Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity - UMUC Europe

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14 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

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BIOPSYCHOLOGY 8e

John P.J. Pinel


Copyright © Pearson Education 2011

Based on the Power Point Lecture Slides
prepared by Jeffrey W. Grimm, Western
Washington University




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Topics

PART ONE: Methods of Studying the
Nervous System

5.1

Methods of Visualizing and
Stimulating the Living Human Brain

5.2

Recording Human
Psychophysiological Activity

5.3

Invasive Physiological Research
Methods

5.4

Pharmacological Research Methods

5.5

Genetic Engineering


PART TWO: Behavioral Research
Methods of Biopsychology

5.6

Neuropsychological Testing

5.7

Behavioral Methods of Cognitive
Neuroscience


5.8

Biopsychological Paradigms of
Animal Behavior

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Pearson Education 2011

Methods of Visualizing and
Stimulating the Living Human Brain



Contrast X
-
rays


inject
something that absorbs

X
-
rays less or more than
surrounding tissue


cerebral angiography




X
-
Ray computed
tomography



Computer
-
assisted

X
-
ray

procedure


Provides a 3
-
D
representation

of the brain




FIGURE 5.2:
Computed
tomography (CT) uses
X
-
rays to create a CT
scan of the brain.



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Pearson Education 2011

Methods of Visualizing and
Stimulating the Living Human Brain


Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)



High resolution images


Constructed from measurement of
waves that hydrogen atoms emit when
activated within a magnetic field


Positron emission tomography (PET)


Provides images of brain activity


Scan is an image of levels of
radioactivity in various parts of one
horizontal level of the brain


A radiolabeled substance is
administered prior to the scan

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Methods of Visualizing and
Stimulating the Living Human Brain



Functional MRI (fMRI)




Provides images of brain structure
and

activity


As with MRI, uses strong magnetic field


Structure is imaged using waves emitted by hydrogen
ions


Function is imaged using signal created from interaction
between oxygen and iron in the blood


--

BOLD signal



Magnetoencephalography


A measure of neural activity


Measures changes in magnetic fields on the surface of
the scalp


Fast temporal resolution

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Methods of Visualizing and
Stimulating the Living Human Brain


Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)




NOT a measure of neural activity


Provides an experimental probe to alter neural activity


TMS applies a brief, strong magnetic field that alters
neural activity


--

Can either activate or

deactivate


brain structures


--

Observe changes in behavior


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Scalp electroencephalography
(EEG)


Measure of gross electrical
activity of the brain


Uses electrodes attached to
scalp


Many techniques of EEG


Wave form assessment (e.g.,
alpha waves)


Event
-
related potentials (ERPs)


Combination of EEG with MRI



Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

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Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

FIGURE 5.8:

Some typical
electroencephalograms
and their psychological
correlates

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Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

FIGURE 5.9:

The averaging of an
auditory evoked
potential. Averaging
increases the signal
-
to
-
noise ratio

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Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Muscle tension


Electromyography is the
technique of measuring the
electrical activity of muscles


Electromyogram (EMG) indicates
tension of muscles under the skin

Eye movement


Electrooculography is the
technique of recording eye
movements


Electrooculogram (EOG)
indicates changes in electrical
potential between the front and
back of the eyeball


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Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

FIGURE 5.12:

The relation
between a raw
EMG signal and
its integrated
version. The
subject tensed
the muscle
beneath the
electrodes and
then gradually
relaxed it.

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Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

FIGURE 5.13:

The typical placement of
electrodes around the
eye for
electrooculography. The
two electrooculogram
traces were recorded as
the subject scanned a
circle.

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Cardiovascular Activity

Skin Conductance


Measures of
electrodermal activity



Techniques include
measurement of skin
conductance level
(SCL) and skin
conductance
response (SCR)


Often used to link
physiological changes
with emotional state



Measures include
heart rate, blood
pressure, and blood
volume

Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

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Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Stereotaxic surgery


Requires use of
sterotaxic atlas
and instrument

FIGURE 5.14: Stereotaxic
surgery: implanting an
electrode in the rat
amygdala

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Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Lesion methods


Bilateral and unilateral
lesions


Several procedures each
requiring careful
interpretation of effects


Aspiration lesions


Radio
-
frequency
lesions


Knife cuts


Cryogenic blockade

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Invasive Physiological Research Methods


Electrical stimulation


Lesioning

can be used to remove, damage, or inactivate a
structure


Electrical stimulation may be used to “activate” a structure


Stimulation of a structure may have an effect opposite to
that seen when the structure is
lesioned

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Invasive electrophysiological
recording methods:


Intracellular unit recording


Membrane potential of a neuron


Extracellular unit recording


Firing of a neuron


Multiple
-
unit recording


Firing of many neurons


Invasive EEG recording




Invasive Physiological Research Methods

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Invasive Physiological Research Methods

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Pharmacological Research Methods


Routes of drug administration


Fed to subject


Injected through a tube into
stomach of subject


Injected hypodermically into the
peritoneal cavity of the
abdomen, into the fatty tissue
beneath the skin, or into a large
surface vein of the subject


Selective chemical lesions

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Measuring Chemical Activity of the Brain


2
-
deoxyglucose (2
-
DG) technique


Inject animal with
radioactive 2
-
DG and allow
it to engage in behavior or
interest


Use autoradiography to
see where radioactivity
accumulates in brain slices


Cerebral dialysis


measures
extracellular concentration of
specific chemicals in live animals




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Dye or radioactive labels used to
visualize the protein of interest



Immunocytochemistry


based on
the binding of labeled protein
-
specific antibodies


Immune response


antibodies
created that bind and
remove/destroy antigens
(foreign proteins)



In situ hybridization


uses labeled
RNA to locate neurons with
complementary mRNA


Locating Neurotransmitters and Receptors in the
Brain


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Genetic Engineering


Gene knockout techniques


Subjects missing a given gene can provide
insight into what the gene controls


Difficult to interpret results


most behavior is
controlled by many genes and removing one
gene may alter the expression of others,
including compensation for missing gene


Antisense drugs block expression of a gene


Gene replacement techniques


Insert pathological human genes in mice



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Fantastic Fluorescence and the Brainbow


Green fluorescent protein (GFP)
exhibits bright green florescence when
exposed to blue light


Variants of the gene for GFP can
express other colors


These GFP genes can be inserted into
DNA of neurons

color can then be
viewed when targeted neuronal genes
are expressed


Brainbow

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Neuropsychological Testing


Time
-
consuming


only conducted on a
small portion of those with brain damage


Assists in diagnosing neural disorders


Serves as a basis for counseling/caring


Provides information on effectiveness
and side effects of treatment

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Modern Approaches to Neuropsychological Testing


Single
-
test


Used to differentiate brain damage from
functional (psychological) causes


Standardized
-
test
-
battery


Same goal as single
-
test approach


Halstead
-
Reitan, for example


Customized
-
test
-
battery


Now predominant


Characterizes nature of psychological
deficits

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Tests of the Common Neuropsychological Test Battery


Intelligence


Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale


WAIS, an IQ test


Memory


Digit span subtest


Language


problems of phonology, syntax, or
semantics


Language lateralization


used to identify
language
-
dominant hemisphere


Sodium amytal


anesthetize one
hemisphere


Dichotic listening


ear contralateral to
dominant hemisphere shows superior
hearing ability




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Tests of the Common Neuropsychological Test Battery


Memory


exploring nature of deficits


Short
-
term, long
-
term, or both?


Anterograde or retrograde?


Semantic or episodic?


Explicit or implicit? (repetition priming
tests)


Language


problems of phonology,
syntax, or semantics


Frontal
-
Lobe Function


Wisconsin Card Sorting Task




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Behavioral Methods of Cognitive Neuroscience



Each complex cognitive process
results from the combined activity
of simple cognitive processes
(constituent cognitive
processes)


Each complex cognitive process is
mediated by neural activity in a
particular area of the brain


Goal is to identify the parts of the
brain that mediate various
constituent cognitive processes


Paired
-
image subtraction
technique: compare PET or fMRI
images during several different
cognitive tasks


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Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Procedures developed for the
investigation of a particular
behavioral phenomenon

Assessment of Species
-
common
behaviors:



Open
-
field test


Tests of Aggressive and Defensive
Behavior


Tests of Sexual Behavior

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Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Traditional Conditioning
Paradigms:



Pavlovian conditioning (pairing an
unconditioned stimulus with a
conditioned stimulus)


Operant conditioning


Self
-
stimulation

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Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Seminatural Animal
Learning Paradigms:


Conditioned Taste Aversion


Radial Arm Maze


Morris Water Maze


Conditioned Defensive
Burying

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Watch:
Visit to a Cognitive

Neuroscience Laboratory

Watch:
Robert Sternberg on Intelligence

Note: To view the MyPsychLab assets, please make sure you are connected to the
internet and have a browser opened and logged into
www.mypsychlab.com
.

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Pearson Education 2011

Acknowledgments

Slide

Image Description

Image Source

template

lightning

©istockphoto.com/Soubrette

template

background texture

©istockphoto.com/Hedda Gjerpen

ch05 image

Someone whose brain is being studied in a
lab

©istockphoto.com/annedde

3

Figure 5.2

Pinel 8e, p. 103

4

PET scan

©istockphoto.com/BanksPhotos

7, 17

someone whose brain is being studied in a
lab

©istockphoto.com/annedde

8

Figure 5.8

Pinel 8e, p. 107

9

Figure 5.9

Pinel 8e, p. 108

10

eye

©istockphoto.com/Tyler Stalman

11

Figure 5.12

Pinel 8e, p. 109

12

Figure 5.13

Pinel 8e, p. 110

14

Figure 5.14

Pinel 8e, p. 111

15

Figure 5.15

Pinel 8e, p. 112

15

Figure 5.16

Pinel 8e, p. 113

16

EKG Heartbeat

©istockphoto.com/dan ionut popescu

18

Figure 5.17

Pinel 8e, p. 114

19

pill background

©istockphoto.com/Fotografia Basica

20

hand holding rat

©iStockphoto.com/sidsnapper

21, 28

brain

©istockphoto.com/Stephen Kirklys

22

DNA

©istockphoto.com/Mark Evans

22, 29

white rat

©iStockphoto.com/Elena Butinova

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Pearson Education 2011

Acknowledgments

23

colored smoke

©istockphoto.com/Wolfgang Amri

24, 25

blue sky & clouds

©istockphoto.com/kertlis

24

neuron

©istockphoto.com/ktsimage

26, 27

book

©istockphoto.com/Carmen Martínez Banús

27

Figure 5.23

Pinel 8e, p. 122

30

salivating dog

©istockphoto.com/Jess Wiberg

30

hand

©istockphoto.com/Stas Perov

30

bell

©istockphoto.com/Igor Sandra

30

dog food bowl

©istockphoto.com/Jonas Engström

31

Figure 5.26

Pinel 8e, p. 126

32

laptop

©istockphoto.com/CostinT

32

table and wall

©istockphoto.com/David Clark