The Maintenance of Genetic Diversity

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14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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Genetic diversity refers to the variety of genetic information
contained in all the species on earth


It is measured by determining the different DNA available


This ensures animal and plant species do not become extinct



Genetic engineering is means of altering defects in one
species by adding the genes of other species


It is expected that the cure for cancer is locked up in the DNA gene
pool


BIOETHICS?


while extinction is a natural phenomenon, it is usually rare


however in the 20
th

century, it has accelerated to about
1000 species a year.


the world’s gene banks collect seeds from around the world to return
them to their ecosystem in case of disaster


Genetic diversity will allow scientists to come up with ways to
produce : more food


more disease resistant food



better looking food


etc




Is it right or just a better balance of ecosystem


use by humans?


Ecosystems are valuable to humans as they have:


utility value


economic value


intrinsic value


value

in existing


heritage value


worth

preserving


ecosystems are economically valuable to humans


it has been estimated that they provide US$40 trillion of goods each
year from ???


however real value of the ecosystem lies in the alternative use
of the ecosystem
(Economists call it the opportunity cost)


eg

the removal of mangroves to build a $10 million factory ignores the
$60million fish industry which would be destroyed.


clearing the rainforests of Cameroon and the
hunting of mountain gorilla for bush meat has
almost wiped out the gorillas which could have
brought in millions of dollars
of ecotourism

Calculate the value of a whale used for meat with
its value as a tourist attraction for the whole of
its life.


ecosystems have alternative economic value in:


medicines and medical research


scientific research


ecotourism


alternative food sources


the world cultivates only 7000
of 30 000 edible food varieties



ecosystems are priceless and precious


the provide pleasure and joy to people which is hard to put
into money terms


for this reason they are often ignored by economists and politicians


ecosystems need to be passed down intact to future
generations


this has become an important issue for humans since the second half of the 20
th

centruy


national parks have been established to preserve areas from
human interference


in 1977 Kosciuszko National Park was declared a World Biosphere Reserve
by UNESCO as it contained unique examples of Alpine ecosystem


many organisations such as the World Wildlife Fund and the
World Conservation Union have worked to improve the
heritage value of ecosystems

Research ONE National Park in Australia. You need to include:



location


when it became a national park


why it has heritage value


any other interesting information relative to this park


All ecosystems and life forms go through evolutionary
processes.


To allow this to continue, humans must:


protect and conserve ecosystems


take into account the interests of local people to ensure they
assist protection, rather than work against it
eg

poaching


manage the areas well


surround the areas with a buffer



zone to minimise impact on



the protected area.


there is no one successful management strategy


success is often judged by ecological sustainability


ie

does the activity detract from the long term survival of the
ecosystem


a management plan is way of achieving specific goals




1.
Preservation
-

protecting the ecosystem in its natural



form

2.
Conservation
-

the planned use of natural resources to



minimise damage to the ecosystem

3.
Utilisation
-

replacing the ecosystem with a human



made activity which is sustainable





eg

commercial farming

4.
Exploitation
-

the ecosystem is used no matter the




ecological consequences




















Environmental

Imperialism

Utilitarianism

Stewardship

Romanticism

Radical
Environmentalism

Attitudes

Preservation

Conservation

Utilisation

Exploitation

Management Approach


Management of ecosystems should achieve
sustainable development


this means……….


Sustainable development has 4 concepts:

1.
Intragenerational

equity


people within the present
generation have the right to benefit equally from the earth’s
resources

2.
Intergenerational equity


leaving sufficient resources for
future generations

3.
Precautionary approach
-

always err on the side of caution
when dealing with environmental protection

4.
Biological diversity

Read P. 46 of the text book and BRIEFLY outline 5 strategies.