenge with small
-
scale mining:
Mercury in the atmosphere and Mercury
poisoning

Photo credit: Blacksmith Institute


Skin rash caused
by handling
inorganic
mercury

Entire families can inhale the
gaseous mercury

Current Mercury Pollution
Remediation Practices



Worldwide there are no real mercury
pollution cleanups occurring due to a lack of
funding and/or interest.

Liriodendron tulipifera

Arabidopsis thaliana

Nicotiana tabacum

Mercury transformed into less toxic form


Genetic Engineering


Volatized mercury will eventually be
recycled

Phytomining

for Gold


Studies being done to
phytomine

gold and
extract Hg
simultaneously using
Canola.


Adjuvants used to
increase gold solubility
and uptake

Offsets expense of remediation


Returns land to agriculture


Adjuvants

may mobilize elements into
groundwater



In
-
Situ Treatment


Soil
Vapour

extraction


Reactive Walls


In
-
Situ Leaching


Chemical
Immobilization


Water Interceptors


Phytoremediation


Wetlands

Containment & Covering


Inert Covers


Reactive Covers

Remove and Treat


Physical Separation


Hydrometallurgical


Thermal

Responses to Point Source Mercury
Contamination

Hinton et al., 2001

A hybrid approach:


Phytoremediation

to volatilize mercury
already in soil/water


Introduction of cleaner gold mining methods,
including use of retorts


Education of miners on the proper use and
handling of mercury and on better extraction
options

Anderson, Chris,
Meech
, John A.. (2002).
Growing Gold: Using Metal Accumulating Plants to Produce Gold.

Available:
http://www.mining.ubc.ca/cerm3/growing%20metals.html.


Blacksmith Institute. http://www.blacksmithinstitute.org/artisanal
-
gold
-
mining.html


Blue, Lisa Y., Van
Aelstyn
, Mike A., Matlock, Matthew and Atwood, David A. 2008.
Low
-
level mercury removal from
groundwater using a synthetic chelating
ligand
.
Water Research 42(8
-

9):2025
-
2028.


Davila, J. 2009.
Mercury reduction by bacteria isolated from informal mining zones
. Advanced Materials Research 71
-
73():637
-
640.


Ebbs, Stephen D.,
Kolev
, Spas D.,
Piccinin
, Robert C.R., Woodrow, Ian E., Baker, Alan J.M.. (2010).
Solubilization

of
heavy metals from gold ore by
adjuvants

used during gold
phytomining
.
Minerals Engineering
. 23 , p. 819
-
822.


Elena
Rodrigueza
; Jason G.
Parsonsb
; Jose R. Peralta
-
Videab
; Gustavo Cruz
-
Jimenezc
; Jaime Romero
-
Gonzalezc
;
Blanca E. Sanchez
-
Salcidob
; Geoffrey B.
Saupeb
; Maria Duarte
-
Gardead
; Jorge L.
Gardea
-
Torres. (2007). Potential of
Chilopsis

Linearis

for Gold
Phytomining
: Using
Xas

to Determine Gold Reduction and
Nanoparticle

Formation
Within Plant Tissues .
International Journal of
Phytoremediation
. 9 (2), p.133
-
147.


Henry,
Jeanna

R.. (2000). An Overview of the
Phytoremediation

of Lead and Mercury.
National Network of
Environmental Management Studies, p. 1
-
55.


Jadia
,
Chhotu

D.,
Fulekar
, M.H. 2008.
Phytoremediation

of heavy metals: Recent techniques
. African Journal of
Biotechnology 8(6):921
-
928.









Lone,Mohammad

Iqbal
, He, Zhen
-
li
,
Stoffella
, Peter J., Yang, Xiao
-
e. (2008).
Phytoremediation

of heavy metal polluted
soils and water: Progresses and perspectives.
Journal of Zhejiang University
. 9 (3), p. 210
-
220.


Moreno, Fabio N., Anderson, Christopher W.N., Stewart, Robert B., Robinson, Brett H. 2007.
Phytofiltration

of
mercury
-
contaminated water:
volatilzation

and plant
-
accumulation aspects.

Environmental and Experimental Biology
62:78
-
85.


Mulligan, C.N., Yong, R.N. and Gibbs, B.F. 2001.
Remediation technologies for metal
-
contaminated soils and
groundwater: an evaluation.

Engineering Geology 60(1
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4):193
-
207.


Padmavathiamma
, P. 2007.
Phytoremediation

technology: hyper
-
accumulation metals in plants
. Water, Air and Soil
Pollution 184(1
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4):105
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126.


Renault, S.,
Szczerski
, C.,
Sailerova
, E.,
Fedikow
, M.A.F.. (2004).
Phytoremediation

and
revegetation

of mine tailings
and bio
-
ore production: progress report on plant growth in amended tailings and metal accumulation in seedlings
planted at Central Manitoba
minesite
..
Report of Activities
. 1 (1), p257
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261.


Rugh
, C., Meagher, R.B.. (2003).
Phytoremediation

Technologies.

Available:
http://rydberg.biology.colostate.edu/Phytoremediation/2003/Amy/phytoremediationtechnologies.html.


Speigel
, S. 2010.
International guidelines on mercury management in small
-
scale gold mining
. Journal of Cleaner
Production 18(4):375
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385.


Veiga
, Marcello M. and Hinton, Jennifer J. 2002.
Abandoned artisanal gold mines in the Brazilian Amazon: a legacy of
mercurypollution
. Natural Resources Forum 26:15
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26.